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Full-Text Articles in Law

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: Analyzing Inhumane Practices In Mississippi’S Correctional Institutions Due To Overcrowding, Understaffing, And Diminished Funding, Ariel A. Williams May 2021

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind: Analyzing Inhumane Practices In Mississippi’S Correctional Institutions Due To Overcrowding, Understaffing, And Diminished Funding, Ariel A. Williams

Honors Theses

The purpose of this research is to examine the political, social, and economic factors which have led to inhumane conditions in Mississippi’s correctional facilities. Several methods were employed, including a comparison of the historical and current methods of funding, staffing, and rehabilitating prisoners based on literature reviews. State-sponsored reports from various departments and the legislature were analyzed to provide insight into budgetary restrictions and political will to allocate funds. Statistical surveys and data were reviewed to determine how overcrowding and understaffing negatively affect administrative capacity and prisoners’ mental and physical well-being. Ultimately, it may be concluded that Mississippi has ...


Refugee Resettlement In Germany: An Analysis Of Policy Learning And Support Networks, Marianne Perkins May 2021

Refugee Resettlement In Germany: An Analysis Of Policy Learning And Support Networks, Marianne Perkins

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The resettlement of refugees and asylum seekers in Germany since reunification in 1990 has been challenged by two peaks in asylum seeker applications in 1992 and again in 2016. From the 1992 peak, which was fueled by asylum seekers fleeing the former Yugoslavia, extensive research has already been conducted over the past thirty years. These studies have demonstrated the actual outcomes of these primarily Yugoslavian asylum seekers and refugees with these findings indicating legal and economic uncertainty having a detrimental effect even years after resettlement. Using Germany as a case study, this analysis aims to survey the available information in ...


Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff May 2021

Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

#MeToo. It’s On Us. End Rape on Campus. #BeTheSwede. Dear UNL. These phrases have united people all over the world to use their voices and speak out about sexual violence. In higher education, these statements empower students to make their voices heard, and simultaneously invoke fear in campus administrators who do not want to be held accountable for the mishandling/lack of Title IX cases. Student survivor activism groups, the subject of this study, have formed at universities around the country and often use similar statements to advocate for changes they feel need to happen. Finding no previous research ...


Duality In Digital Discourse: The History And Future Of The American Public Forum, Nicholas Weaver May 2021

Duality In Digital Discourse: The History And Future Of The American Public Forum, Nicholas Weaver

Honors Theses

From the onset of the republic, the liberty to speak freely and debate openly has stood guard and helped preserve all other American rights. While this concept has endured, the means by which it exists in society has changed immensely. As the public forum has evolved to fit the modern needs of the citizenry, political discourse has become less a defense against tyranny and more a chaotic space of conflicting opinions.

In the United States, privately-owned social media companies have grown at an unprecedented rate, yet lawmakers have been slow to exercise any authority to regulate these corporations. For public ...


Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder Apr 2021

Intersectionality And Accessibility To Social Services, Nora Khuder

Thinking Matters Symposium

In times of a crisis the intersectionality of sex, class, and ability creates a vulnerable population. Many available “resources'' are exhausted, due to high demand. Intersectionality signifies the impact of multiple intersecting identities in society as a direct correlation to the specific and unique barriers of marginalized groups. Resources are currently limited due to the lack of representative data. Although many studies have been conducted, many researchers have failed to capture the need of social services in rural areas.


Child Welfare Service Worker's Perspective Of The Juvenile Justice System, Valorie Antone, Kathryn Whitehead, Alexander Comeau, Zoe Donvan Apr 2021

Child Welfare Service Worker's Perspective Of The Juvenile Justice System, Valorie Antone, Kathryn Whitehead, Alexander Comeau, Zoe Donvan

Thinking Matters Symposium

Prior literature indicates youth who have had adverse childhood events or are diagnosed with a mental illness are more likely to become involved in the juvenile justice system (Chappard & Maggard, 2020). While research has been performed to involve juvenile justice workers and juveniles that have been involved in the system, there has been little involvement by the child welfare workers who have followed the trajectory of the youth from the beginning of involvement. This study investigates the perceptions of child welfare workers regarding youth involvement in the criminal justice system, addressing a current gap in the literature. In terms of ...


Gravely Disabled: The Vestigial Prong Of 5150 Designations, Diane Y. Byun Apr 2021

Gravely Disabled: The Vestigial Prong Of 5150 Designations, Diane Y. Byun

Journal of Law and Health

Effective July 1, 1972, California’s Lanterman-Petris-Short Act (“LPS Act”) set the precedent for modern mental health commitment procedures in the U.S. named after its authors, State Assemblyman Frank Lanterman and State Senators Nicholas C. Petris and Alan Short, the LPS Act sought to “end the inappropriate, indefinite, and involuntary commitment of persons with mental health disorder”; to “provide prompt evaluation and treatment of persons with mental health disorders or impaired by chronic alcoholism”; and to “guarantee and protect public safety.” Despite citing to these articles of intent, the LPS Act violates its own legislative intent through its inclusion ...


Do Esg Mutual Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson Apr 2021

Do Esg Mutual Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Corporations have received growing criticism for their role in climate change, perpetuating racial and gender inequality, and other pressing social issues. In response to these concerns, shareholders are increasingly focusing on environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) criteria in selecting investments, and asset managers are responding by offering a growing number of ESG mutual funds. The flow of assets into ESG is one of the most dramatic trends in asset management.

But are these funds giving investors what they promise? This question has attracted the attention of regulators, with the Department of Labor and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC ...


Lessons Learned: Robert Hoyt, Esq., Yasemin Esmen Apr 2021

Lessons Learned: Robert Hoyt, Esq., Yasemin Esmen

Journal of Financial Crises

Robert Hoyt was General Counsel at the U.S. Department of Treasury between 2006 and 2009. He oversaw legal aspects of policies implemented to manage the crisis, including the rescues of Bear Stearns, AIG, and the U.S. Auto industry, the conservatorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and the failure of Lehman Brothers, as well as the creation and implementation of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP.) This Lessons Learned is based on a phone interview with Mr. Hoyt.


The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac–Module F: Federal Reserve’S Large-Scale Asset Purchase (Lsap) Program, Daniel Thompson, Adam Kulam Apr 2021

The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac–Module F: Federal Reserve’S Large-Scale Asset Purchase (Lsap) Program, Daniel Thompson, Adam Kulam

Journal of Financial Crises

By late 2008, the secondary mortgage markets were suffering high default rates, causing mortgage lending to slow and the value of mortgage securities to plummet. The Federal Reserve lowered the federal funds rate, and the government placed Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac into conservatorship, yet credit in housing and other financial markets remained tight. On November 25, the Fed announced its intent to purchase up to $500 billion in agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and $100 billion in agency debt to reduce the cost and increase the availability of mortgage credit, which would support housing markets and improve conditions in financial ...


The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module D: Treasury’S Gse Mbs Purchase Program, Michael Zanger-Tishler, Rosalind Z. Wiggins Apr 2021

The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module D: Treasury’S Gse Mbs Purchase Program, Michael Zanger-Tishler, Rosalind Z. Wiggins

Journal of Financial Crises

As the housing crisis escalated during the second half of 2007, two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), occupied an increasingly central role in the secondary mortgage market, purchasing a greater percentage of new mortgages as private securitization rapidly contracted. As their importance in this market grew, the two GSEs also began to suffer billion-dollar losses, inciting concerns that they might not be able to stay solvent throughout the remainder of the crisis. On September 6, 2008, fearing the systemic consequences of the two firms’ failures, the ...


The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac-Module B: Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements, Daniel Thompson Apr 2021

The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac-Module B: Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements, Daniel Thompson

Journal of Financial Crises

On September 6, 2008, as part of a four-part government intervention, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) took into conservatorship the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) that dominated the US secondary mortgage market. Concurrently, the FHFA, as conservator, entered into Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreements (SPSPAs) with Treasury, under which Treasury committed to provide funding to ensure the GSEs’ positive net worth. In return, Treasury received senior preferred stock and a warrant to purchase 79.9% of the GSEs’ common stock. The SPSPAs have been amended ...


The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module A: The Conservatorships, Daniel Thompson, Rosalind Z. Wiggins Apr 2021

The Rescue Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac – Module A: The Conservatorships, Daniel Thompson, Rosalind Z. Wiggins

Journal of Financial Crises

Two government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), dominated the secondary mortgage market during the US housing crisis, collectively holding or guaranteeing $5.3 trillion in mortgage assets by late 2007. As the crisis escalated, the two GSEs began to report substantial losses and their survival became uncertain. On September 6, 2008, the GSEs’ new regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA), placed the firms into indefinite conservatorships, one step of a four-part government intervention to stabilize the enterprises. This case study evaluates the purpose and efficacy of ...


The Rescue Of American International Group Module F: The Aig Credit Facility Trust, Alec Buchholtz, Aidan Lawson Apr 2021

The Rescue Of American International Group Module F: The Aig Credit Facility Trust, Alec Buchholtz, Aidan Lawson

Journal of Financial Crises

In September 2008, American International Group, Inc. (AIG) experienced a liquidity crisis. To avoid the insurance giant’s bankruptcy, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (FRBNY) extended an $85 billion emergency secured credit facility to AIG. In connection with the credit facility, AIG issued 100,000 shares of preferred stock, with voting rights equal to and convertible into 79.9% of the outstanding shares of AIG common stock, to an independent trust (the Trust) set up by the FRBNY. Three trustees held the stock for the sole benefit of the US Treasury, exercised the rights, powers, authorities, discretions, and ...


The Rescue Of American International Group Module A: The Revolving Credit Facility, Alec Buchholtz, Aidan Lawson Apr 2021

The Rescue Of American International Group Module A: The Revolving Credit Facility, Alec Buchholtz, Aidan Lawson

Journal of Financial Crises

On September 15, 2008, the big three rating agencies downgraded AIG’s credit ratings multiple levels, exacerbating liquidity strains that the company was experiencing due to increasing cash demands by securities borrowers and collateral calls by credit default swap (CDS) customers. To prevent AIG from filing for bankruptcy, the Federal Reserve (the Fed) announced on the following day that, pursuant to its emergency powers, it would provide the company with an $85 billion Revolving Credit Facility (RCF). The RCF was secured by AIG assets and interests in its subsidiaries and required AIG to grant the US Department of the Treasury ...


Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese Apr 2021

Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the future, administrative agencies will rely increasingly on digital automation powered by machine learning algorithms. Can U.S. administrative law accommodate such a future? Not only might a highly automated state readily meet longstanding administrative law principles, but the responsible use of machine learning algorithms might perform even better than the status quo in terms of fulfilling administrative law’s core values of expert decision-making and democratic accountability. Algorithmic governance clearly promises more accurate, data-driven decisions. Moreover, due to their mathematical properties, algorithms might well prove to be more faithful agents of democratic institutions. Yet even if an automated ...


United States Judicial System Failures And Solutions, Braden P. Barker Apr 2021

United States Judicial System Failures And Solutions, Braden P. Barker

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

For years, the American judicial system has unfairly punished the American people. These actions have led to serious societal consequences. We have prisons that sentence people to harsh punishment for nonviolent offenses, an overfunded and militarized police force, and racial biases that lead to the tragic killings of black people at the hands of the police that are intended to protect and serve us. This essay looks to diagnose the United States judicial system’s woes. More importantly, we take a look at what steps can be taken immediately to begin reversing the negative impact of these issues.


Corruption In Capsules: How It Is Legal For Companies To Put Harmful Ingredients In Vitamins And Dietary Supplements, Emily Leggiero Apr 2021

Corruption In Capsules: How It Is Legal For Companies To Put Harmful Ingredients In Vitamins And Dietary Supplements, Emily Leggiero

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

The vitamin and supplement industry has increased exponentially in profits as well as potential products on the market since the turn of the century. However, these products are not regulated, nor do they undergo any premarket clinical research or testing. Public health is compromised by vitamins and supplements that are available for American consumption that is disproportionately unregulated to their chemically similar counterparts. This wicked problem is facilitated through the combination of historical legislative definitions that has since been distorted for corrupt administrative gain through the allotment of corporate expenditures. Company disbursements are made to the same policymakers that create ...


Guns And Their Place In The Us, Jacob Garibaldi Apr 2021

Guns And Their Place In The Us, Jacob Garibaldi

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Creating this paper was a wicked problem due to how deep of an issue the gun debate is in the United States. In the discussion of guns, there is a side that wants to abolish them, a side that believes in the right of the second amendment, and a middle ground where we can have guns in society with added in legal measures. Surely enough, those that are in opposition to firearms are persuaded due to the acts of violence and crime committed with them. Then there are those that use them in a way of self-defense. Through this paper ...


Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Apr 2021

Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article summarizes key findings from the Japan Business Credit Project (JBCP), which involved more than 30 semi-structured interviews conducted in Japan from 2016 through 2018. It was inspired by important and previously unexplored questions concerning secured financing of movables (business equipment and inventory) and claims (receivables)—“asset-based lending” or “ABL.” Why is the use of ABL in Japan so limited? What are the principal obstacles and disincentives to the use of ABL in Japan? The interviews were primarily with staff of banks, but also included those of government officials and regulators, academics, and law practitioners. The article proposes reforms ...


Discourse On Digital Government And Regulation: A Bibliometric Analysis, Prakoso Bhairawa Putera, Amelya Gustina Apr 2021

Discourse On Digital Government And Regulation: A Bibliometric Analysis, Prakoso Bhairawa Putera, Amelya Gustina

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to discuss digital government and regulation, analyzed through the bibliometric approach with the Scopus database for the last 20 years and visualized through the VOSviewer software version 1.6.16. The results indicate that the topic of e-government has become essentially prominent and has been the most discussed in the past two decades. Approximately 41.1% of digital government and regulation articles are classified under the subject area of 'Computer Science', continued by Social Sciences (18.3%), and Business, Management and Accounting (10.2%), with the majority of being 'All Open Access' (46%). The trend of publication ...


U.S. Prisons And System Reform, Darian Reimels Apr 2021

U.S. Prisons And System Reform, Darian Reimels

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

Prison systems, specifically in the U.S., are a wicked problem. For years prisoners have been treated inhumanely inside and outside of prison, with everyone looking at them with a judgmental eye. This essay aims to point out and bring light to these issues within the prison system. Specifically, it focuses on how inmates are treated during and after serving their sentence, and solitary confinement. To better understand and explain the problems to you, extensive research was done. Articles were read, organizations were researched, and a documentary was watched to gather the information needed to write this essay. The results ...


Urbanicity And Female Jail Incarceration Rates In 1970 And 2018: The Rise Of Rural Female Jail Incarceration, Samantha M. Caimi Apr 2021

Urbanicity And Female Jail Incarceration Rates In 1970 And 2018: The Rise Of Rural Female Jail Incarceration, Samantha M. Caimi

HON499 projects

This paper examines the role of county urbanicity as it relates to mean female jail incarceration rates in both the United States and Pennsylvania in the years 1970 and 2018. There are three research questions to be answered in this study. The first is whether mean female jail incarceration rates vary significantly by urbanicity (rural, small/mid, suburban, urban). The second is whether the relationship between female jail incarceration rates and urbanicity changed from 1970 to 2018. The third research question is whether the findings for questions 1 and 2 will be the same for both Pennsylvania and the United ...


Unrules, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler, Daniel Walters Apr 2021

Unrules, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler, Daniel Walters

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

At the center of contemporary debates over public law lies administrative agencies’ discretion to impose rules. Yet, for every one of these rules, there are also unrules nearby. Often overlooked and sometimes barely visible, unrules are the decisions that regulators make to lift or limit the scope of a regulatory obligation, for instance through waivers, exemptions, and exceptions. In some cases, unrules enable regulators to reduce burdens on regulated entities or to conserve valuable government resources in ways that make law more efficient. However, too much discretion to create unrules can facilitate undue business influence over the law, weaken regulatory ...


Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University Of Dayton Mar 2021

Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

The global pandemic has rapidly broken down boundaries and structures—from personal to social to institutional. Long-standing practices and norms have changed radically to respond to the current crisis, while some institutional and political dynamics contrary to human rights and democracy have become further entrenched. New pressures on human rights are also heightened by the pandemic, including rights to privacy, access to health, and digital capitalism. This crisis has shown that for human rights, the perils and potentials have increased hand in hand.

The stark upending by the pandemic provides proof-of-concept for the disintegration of silos and the erosion of ...


Acknowledgments, Matthew T. Wappett Ph.D. Mar 2021

Acknowledgments, Matthew T. Wappett Ph.D.

Developmental Disabilities Network Journal

No abstract provided.


Using Quality Improvement (Qi)-Focused Evaluation To Redesign Direct Home- And Community-Based Services During The Covid-19 Public Health Emergency:, Marcia Moriarta, Anthony Cahill, Heidi Fredine Mar 2021

Using Quality Improvement (Qi)-Focused Evaluation To Redesign Direct Home- And Community-Based Services During The Covid-19 Public Health Emergency:, Marcia Moriarta, Anthony Cahill, Heidi Fredine

Developmental Disabilities Network Journal

Like many UCEDDs in the Developmental Disabilities (DD) network, the Center for Development and Disability at the University of New Mexico offers direct service programs in home and community settings. Before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, services were delivered in-person to about 1,000 families across the state including clients with intellectual or developmental disabilities and/or from at-risk communities. In March 2020, due to the spread of COVID-19, a public health emergency was declared in New Mexico and home and community services were stopped throughout the state. This meant direct service programs at the Center had to turn ...


A Self-Advocate’S Perspective On The Covid-19 Pandemic, D.R. Reff Mar 2021

A Self-Advocate’S Perspective On The Covid-19 Pandemic, D.R. Reff

Developmental Disabilities Network Journal

This article summarizes the experience of a self-advocate from Idaho during the COVID pandemic. This article addresses issues of social isolation, mental health, and social supports.


Perspectives Of Immigrant Families And Persons With Disabilities During Covid-19, Diana Rodriguez Lmsw, Kathleen Mcgrath Msw Mar 2021

Perspectives Of Immigrant Families And Persons With Disabilities During Covid-19, Diana Rodriguez Lmsw, Kathleen Mcgrath Msw

Developmental Disabilities Network Journal

Background: The health, economic, social, political, and psychological consequences of COVID-19 have been deeply felt on a global level. Persons with disabilities, including those from Hispanic/Latino immigrant communities, have faced unique challenges during both the peak and fallout of the pandemic. Throughout both the United States and New York City, COVID-19 has disproportionately affected communities of color. However, the impact of COVID-19 on persons with disabilities among immigrant and communities of color is still unfolding.

Aims: In this paper, we aim to better understand the compounded stress of the COVID-19 pandemic experienced by immigrant families who have a child ...


The Impact Of Covid-19 On Disability Services And Systems: Perspectives From The Field, Ronda Jenson, John Tschida Mar 2021

The Impact Of Covid-19 On Disability Services And Systems: Perspectives From The Field, Ronda Jenson, John Tschida

Developmental Disabilities Network Journal

No abstract provided.