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Full-Text Articles in Law

Recklessness, Intent, And War Crimes: Refining The Legal Standard And Clarifying The Role Of International Criminal Tribunals As A Source Of Customary International Law, Brian L. Cox Jun 2020

Recklessness, Intent, And War Crimes: Refining The Legal Standard And Clarifying The Role Of International Criminal Tribunals As A Source Of Customary International Law, Brian L. Cox

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This Article explores the substantive and procedural aspects of the assertion that recklessness is included on the spectrum of mens rea for war crimes as a matter of customary international law. The substantive aspect of the inquiry, in Part I, engages in a critical assessment of the assertion that the jurisprudence of international criminal tribunals indicates that recklessness is sufficient to support a war crimes prosecution in general. The procedural aspect, in Part II, contests the prevailing “principal-agent” construct of describing the relationship between states and international criminal tribunals and the resulting role of tribunals in establishing customary international law. …


Aiding And Abetting In International Criminal Law, Oona A. Hathaway, Alexandra Francis, Aaron Haviland, Srinath Reddy Kethireddy, Alyssa T. Yamamoto Sep 2019

Aiding And Abetting In International Criminal Law, Oona A. Hathaway, Alexandra Francis, Aaron Haviland, Srinath Reddy Kethireddy, Alyssa T. Yamamoto

Cornell Law Review

To achieve justice for violations of international law such as genocide, torture, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, it is essential to address complicity for international crimes. Beginning in the 1990s, there was a proliferation of international and hybrid criminal tribunals, which sought to hold perpetrators of these crimes accountable and, in turn, generated an explosion of international criminal law jurisprudence. Nonetheless, the contours of aiding and abetting liability in international criminal law remain contested. Courts-both domestic and international-have long struggled to identify the proper legal standard for holding actors liable for aiding and abetting even the most serious violations …


Removals To Somalia In Light Of The Convention Against Torture: Recent Evidence From Somali Bantu Deportees, Daniel J. Van Lehman, Estelle M. Mckee Apr 2019

Removals To Somalia In Light Of The Convention Against Torture: Recent Evidence From Somali Bantu Deportees, Daniel J. Van Lehman, Estelle M. Mckee

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of a survey of Somali Bantu deported from the United States from 2016 to 2018, to determine whether they were subjected to torture upon arrival in Somalia. Of the 20 deportees interviewed, 55 percent suffered torture at least once, with the highest percentage—66.7 percent—experienced by individuals deported in 2018. The abuse, which included kidnapping, stabbings, and beatings with truncheons and whips, meets the definition of torture under Article 3 of the Convention Against Torture. Individuals were intentionally subjected to severe pain and suffering for an unlawful purpose: ransom. Further, most of the abuse was inflicted …


Oil, Gas, And Rhesus Monkeys: A New Framework For Natural Resources Under The Commercial Activity Exception, Madelaine J. Horn Jan 2019

Oil, Gas, And Rhesus Monkeys: A New Framework For Natural Resources Under The Commercial Activity Exception, Madelaine J. Horn

Cornell International Law Journal

The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976 (FSIA) constitutes an exception for sovereign states to the normal jurisdictional rules that govern when parties are subject to suit in US courts. The commercial activity provision is a carveout within that broad exception-it deprives sovereign states of their exceptional immunity when they engage in commercial conduct. Within this framework, courts have used the natural resource rule to circumvent the commercial activity carveout and restore immunity to sovereign states. This Note argues that the rule should be abandoned in favor of a much more limited test, thereby increasing the number of sovereign states …


Dam(N) Displacement: Compensation, Resettlement, And Indigeneity, Stephen R. Munzer Jan 2019

Dam(N) Displacement: Compensation, Resettlement, And Indigeneity, Stephen R. Munzer

Cornell International Law Journal

Hydroelectric dams produce electricity, provide flood control, and improve agricultural irrigation. But the building and operation of these dams frequently involve forced displacement of local communities. Displacement often has an outsized impact on indigenous persons, who are disproportionately poor, repressed, and politically marginalized. One can limit these adverse effects in various ways: (1) taking seriously the ethics of dam-induced development, (2) rooting out corruption, (3) paying compensation at or near the beginning of dam projects, (4) using land-for-land exchanges, (5) disbursing resettlement funds as needed until displaced persons are firmly established in their new locations, and (6) having entities that …


Out Of The Legal Wilderness: Peacetime Espionage, International Law And The Existence Of Customary Exceptions, Inaki Navarrete Mr, Russell Buchan Jan 2019

Out Of The Legal Wilderness: Peacetime Espionage, International Law And The Existence Of Customary Exceptions, Inaki Navarrete Mr, Russell Buchan

Cornell International Law Journal

This Article demonstrates that peacetime espionage does not benefit from permissive customary international law exceptions. The mainstream view contends that, though peacetime espionage may contravene international law, developments in customary international law (CIL) nevertheless undercut State responsibility for such conduct. The gist of this view is that acts of espionage benefit from permissive CIL exceptions because its practice is widespread and accepted within the international society. However, the mainstream literature has rarely-if ever-meaningfully engaged with the practice of espionage in an effort to tease out the objective and subjective elements supportive of customary espionage exceptions. This Article closes this gap …


Vol. 51, No. 4 Table Of Contents Jan 2019

Vol. 51, No. 4 Table Of Contents

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Vol. 51, No. 3 Table Of Contents Oct 2018

Vol. 51, No. 3 Table Of Contents

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Finance & China’S Green Credit Reforms: A Test Case For Bank Monitoring Of Environmental Risk, Virginia Harper Ho Oct 2018

Sustainable Finance & China’S Green Credit Reforms: A Test Case For Bank Monitoring Of Environmental Risk, Virginia Harper Ho

Cornell International Law Journal

In the past few years, the focus of international organizations on sustainable finance— the integration of environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations into global financial systems— has intensified because of its potential to promote financial stability, better risk assessment, and more efficient allocation of capital. The success of these efforts depends in part on whether banks and other financial institutions can manage, price, and monitor environmental risk.

This Article offers new answers to this question from China— one of the most important global test sites for sustainable finance. Corporate governance theory suggests that creditor monitoring can promote managerial accountability and …


"Mob-Legislating": Jasta's Addition To The Terrorism Exception To Foreign Sovereign Immunity, Rachael E. Hancock Jul 2018

"Mob-Legislating": Jasta's Addition To The Terrorism Exception To Foreign Sovereign Immunity, Rachael E. Hancock

Cornell Law Review

This Note explores the issues with the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act that JASTA attempts to address, the likelihood of JASTA’s success, and whether or not JASTA is a desirable solution. Though the relatively recent nature of this addition renders the long-term impact difficult to assess, an examination of foreign sovereign immunity doctrine’s origins, evolution, and purpose provides sufficient information to make predictions about potential problems with JASTA. Part I briefly tracks the history of foreign sovereign immunity in the United States and the transition from an absolutist approach to a restricted approach. Part I also discusses the codification of the …


“Private” Cybersecurity Standards? Cyberspace Governance, Multistakeholderism, And The (Ir)Relevance Of The Tbt Regime, Shin-Yi Peng Apr 2018

“Private” Cybersecurity Standards? Cyberspace Governance, Multistakeholderism, And The (Ir)Relevance Of The Tbt Regime, Shin-Yi Peng

Cornell International Law Journal

We are now living in a hyper-connected world, with a myriad of devices continuously linked to the Internet. Our growing dependence on such devices exposes us to a variety of cybersecurity threats. This ever-increasing connectivity means that vulnerabilities can be introduced at any phase of the software development cycle. Cybersecurity risk management, therefore, is more important than ever to governments at all developmental stages as well as to companies of all sizes and across all sectors. The awareness of cybersecurity threats affects the importance placed on the use of standards and certification as an approach.


Interpersonal Human Rights, Hanoch Dagan, Avihay Dorfmann Apr 2018

Interpersonal Human Rights, Hanoch Dagan, Avihay Dorfmann

Cornell International Law Journal

Our increasingly globalized environment, typified by the significant role of transnational interactions, raises urgent concerns about the commission of grave transnational wrongs. Two main legal strategies— belonging, respectively, to public and private international law— offer important directions for addressing these urgent concerns. One strategy extends state obligations under human rights law to some non-state actors; the other adapts traditional private international law doctrines, notably its public policy exception. Both strategies make important advances, yet both face significant difficulties, which are all fundamentally rooted in what we call “the missing link of privity”— namely, identifying the reason for imposing the burden …


International Cybertorts: Expanding State Accountability In Cyberspace, Rebecca Crootof Mar 2018

International Cybertorts: Expanding State Accountability In Cyberspace, Rebecca Crootof

Cornell Law Review

States are not being held accountable for the vast majority of their harmful cyberoperations, largely because classifications created in physical space do not map well onto the cyber domain. Most injurious and invasive cyberoperations are not cybercrimes and do not constitute cyberwarfare, nor are states extending existing definitions of wrongful acts permitting countermeasures to cyberoperations (possibly to avoid creating precedent restricting their own activities). Absent an appropriate label, victim states have few effective and nonescalatory responsive options, and the harms associated with these incidents lie where they fall.

This Article draws on tort law and international law principles to construct …


Women’S Rights In The Dprk: Discrepancies Between International And Domestic Legal Instruments In Promoting Women’S Rights And The Reality Reflected By North Korean Defectors, Jina Yang Jan 2018

Women’S Rights In The Dprk: Discrepancies Between International And Domestic Legal Instruments In Promoting Women’S Rights And The Reality Reflected By North Korean Defectors, Jina Yang

Cornell International Law Journal

It is commendable that the DPRK has ratified the CEDAW and has established legislative measures to protect women from violence and guarantee equal protection. However short of internationally accepted human rights standard the DPRK may fall, such actions show that the DPRK is nonetheless trying to be a responsible member of the international community. However, many findings show that women’s rights are far from reaching the international standards, because of patriarchal traditions that are entrenched to the North Korean society and the national institutions related to women’s rights, which are used to mobilize women to work for the state, rather …


E-Hailing And Employment Rights: The Case For An Employment Relationship Between Uber And Its Drivers In South Africa, Isaiah J. Marcano Jan 2018

E-Hailing And Employment Rights: The Case For An Employment Relationship Between Uber And Its Drivers In South Africa, Isaiah J. Marcano

Cornell International Law Journal

South Africa’s Uber dilemma has forced jurists to answer important questions about the country’s largest black-owned sector: the taxi industry. Since the days of apartheid, taxi drivers have struggled to secure their livelihoods. Lamentably, they have found themselves restricted by a legacy of oppression that, despite significant progress, lingers on. As of late, Uber has exploded onto the transportation market, and labor courts must decide whether Uber drivers fit within a system that never contemplated the emergence of gig economy companies. If future jurists continue to draw inspiration from South Africa’s highly progressive constitution, international agreements, and pro-union culture, it …


North Korean Detention Of U.S. Citizens: International Law Violations And Means For Recourse, Patricia Goedde, Andrew Wolman Jan 2018

North Korean Detention Of U.S. Citizens: International Law Violations And Means For Recourse, Patricia Goedde, Andrew Wolman

Cornell International Law Journal

North Korean detention of U.S. citizens has prompted considerable attention in the U.S. media over the years, especially with the most recent case of Otto Warmbier’s death. Releases have usually been negotiated through diplomatic channels on a humanitarian basis. While detainee treatment is influenced primarily by political considerations, this Article asks what international legal implications arise from these detentions in terms of international law violations and recourse. Specifically, this Article analyzes (1) violations of consular law and international human rights law as applied to the detainees, such as standards for arrest, investigation, trial, and detention, and (2) whether viable legal …


The "Peace Treaty" As A U.S. Doctrinal Option And Its Application To The Dprk: A Historical And Analytic Review, Eric Yong-Joong Lee Jan 2018

The "Peace Treaty" As A U.S. Doctrinal Option And Its Application To The Dprk: A Historical And Analytic Review, Eric Yong-Joong Lee

Cornell International Law Journal

Wars have made great contributions to the development of the U.S. Because the U.S. has often been victorious, achieving the purpose of their war, most wars ended with a surrender of the enemy or declaration of termination. The Americans concluded peace treaties only when they wanted to fundamentally restructure the regional order after the war or to realize their strategic interest from a broader, longer perspective in some parts of the world. This research is to analyze the peace treaties that the U.S. has signed so far or has mediated upon, searching for the possibility of making a U.S.-DPRK peace …


Foreign Initial Coin Offering Issuers Beware: The Securities And Exchange Commission Is Watching, Julianna Debler Jan 2018

Foreign Initial Coin Offering Issuers Beware: The Securities And Exchange Commission Is Watching, Julianna Debler

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Labor And Human Rights Conditions Of North Korean Workers Dispatched Overseas: A Look At The Dprk’S Exploitative Practices In Russia, Poland, And Mongolia, Teodora Gyupchanova Jan 2018

Labor And Human Rights Conditions Of North Korean Workers Dispatched Overseas: A Look At The Dprk’S Exploitative Practices In Russia, Poland, And Mongolia, Teodora Gyupchanova

Cornell International Law Journal

The Database Center for North Korean Human Rights (NKDB) has so far dedicated over three years to a focused research on the human rights conditions of North Korean laborers overseas. In this amount of time NKDB researchers have only managed to uncover a small fraction of the abuses endured by the North Korean citizens dispatched overseas to earn revenue for the North Korean regime. There is a lot of work that still needs to be done, which should involve investigation of the working and living conditions of North Korean laborers residing in different countries, seeking accountability from the entities, government …


Taking Ihi, R2p And Legitimate Defense Seriously: North Korea As The Primary Consideration, Morse Tan Jan 2018

Taking Ihi, R2p And Legitimate Defense Seriously: North Korea As The Primary Consideration, Morse Tan

Cornell International Law Journal

North Korea has the worst human rights crisis in terms of the breadth and extent of its violations, and also presents the most serious security crisis in the world. A trio of doctrines— International Humanitarian Intervention, the Responsibility to Protect, and legitimate defense— provide the foundation for a range of solutions and approaches to resolve this crisis. At the same time, North Korea poses real dangers, the situation is delicate, and the resolutions may prove difficult. Strong determination is necessary to stay the course until the Koreas reunite, ideally in a peaceful manner. The situation has moved rapidly over the …


North Korean Illicit Activities And Sanctions: A National Security Dilemma, Bruce E. Bechtol Jr. Dec 2017

North Korean Illicit Activities And Sanctions: A National Security Dilemma, Bruce E. Bechtol Jr.

Cornell International Law Journal

North Korea is a nation-state that for many years (including the years following the Cold War) has been off of the main radar for American foreign policy. Whether it was because the United States was worried about other issues such as problems in the Balkans in the 1990s, or fighting wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in the new millennium, challenges from the DPRK never seemed to be at the top of the priorities list with American foreign policy makers. This has now changed. It has become obvious to the world that North Korea has an active nuclear weapons program, and …


Comity And International Courts And Tribunals, Thomas Schultz, Niccolo Ridi Oct 2017

Comity And International Courts And Tribunals, Thomas Schultz, Niccolo Ridi

Cornell International Law Journal

This study seeks to clarify the importance, current and potential, of the use of comity by international courts and tribunals. Our findings support the idea that comity might be an emerging principle of procedural law, though agreement on its exact meaning— or unequivocal choices among its many connotations— still tends to be uncommon. We submit that, as long as other solutions are not in place, the principle can be successfully employed to assist international courts and tribunals in mediating jurisdictional conflicts between themselves by balancing coordination efforts and the demands of justice in the individual cases.

Comity may serve as …


General Theory Of Law And Development, Yong-Shik Lee Oct 2017

General Theory Of Law And Development, Yong-Shik Lee

Cornell International Law Journal

Although scholarship in law and development that explores the relationship between law and social and economic progress has evolved over the last four decades, this area of inquiry remains unfamiliar to many legal scholars, lawyers, and policy makers. Scholars have not yet been able to develop a theory that systematically explains the interrelationship between law and development, which would establish law and development as a robust and coherent academic field. This Article attempts to fill this gap by presenting a general theory that defines the disciplinary parameters of law and development, and explains the mechanisms by which law impacts development. …


A Global Body And A Global Problem: The Curious Case Of The G-20 And Securities Regulation, Tamilla Nurizada Oct 2017

A Global Body And A Global Problem: The Curious Case Of The G-20 And Securities Regulation, Tamilla Nurizada

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Frozen Conflicts And International Law, Thomas D. Grant Oct 2017

Frozen Conflicts And International Law, Thomas D. Grant

Cornell International Law Journal

Scholars (mostly in international relations and politics) and policymakers (in various countries) have referred to a series of conflicts in the space of the former USSR as “frozen conflicts.” Because some now speak of new “frozen conflicts” emerging, it is timely to ask what— if any— legal meaning this expression contains. Moreover, how we characterize these conflicts affects legal and other procedures the parties and others might apply to resolve them. Beyond the open questions of semantics and taxonomy, the so-called “frozen conflicts” merit attention because of their salience to the dispute settlement machinery that they so largely have frustrated.


Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin Jun 2017

Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

When it was revealed that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election by hacking into the email system of the Democratic National Committee and releasing its emails, international lawyers were divided over whether the cyber-attack violated international law. President Obama seemingly went out of his way to describe the attack as a mere violation of “established international norms of behavior,” though some international lawyers were more willing to describe the cyber-attack as a violation of international law. However, identifying the exact legal norm that was contravened turns out to be harder than it might otherwise appear. To …


U.S. Nonprofit Activity In Cuba: The Cuban Context, Elizabeth Brundige, Lucia Dominguez Cisneros, Eduardo M. Peñalver, Laura Spitz Apr 2017

U.S. Nonprofit Activity In Cuba: The Cuban Context, Elizabeth Brundige, Lucia Dominguez Cisneros, Eduardo M. Peñalver, Laura Spitz

Cornell International Law Journal

American regulatory restrictions on nonprofit activity in Cuba have decreased dramatically over the past three years. As a result, interest in undertaking projects in Cuba among U.S. nonprofits has increased significantly over that same period. Despite President Trump's recent directive that rolled back several aspects of the previous administration's Cuba policy and ordered new restrictions on U.S.-Cuban engagement, U.S. nonprofits are unlikely to be deterred from seeking to expand their engagement in Cuba over the long term. As nonprofits explore potential opportunities and navigate legal and political challenges, this Article seeks to advance the conversation by answering the following questions: …


Rape In War: Prosecuting The Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant And Boko Haram For Sexual Violence Against Women, David Sverdlov Apr 2017

Rape In War: Prosecuting The Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant And Boko Haram For Sexual Violence Against Women, David Sverdlov

Cornell International Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Four Unconstitutional Constitutions And Their Democratic Foundations, Richard Albert Apr 2017

Four Unconstitutional Constitutions And Their Democratic Foundations, Richard Albert

Cornell International Law Journal

The present fascination with the global phenomenon of an unconstitutional constitutional amendment has left open the question whether a constitution can be unconstitutional. To declare an entire constitution unconstitutional seems different in both kind and degree from invalidating a single amendment for violating the architectural core of a constitution, itself undoubtedly an extraordinary action. In this Article, I illustrate and evaluate four different conceptions of an unconstitutional constitution. Each conception draws from a different constitution currently in force around the world, specifically the Constitutions of Canada, Mexico, South Africa and the United States. Despite their unconstitutionality in different senses of …


A Complicated Alchemy: Theorizing Identity Politics And The Politicization Of Migrant Remittances Under Donald Trump's Presidency, Stephen Wilks Apr 2017

A Complicated Alchemy: Theorizing Identity Politics And The Politicization Of Migrant Remittances Under Donald Trump's Presidency, Stephen Wilks

Cornell International Law Journal

Using law to conscript financial technology in aid of state goals is not new. Financial institutions have long been subject to myriad legal and regulatory reporting requirements designed to combat money laundering, enforce economic sanctions, support tax compliance, and interdict the financing of terrorism. Trump's particular approach to this tradition, however, seeks to capitalize on a particularly toxic convergence of race, class, economics, and globalization. America is not alone in its recent experience with surges in right wing, nationalist populism. Globalism's winds have posed challenges to those who have enjoyed the benefits of protectionist trade policies that no longer exist, …