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Criminal Law

Selected Works

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2024

Full-Text Articles in Law

Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi Oct 2019

Exploring The Relationship Between Drug And Alcohol Treatment Facilities And Violent And Property Crime: A Socioeconomic Contingent Relationship, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Christopher Salvatore

Siting of drug and alcohol treatment facilities is often met with negative reactions because of the assumption that these facilities increase crime by attracting drug users (and possibly dealers) to an area. This assumption, however, rests on weak empirical footings that have not been subjected to strong empirical analyses. Using census block groups from Philadelphia, PA, it was found that the criminogenic impact of treatment facilities in and near a neighborhood on its violent and property crime rates may be contingent on the socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighborhood. Paying attention to both the density and proximity of facilities in ...


Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman Oct 2019

Gender-Based Perceptions Of The 2001 Anthrax Attacks: Implications For Outreach And Preparedness, Christopher Salvatore, Brian J. Gorman

Christopher Salvatore

Extensive research dealing with gender-based perceptions of fear of crime has generally found that women express greater levels of fear compared to men. Further, studies have found that women engage in more self-protective behaviors in response to fear of crime, as well as have different levels of confidence in government efficacy relative to men. The majority of these studies have focused on violent and property crime; little research has focused on gender-based perceptions of the threat of bioterrorism. Using data from a national survey conducted by ABC News / Washington Post, this study contrasted perceptions of safety and fear in response ...


Is Emerging Adulthood Influencing Moffitt’S Developmental Taxonomy? Adding The “Prolonged” Adolescent Offender, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi, Wayne Welsh Oct 2019

Is Emerging Adulthood Influencing Moffitt’S Developmental Taxonomy? Adding The “Prolonged” Adolescent Offender, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi, Wayne Welsh

Christopher Salvatore

The study of offender trajectories has been a prolific area of criminological research. However, few studies have incorporated the influence of emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course, on offending trajectories. The present study addressed this shortcoming by introducing the "prolonged adolescent" offender, a low-level offender between the ages of 18 and 25 that has failed to successfully transition into adult social roles. A theoretical background based on prior research in life-course criminology and emerging adulthood is presented. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health analyses examined the relationship between indicators of traditional turning ...


Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi Oct 2019

Policing A Negotiated World: A Partial Test Of Klinger’S Ecological Theory Of Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Travis A. Taniguchi

Christopher Salvatore

The primary goal of the current study is to examine a portion of Klinger’s theory. Specifically, we test the influence of organizational and environmental contextual factors, guided by Klinger’s theory, on one measure of officer vigor. To date, few studies have taken this approach to examine Klinger’s theory. The study builds on prior research that has tested aspects of Klinger’s theory and adds new analytic strategies that prior studies have not used. The results of this study have implications for both theory and practice, and they add to the growing literature examining the influence of ecological ...


Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh Oct 2019

Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh

Christopher Salvatore

Virtual life sentences are sentences with a term of years that exceed an individual’s natural life expectancy. This exploratory study is one of the first to collect data that establish the existence, prevalence, and scope of virtual life sentences in state prisons in the United States. Initial data reveal that more than 31,000 people in 26 states are serving virtual life sentences for violent and nonviolent offenses, and suggest racial disparities in the distribution of these sentences. This study also presents potential policy implications and suggestions for future research.


Where Concerned Citizens Perceive Police As More Responsive To Troublesome Teen Groups: Theoretical Implications For Political Economy, Incivilities And Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Ralph B. Taylor, Christopher Kelly Oct 2019

Where Concerned Citizens Perceive Police As More Responsive To Troublesome Teen Groups: Theoretical Implications For Political Economy, Incivilities And Policing, Christopher Salvatore, Ralph B. Taylor, Christopher Kelly

Christopher Salvatore

The current investigation extends previous work on citizens' perceptions of police performance. It examines the origins of between-community differences in concerned citizens' judgments that police are responding sufficiently to a local social problem. The problem is local unsupervised teen groups, a key indicator for both the revised systemic social disorganization perspective and the incivilities thesis. Four theoretical perspectives predict ecological determinants of these shared judgments. Less perceived police responsiveness is anticipated in lower socioeconomic status (SES) police districts by both a political economy and a stratified incivilities perspective; more predominantly minority police districts by a racialized justice perspective; and in ...


Contemplating The Successive Prosecution Phenomenon In The Federal System, Elizabeth T. Lear Oct 2019

Contemplating The Successive Prosecution Phenomenon In The Federal System, Elizabeth T. Lear

Elizabeth T Lear

Constitutional scholars have long debated the relative merits of a conduct-based compulsory joinder rule. The dialogue has centered on the meaning of the “same offence” language of the Double Jeopardy Clause, concentrating specifically on whether it includes the factual circumstances giving rise to criminal liability or applies only to the statutory offenses charged. However, the Supreme Court, in United States v. Dixon, abandoned as “unworkable” a limited conduct-based approach it had fashioned just three years before in Grady v. Corbin.

This Article does not assess the frequency with which federal authorities prosecute joinable offenses separately. While such information ultimately is ...


Catholic Social Thought And Criminal Justice Reform, R. Michael Cassidy Oct 2019

Catholic Social Thought And Criminal Justice Reform, R. Michael Cassidy

R. Michael Cassidy

Professor Cassidy examines the criminal justice reform movement in the United States through the lens of Catholic social thought. In particular, he focuses on God’s gift of redemption and the Gospels’ directives that we love one another and show mercy toward the poor, the oppressed and the imprisoned. Cassidy then examines the implications of these fundamental Catholic teachings for the modern debate about the death penalty, sentencing reform, prisoner reentry and parole.


Reappraising The Legality Of Post-Trial Interviews, Fredric I. Lederer Oct 2019

Reappraising The Legality Of Post-Trial Interviews, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


Replacing The Exclusionary Rule With Administrative Rulemaking, Francis A. Gilligan, Fredric I. Lederer Oct 2019

Replacing The Exclusionary Rule With Administrative Rulemaking, Francis A. Gilligan, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


Rights Warnings In The Armed Services, Fredric I. Lederer Oct 2019

Rights Warnings In The Armed Services, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


The Law Of Confessions - The Voluntariness Doctrine, Fredric I. Lederer Oct 2019

The Law Of Confessions - The Voluntariness Doctrine, Fredric I. Lederer

Fredric I. Lederer

No abstract provided.


The Injustice Of The Death Penalty, Neal Devins, Roy Brasfield Herron Sep 2019

The Injustice Of The Death Penalty, Neal Devins, Roy Brasfield Herron

Neal E. Devins

No abstract provided.


Prisoners' Rights, Timothy Zick Sep 2019

Prisoners' Rights, Timothy Zick

Timothy Zick

No abstract provided.


Introductory Remarks: Criminal Law Panel, Cynthia V. Ward Sep 2019

Introductory Remarks: Criminal Law Panel, Cynthia V. Ward

Cynthia V. Ward

No abstract provided.


Punishing Children In The Criminal Law, Cynthia V. Ward Sep 2019

Punishing Children In The Criminal Law, Cynthia V. Ward

Cynthia V. Ward

No abstract provided.


"Stand Your Ground" And Self Defense, Cynthia Ward Sep 2019

"Stand Your Ground" And Self Defense, Cynthia Ward

Cynthia V. Ward

No abstract provided.


White Collar Crime: A Legal Overview, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

White Collar Crime: A Legal Overview, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Criminal Statutes To Regulate Financial Markets In The United States, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Use Of Criminal Statutes To Regulate Financial Markets In The United States, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


Virginia's Capital Jurors, Stephen P. Garvey, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

Virginia's Capital Jurors, Stephen P. Garvey, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


Toward An Expanded View Of The Due Process Claim In Entrapment Cases, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

Toward An Expanded View Of The Due Process Claim In Entrapment Cases, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The United States Criminal Justice System: A Brief Overview, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The United States Criminal Justice System: A Brief Overview, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Right To Counsel In Criminal Cases, A National Crisis, Mary Sue Backus, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Right To Counsel In Criminal Cases, A National Crisis, Mary Sue Backus, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Miranda Custody Requirement And Juveniles, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Miranda Custody Requirement And Juveniles, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

Concerns about the interrogation process and the ability of minors to navigate the criminal justice system often intersect. The impact of the age of juveniles can be seen in a variety of judicial decisions, most markedly those dealing with punishment. But judicial concern for juveniles goes well beyond sentencing. The interrogation process raises especially grave fears.

Since the Supreme Court issued its landmark ruling in Miranda v. Arizona disallowing compelled inculpatory statements by criminal suspects and defendants, there has been concern as to whether juveniles fully understand and appreciate their rights as articulated in Miranda and based in the Fifth ...


The Media In The Courtroom: Attending, Reporting, Televising Criminal Cases, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Media In The Courtroom: Attending, Reporting, Televising Criminal Cases, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Proposed Revised Federal Criminal Code: Conspiracy Provisions, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Proposed Revised Federal Criminal Code: Conspiracy Provisions, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Faretta Principle: Self Representation Versus The Right To Counsel, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Faretta Principle: Self Representation Versus The Right To Counsel, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

The United States Constitution makes provision for criminal defendants to be represented by counsel. In the federal jurisdiction this principle was vigorously applied, even to indigent persons, very early in the Twentieth Century. The United States Supreme Court, however, was reluctant to impose this requirement on the states except in cases of unusual circumstances where the absence of counsel would have affected the basic fairness of the trial. Finally, in a landmark decision by the Supreme Court, it was held that the right to counsel applies in both federal and state cases. For the past twenty years, federal and state ...


The Fall And Rise Of The Entrapment Defense, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Fall And Rise Of The Entrapment Defense, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Exclusion Of Evidence In The United States, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Exclusion Of Evidence In The United States, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.


The Entrapment Defense: An Interview, Paul Marcus Sep 2019

The Entrapment Defense: An Interview, Paul Marcus

Paul Marcus

No abstract provided.