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2020

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Data Governance And The Elasticity Of Sovereignty, Roxana Vatanparast Dec 2020

Data Governance And The Elasticity Of Sovereignty, Roxana Vatanparast

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Traditionally, the world map and territorially bounded spaces have dominated the ways in which we imagine how states govern, make laws, and exercise their authority. Under this conception, reflected in traditional international law principles of territorial sovereignty, each state would have exclusive authority to govern and make laws over everything concerning the land within its borders. Yet developments like the proliferation of data flows, which are based on divisible, mobile, and interconnected components of data, are not territorially bounded. This presents a challenge to the traditional bases for territorial sovereignty and jurisdiction under international law, which some scholars claim is …


How Supreme Court Precedent Sheds Light On Corporate Bill Of Attainder Claims, Alina Veneziano Dec 2020

How Supreme Court Precedent Sheds Light On Corporate Bill Of Attainder Claims, Alina Veneziano

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Easing The Burdens Of A Patchwork Approach To Data Privacy Regulation In Favor Of A Singular Comprehensive International Solution—The International Data Privacy Agreement, Scott Resnick Dec 2020

Easing The Burdens Of A Patchwork Approach To Data Privacy Regulation In Favor Of A Singular Comprehensive International Solution—The International Data Privacy Agreement, Scott Resnick

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Data privacy has become one of the premier hot-button issues in today’s increasingly digital human experience. Legislatures around the globe have attempted to act swiftly in an effort to safeguard the highly coveted personal information of their citizens and combat misuse at the hands of international businesses operating with an online presence. Since the European Union’s enactment of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in 2018, countries around the globe have been grappling with how best to replicate the EU’s leading data privacy regulation while providing the same or greater level of transparency into data collection practices. While a mere …


Two Decades Of Laws And Practice Around Screen Scraping In The Common Law World And Its Open Banking Watershed Moment, Han-Wei Liu Dec 2020

Two Decades Of Laws And Practice Around Screen Scraping In The Common Law World And Its Open Banking Watershed Moment, Han-Wei Liu

Washington International Law Journal

Screen scraping—a technique using an agent to collect, parse, and organize data from the web in an automated manner—has found countless applications over the past two decades. It is now employed everywhere, from targeted advertising, price aggregation, budgeting apps, website preservation, academic research, and journalism, to name a few. However, this tool has raised enormous controversy in the age of big data. This article takes a comparative law approach to explore two sets of analytical issues in three common law jurisdictions, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. As the first step, this article maps out the trajectory of …


Human-Machine Teaming And Its Legal And Ethical Implications, Jim Q. Chen, Thomas Wingfield Dec 2020

Human-Machine Teaming And Its Legal And Ethical Implications, Jim Q. Chen, Thomas Wingfield

Military Cyber Affairs

Humans rely on machines in accomplishing missions while machines need humans to make them more intelligent and more powerful. Neither side can go without the other, especially in complex environments when autonomous mode is initiated. Things are becoming more complicated when law and ethical principles should be applied in these complex environments. One of the solutions is human-machine teaming, as it takes advantage of both the best humans can offer and the best that machines can provide. This article intends to explore ways of implementing law and ethical principles in artificial intelligence (AI) systems using human-machine teaming. It examines the …


Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation In The Age Of Online Speech: The Relevance Of Anti-Slapp And Anti-Cyberslapp Legislation, Lauren Merk Dec 2020

Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation In The Age Of Online Speech: The Relevance Of Anti-Slapp And Anti-Cyberslapp Legislation, Lauren Merk

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Dec 2020

Table Of Contents

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

No abstract provided.


News Reporting On Trump's Covid-19 Treatments: Should Broadcasters Have To Disclose Their Being Potentially Dangerous?, Dr. Joel Timmer Dec 2020

News Reporting On Trump's Covid-19 Treatments: Should Broadcasters Have To Disclose Their Being Potentially Dangerous?, Dr. Joel Timmer

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

During the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, President Trump touted a number of treatments that many medical professionals considered dangerous. These treatments include hydroxychloroquine and disinfectants, which if misused could cause a patient’s death. This prompted Free Press to file an emergency petition with the FCC, arguing that broadcasters who report on Trump’s claims about these treatments without highlighting their dangers could be in violation of the Commission’s broadcast hoax rule. Free Press also requested the FCC require that broadcasters include disclaimers when reporting on such claims. This article examines whether the broadcast hoax rule has been …


Information Crossroads: Intersection Of Military And Civilian Interpretations Of Cyber Attack And Defense, Carlos Plazas Dec 2020

Information Crossroads: Intersection Of Military And Civilian Interpretations Of Cyber Attack And Defense, Carlos Plazas

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Ethical Testing In The Real World: Evaluating Physical Testing Of Adversarial Machine Learning, Kendra Albert, Maggie Delano, Jonathon W. Penney, Afsaneh Rigot, Ram Shankar Siva Kumar Dec 2020

Ethical Testing In The Real World: Evaluating Physical Testing Of Adversarial Machine Learning, Kendra Albert, Maggie Delano, Jonathon W. Penney, Afsaneh Rigot, Ram Shankar Siva Kumar

Articles & Book Chapters

This paper critically assesses the adequacy and representativeness of physical domain testing for various adversarial machine learning (ML) attacks against computer vision systems involving human subjects. Many papers that deploy such attacks characterize themselves as “real world.” Despite this framing, however, we found the physical or real-world testing conducted was minimal, provided few details about testing subjects and was often conducted as an afterthought or demonstration. Adversarial ML research without representative trials or testing is an ethical, scientific, and health/safety issue that can cause real harms. We introduce the problem and our methodology, and then critique the physical domain testing …


Algorithmic Opacity, Private Accountability, And Corporate Social Disclosure In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence, Sylvia Lu Dec 2020

Algorithmic Opacity, Private Accountability, And Corporate Social Disclosure In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence, Sylvia Lu

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Today, firms develop machine-learning algorithms to control human decisions in nearly every industry, creating a structural tension between commercial opacity and democratic transparency. In many of their commercial applications, advanced algorithms are technically complicated and privately owned, which allows them to hide from legal regimes and prevents public scrutiny. However, they may demonstrate their negative effects—erosion of democratic norms, damages to financial gains, and extending harms to stakeholders—without warning. Nevertheless, because the inner workings and applications of algorithms are generally incomprehensible and protected as trade secrets, they can be completely shielded from public surveillance. One of the solutions to this …


What The Supreme Court Is Likely To Do In The Presently Pending Case Google V. Oracle, Jennifer Campbell Nov 2020

What The Supreme Court Is Likely To Do In The Presently Pending Case Google V. Oracle, Jennifer Campbell

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Can David Really Beat Goliath? A Look Into The Anti-Competitive Restrictions Of Apple Inc. And Google, Llc, Emily Feeley Nov 2020

Can David Really Beat Goliath? A Look Into The Anti-Competitive Restrictions Of Apple Inc. And Google, Llc, Emily Feeley

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran Nov 2020

Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

This article presents an in-depth analysis of the latent methodological issues that are as much a cause of U.S. federal court avoidance of foreign law as are judicial difficulties in obtaining foreign legal materials and difficulties in understanding foreign legal orders and languages. It explores Rule 44.1’s inadvertent introduction of a civil-law method into a common-law framework, and the results that have ensued, including an incomplete transition of foreign law from being an issue of fact to becoming an issue of law. It addresses the ways in which courts obtain information about foreign law today, suggesting among others the methodological …


Horizontal Collusions Organized By Uber: Time For A Change In Canada, Thanh Phan Nov 2020

Horizontal Collusions Organized By Uber: Time For A Change In Canada, Thanh Phan

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

This paper argues that Uber’s ordinary operation should be characterized as organizing horizontal cartels among drivers that not only fix the fares of ride- hailing services using its platform but also allocate customers. Uber-led cartels, therefore, violate section 45(1) of the Competition Act5 of Canada. In doing so, this paper analyzes the relationships between Uber and drivers and argues that (i) Uber is the organizer of price-fixing and market allocation collusions among drivers, (ii) the collusions are horizontal, and (iii) they are per se illegal.

The first section discusses the general structure of peer-to-peer markets. The second section examines factors …


Richard Susskind, Online Courts And The Future Of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), David Cowan Nov 2020

Richard Susskind, Online Courts And The Future Of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), David Cowan

Canadian Journal of Law and Technology

There are times when the essential nature of something is simply viewed as ‘nice to have’ until a paradigmatic shift turns the essential into a necessity, and necessity in technological change is not so much the mother of invention as the parent of behavioural change. This point is made clear by the Covid-19 pandemic, which has forced courts to put online and remote working at centre stage. There is a natural yearning to go back to ‘normal,’ but questions arise as to whether online courts are a good idea and whether attempts to work online and remotely will survive the …


Criminal Trespass And Computer Crime, Laurent Sacharoff Nov 2020

Criminal Trespass And Computer Crime, Laurent Sacharoff

William & Mary Law Review

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) criminalizes the simple act of trespass upon a computer—intentional access without authorization. The law sweeps too broadly, but the courts and scholars seeking to fix it look in the wrong place. They uniformly focus on the term “without authorization” when instead they should focus on the statute’s mens rea. On a conceptual level, courts and scholars understand that the CFAA is a criminal law, of course, but fail to interpret it comprehensively as one.

This Article begins the first sustained treatment of the CFAA as a criminal law, with a full elaboration of …


Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara Oct 2020

Towards Increasing Trust In Expert Evidence Derived From Malware Forensic Tools, Ian M. Kennedy, Blaine Price, Arosha Bandara

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Following a series of high profile miscarriages of justice in the UK linked to questionable expert evidence, the post of the Forensic Science Regulator was created in 2008. The main objective of this role is to improve the standard of practitioner competences and forensic procedures. One of the key strategies deployed to achieve this is the push to incorporate a greater level of scientific conduct in the various fields of forensic practice. Currently there is no statutory requirement for practitioners to become accredited to continue working with the Criminal Justice System of England and Wales. However, the Forensic Science Regulator …


A Forensic First Look At A Pos Device: Searching For Pci Dss Data Storage Violations, Stephen Larson, James Jones, Jim Swauger Oct 2020

A Forensic First Look At A Pos Device: Searching For Pci Dss Data Storage Violations, Stephen Larson, James Jones, Jim Swauger

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

According to the Verizon 2018 Data Breach Investigations Report, 321 POS terminals (user devices) were involved in about 14% of the 2,216 data breaches in 2017 (Verizon, 2018). These data breaches involved standalone POS terminals as well as associated controller systems. This paper examines a standalone Point-of-Sale (POS) system which is ubiquitous in smaller retail stores and restaurants. An attempt to extract unencrypted data and identify possible violations of the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requirement to protect stored cardholder data were be made. Persistent storage (flash memory chips) were removed from the devices and their contents …


Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin Oct 2020

Enough Is As Good As A Feast, Noah C. Chauvin

Seattle University Law Review

Ipse Dixit, the podcast on legal scholarship, provides a valuable service to the legal community and particularly to the legal academy. The podcast’s hosts skillfully interview guests about their legal and law-related scholarship, helping those guests communicate their ideas clearly and concisely. In this review essay, I argue that Ipse Dixit has made a major contribution to legal scholarship by demonstrating in its interview episodes that law review articles are neither the only nor the best way of communicating scholarly ideas. This contribution should be considered “scholarship,” because one of the primary goals of scholarship is to communicate new ideas.


Preservation Requests And The Fourth Amendment, Armin Tadayon Oct 2020

Preservation Requests And The Fourth Amendment, Armin Tadayon

Seattle University Law Review

Every day, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Amazon, ridesharing companies, and numerous other service providers copy users’ account information upon receiving a preservation request from the government. These requests are authorized under a relatively obscure subsection of the Stored Communications Act (SCA). The SCA is the federal statute that governs the disclosure of communications stored by third party service providers. Section 2703(f) of this statute authorizes the use of “f” or “preservation” letters, which enable the government to request that a service provider “take all necessary steps to preserve records and other evidence in its possession” while investigators seek valid legal process. …


Good Health And Good Privacy Go Hand-In-Hand (Originally Published By Jnslp), Jennifer Daskal Oct 2020

Good Health And Good Privacy Go Hand-In-Hand (Originally Published By Jnslp), Jennifer Daskal

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Keeping The Zombies At Bay: Fourth Amendment Problems In The Fight Against Botnets, Danielle Potter Oct 2020

Keeping The Zombies At Bay: Fourth Amendment Problems In The Fight Against Botnets, Danielle Potter

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

You may not have heard of a botnet. If you have, you may have linked it to election shenanigans and nothing else. But if you are reading this on a computer or smartphone, there is a good chance you are in contact with a botnet right now.

Botnets, sometimes called “Zombie Armies,” are networks of devices linked by a computer virus and controlled by cybercriminals. Botnets operate on everyday devices owned by millions of Americans, and thus pose a substantial threat to individual device owners as well as the nation’s institutions and economy.

Accordingly, the United States government has been …


A False Sense Of Security: How Congress And The Sec Are Dropping The Ball On Cryptocurrency, Tessa E. Shurr Oct 2020

A False Sense Of Security: How Congress And The Sec Are Dropping The Ball On Cryptocurrency, Tessa E. Shurr

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

Today, companies use blockchain technology and digital assets for a variety of purposes. This Comment analyzes the digital token. If the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) views a digital token as a security, then the issuer of the digital token must comply with the registration and extensive disclosure requirements of federal securities laws.

To determine whether a digital asset is a security, the SEC relies on the test that the Supreme Court established in SEC v. W.J. Howey Co. Rather than enforcing a statute or agency rule, the SEC enforces securities laws by applying the Howey test on a fact-intensive …


The Digital Samaritans, Eldar Haber Oct 2020

The Digital Samaritans, Eldar Haber

Washington and Lee Law Review

Bystanderism is becoming largely digital. If being subjected to perilous situations was once reserved almost solely for the physical world, individuals now might witness those in peril digitally from afar via online livestreams. New technological developments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) might also expand bystanderism to new fields, whereby machines—not just humans—are gradually positioned to better compute their surroundings, thus potentially being capable of reaching a high statistical probability that a perilous situation is currently taking place in their vicinity. This current and future expansion of bystanderism into the digital world forms a rather new type of digital …


The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood Oct 2020

The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood

Publications and Research

Image-based sexual abuse (IBSA), commonly known as revenge pornography, is a type of cyberharassment that often results in detrimental effects to an individual's career and livelihood. Although there exists valuable research concerning cyberharassment in the workplace generally, there is little written about specifically IBSA and the workplace. This chapter examines current academic research on IBSA, the issues with defining this type of abuse, victim blaming, workplace policy, and challenges to victim-survivors' redress. The authors explore monetary motivation for websites that host revenge pornography and unpack how the dark web presents new challenges to seeking justice. Additionally, this chapter presents recommendations …


Poland’S Challenge To Eu Directive 2019/790: Standing Up To The Destruction Of European Freedom Of Expression, Michaela Cloutier Oct 2020

Poland’S Challenge To Eu Directive 2019/790: Standing Up To The Destruction Of European Freedom Of Expression, Michaela Cloutier

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

In 2019, the European Parliament and Council passed Directive 2019/790. The Directive’s passage marked the end of a fouryear- long legislative attempt to impose more liability for copyright violations on Online Service Providers, an effort which was controversial from the start. Online Service Providers fear that the 2019 Directive, especially its Article 17, will completely change the structure of liability on the Internet, forcing providers to adopt expensive content filtering systems. Free speech advocates fear that ineffective filtering technology will infringe upon Internet users’ rights to express themselves, and legal scholars have pointed out the Directive’s inconsistency with prior European …


Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer Oct 2020

Accessible Websites And Mobile Applications Under The Ada: The Lack Of Legal Guidelines And What This Means For Businesses And Their Customers, Josephine Meyer

Seattle University Law Review Online

No abstract provided.


Fixing Social Media: Toward A Democratic Digital Commons, Michael Kwet Sep 2020

Fixing Social Media: Toward A Democratic Digital Commons, Michael Kwet

Markets, Globalization & Development Review

In the past few years, big Social Media networks like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have received intense scrutiny from the intellectual classes. This article critiques the dominant strain of criticism, the neo-Brandeisian School of antitrust, for its narrow focus on “regulated competition” as an appropriate means to “fix social media”. This essay calls for a socialist alternative: a democratic social media commons based on free and open source technology, decentralization, and democratic socialist legal solutions. It reviews how existing solutions like the Fediverse and LibreSocial work, and how they may provide answers for a better way forward.


Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn Sep 2020

Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.