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Full-Text Articles in Law

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis Jan 2022

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does ...


Professional Speech At Scale, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2022

Professional Speech At Scale, Cassandra Burke Robertson, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Regulatory actions affecting professional speech are facing new challenges from all sides. On one side, the Supreme Court has grown increasingly protective of professionals’ free speech rights, and it has subjected regulations affecting that speech to heightened levels of scrutiny that call into question traditional regulatory practices in both law and medicine. On the other side, technological developments, including the growth of massive digital platforms and the introduction of artificial intelligence programs, have created brand new problems of regulatory scale. Professional speech is now able to reach a wide audience faster than ever before, creating risks that misinformation will cause ...


Case Note: Avangrid Networks, Inc. V. Secretary Of State, Grady F. Hogan Jul 2021

Case Note: Avangrid Networks, Inc. V. Secretary Of State, Grady F. Hogan

Maine Law Review

This Note analyzes that case: Carson ex rel. O.C. v. Makin. In Carson, the First Circuit affirmed the trial court’s decision that Maine’s nonsectarian requirement does not violate the Free Exercise Clause. I posit that the reasoning the First Circuit deployed in Carson may not be durable and that if the Supreme Court were to grant the plaintiff-appellants’ petition for certiorari, the Court would likely invalidate Maine’s nonsectarian requirement. I then analyze the effect the elimination of the nonsectarian requirement would have on Maine’s public schools and how school choice opponents may wish to move ...


United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr Jul 2021

United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This edition of the Food Law Update explores four legal issues arising in the first half of 2010 reflective of the diverse nature of the food law specialist. As the national debate surrounding the merits of health care reform dominated the legislative agenda, this article first will discuss the food labeling rules embedded within section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The authors then analyze the preemptive reach of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Meat Inspection Act with respect to three separate California statutes regarding animal welfare standards, retail labels on ...


European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch Jul 2021

European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This EU Food Law Update will focus on the recent developments in the areas of genetically modified organisms, novel foods, feed safety, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, salmonella and food borne diseases, food additives, organic farming, food contact materials, and labeling.


Produce Exceptionalism: Examining The Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement And Its Ability To Improve Food Safety, Varun Shekhar Jul 2021

Produce Exceptionalism: Examining The Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement And Its Ability To Improve Food Safety, Varun Shekhar

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Isolated food safety crises are not uncommon occurrences in the United States. Indeed, the history of public scares indicates a pattern of deficiencies in the safety of the American food supply. In the early 20th century, the public learned of the squalid conditions of meatpacking facilities through muckraking publications such as Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. In the 1980s, a 60 Minutes report documented research finding carcinogenic properties of a widespread pesticide, traces of which were commonly found in apple-based products. In the 1990s, widespread media reports of beef tainted with E. coli led to both product recalls unprecedented in ...


A Bittersweet Deal For Consumers: The Unnatural Application Of Preemption To High Fructose Corn Syrup Labeling Claims, Josh Ashley Jul 2021

A Bittersweet Deal For Consumers: The Unnatural Application Of Preemption To High Fructose Corn Syrup Labeling Claims, Josh Ashley

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The recent rise of consumer consciousness regarding the health qualities of foods and beverages has become something akin to common knowledge. Reflecting this rise, studies reveal that labels regarding the health qualities of a food are more likely to increase sales. And among the health labels consumers prefer, labels describing the product as natural top the list. One website reports that according to a recent study, 31.3-percent of respondents thought that "100% natural" was the best description to read on a label, compared with only 14.2-percent who thought that "100% organic" was the best description. "All natural ingredients ...


Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts Jul 2021

Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the modern global food system - marked by the trade flow of a variety of food products and ingredients from multiple locations in the world - economically motivated adulteration has emerged as a growing menace that threatens the health and wellbeing of consumers, the economic livelihoods of honest purveyors of food in the global marketplace, and the integrity and viability of national food regulatory systems. Economic adulteration is a form of cheating that includes the padding, diluting, and substituting of food product. Although this cheating is rooted in past food systems, the new paradigm for economic adulteration - a vast international food-trade ...


The Quest To End Hunger In Our Time: Can Political Will Catch Up With Our Core Values?, David P. Lambert Jul 2021

The Quest To End Hunger In Our Time: Can Political Will Catch Up With Our Core Values?, David P. Lambert

Journal of Food Law & Policy

David Lambert a nationall recognized advocate to end hunger speaks about his work and the impact it has had on Arkansas, the USA and the world.


Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova Mccabe Jul 2021

Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Why is the relationship between our food system and federalism important to American law and health? It is important simply because federal law controls the American food system. This essay considers how federal law came to structure our food system, and suggests that though food is an essential part of our national economy, the dominating role of the federal government alienates citizens from their food system. It does so by characterizing food as a primarily economic issue, rather than one that has ethical, health, and cultural components. However, state and local governments have much to offer in terms of broadening ...


The Return Of A Judicial Artifact? How The Supreme Court Could Examine The Question Of The Nondelegation Doctrine’S Place In Future Cases, Dalton Davis Jul 2021

The Return Of A Judicial Artifact? How The Supreme Court Could Examine The Question Of The Nondelegation Doctrine’S Place In Future Cases, Dalton Davis

Helms School of Government Undergraduate Law Review

No abstract provided.


United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson Jul 2021

United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

For decades, the federal government has played a significant role in promoting healthy eating. In the early 1900s, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) promoted a foundational diet of milk, proteins, fruits and vegetables, and grains. Most Americans are at least somewhat familiar, although perhaps confused, with the more nuanced healthy eating recommendations contained in the food pyramid - first employed in 1992. And virtually every American has experienced the federally supported school lunch program. In the first half of 2011, these two iconic programs underwent significant change as part of a stepped-up effort to improve the health of the ...


The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz Jul 2021

The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Whether a prohibition on slaughter improves the welfare of the American horse population is the focus of this article. At the time it was written, winter of 2010-2011, a confluence of Federal and State legislative action had ended domestic slaughter. These actions are detailed in the body of this article. Since 2007, the legal status of horse slaughter remained static. Just as Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion explained, an object at rest tends to stay at rest. Legislative inertia is the perspective from which this article was originally written. However, Newton's first law also stated that ...


Analisis Yuridis Pemutusan Kontrak Kerjasama Pengadaan Barang Atau Jasa Secara Sepihak Antara Kontraktor Kontrak Kerjasama Industri Hulu Minyak Dan Gas Dengan Pelaksana Kontrak, Satria Winisuddha Jul 2021

Analisis Yuridis Pemutusan Kontrak Kerjasama Pengadaan Barang Atau Jasa Secara Sepihak Antara Kontraktor Kontrak Kerjasama Industri Hulu Minyak Dan Gas Dengan Pelaksana Kontrak, Satria Winisuddha

Dharmasisya

in the implementation of services in a procurement contract for goods or service, parties that require services and goods are represented by the Pejabat Pembuat Komitmen (PPK), while the parties that provide the goods or services are called vendors. In the particular case of the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry, the ones who act as the Pejabat Pembuat Komitmen are the Cooperative Contract Contractor, What is meant by a Cooperative Contractor is that the company are the ones producing the upstream oil and gas. The process of agreement between the contractor and the contract executor must begin with agreement between ...


Kewenangan Pelaksanaan Perizinan Investasi Oleh Pemerintah Daerah Berdasarkan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan Jul 2021

Kewenangan Pelaksanaan Perizinan Investasi Oleh Pemerintah Daerah Berdasarkan Peraturan Perundang-Undangan

Dharmasisya

Peraturan perundangan- undangan Indonesia terhadap Pemerintahan daerah telah menganut sistem desentralisasi yang mana daerah telah mendapatkan kewenangan yang lebih besar untuk mengatur sendiri pemerintahannya, Adapun kewenangan propinsi, Kabupaten dan Kota, berdasarkan Pasal 13 dan Pasal 14 UU No 23 Tahun 2014, dapat digolongkan kepada urusan wajib yang menjadi kewenangan pemerintahan daerah dan urusan pemerintahan yang bersifat pilihan. Dalam pengaturannya setidaknya terdapat 31 sektor pemerintahan yang merupakan urusan pemerintahan yang di- desentralisasikan ke daerah baik yang terkait dengan urusan yang bersifat wajib untuk menyelenggarakan pelayanan dasar maupun urusan yang bersifat pilihan untuk menyelenggarakan pengembangan sektor ekonomi yang menjadi unggulan dari daerah ...


Akibat Hukum Yang Ditimbulkan Oleh Masa Depan Organisasi Perdagangan Regional, Rossa Amanda Santika Jul 2021

Akibat Hukum Yang Ditimbulkan Oleh Masa Depan Organisasi Perdagangan Regional, Rossa Amanda Santika

Dharmasisya

Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) are a prominent future of multilateral trading system. The number of RTAs has been increasing and this trend will be further strengthened by the many RTAs being proposed and those currently under negotiation the impasse in the Doha Round exacerbates the gap between the preferential and the MFN paths to trade liberalization. The proliferation of RTAs presents WTO Members with challenges and opportunities; the promotion of free trade through preferential agreements can foster trade liberalization and benefit economic development by integrating developing countries into the world economy; yet the development of complex networks of non-MFN trade ...


Pencabutan Hak Memilih Dan Dipilih Terhadap Narapidana Tindak Pidana Korupsi Dalam Jabatan Publik, Rona Puspita Jul 2021

Pencabutan Hak Memilih Dan Dipilih Terhadap Narapidana Tindak Pidana Korupsi Dalam Jabatan Publik, Rona Puspita

Dharmasisya

The phenomenon of the proliferation of public officials and political figures who have been caught up in corruption cases has caused enough efforts by law enforcement officials to stop it. Article 10 letter b number 1 of the Criminal Code states that additional sanctions can be in the form of revocation of certain rights. This study aims to determine the regulation regarding revocation of the right to vote and be elected in public office as an additional crime for perpetrators of corruption in terms of human rights perspective. This research used descriptive analytical, which describes the facts in the form ...


Implikasi Mengenai Pencabutan Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 27 Tahun 2009 Tentang Pedoman Penetapan Izin Gangguan Di Daerah Sebagaimana Telah Diubah Dengan Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 22 Tahun 2016 Terhadap Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Dki Jakarta Nomor 15 Tahun 2011 Tentang Perizinan Tempat Usaha Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Gangguan Jul 2021

Implikasi Mengenai Pencabutan Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 27 Tahun 2009 Tentang Pedoman Penetapan Izin Gangguan Di Daerah Sebagaimana Telah Diubah Dengan Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 22 Tahun 2016 Terhadap Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Dki Jakarta Nomor 15 Tahun 2011 Tentang Perizinan Tempat Usaha Berdasarkan Undang-Undang Gangguan

Dharmasisya

On March 29 2017, the Government issued a regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs of Republic of Indonesia Number 19 of 2017 concerning the revocation of regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 27 of 2009 about the Guidelines for Determination of Disturbance Permit in Regions that were approved as amended by Minister of Home Affairs Regulation Number 27 of 2009 about Guidelines Establishment of Disturbance Permit in the Regions. The Government assesses that regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 27 of 2009 on the guidelines for the Establishment of Disturbance Permit in the Region is ...


Implikasi Undang-Undang Nomor 30 Tahun 2014 Tentang Administrasi Pemerintahan Terhadap Upaya Hukum Luar Biasa Dalam Sengketa Pertanahan, Rini Wulandari Jul 2021

Implikasi Undang-Undang Nomor 30 Tahun 2014 Tentang Administrasi Pemerintahan Terhadap Upaya Hukum Luar Biasa Dalam Sengketa Pertanahan, Rini Wulandari

Dharmasisya

As stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia that the Indonesian state is a state based on the rule of law (rechtstaat). Indonesia as a state of law tends to be positivist, by creating laws and regulations as one of the fundamental instruments in running the country. The government regulates and restricts officials as well as citizens to act through legislation in order to materialize the country's goals. These restrictions are intended so that the authorities do not act arbitrarily because it has the potential in causing legal uncertainty and threats to justice acquired by the citizens ...


Hilangnya Mh370: Tanggung Jawab Maskapai Penerbangan Dalam Prespektif Konvensi Warsawa Dan Konvensi Montreal, Rian Fachmi Tobing Jul 2021

Hilangnya Mh370: Tanggung Jawab Maskapai Penerbangan Dalam Prespektif Konvensi Warsawa Dan Konvensi Montreal, Rian Fachmi Tobing

Dharmasisya

This research aims to know whether Malaysia Airlines MH370 accident investigation authority has been in accordance with the provisions of International Law. The type of research was normative and prescriptive. The approach used statute approach and case approach. The source of this research are primary data source and secondary data source, while data collection techniques using literature techniques. Based on the study of the research, the result of observation is, in International Law aircraft accident investigation regulated in Chicago Convention 1944 on Annex 13 Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation. When the plane crashed at high seas, the state of registry ...


Implikasi Yuridis Dalam Pembayaran Tagihan Tenaga Listrik Yang Tidak Sesuai Pemakaian Akibat Kerusakan Alat Pengukur Dan Pembatas, Retnowulan Sopiyani Jul 2021

Implikasi Yuridis Dalam Pembayaran Tagihan Tenaga Listrik Yang Tidak Sesuai Pemakaian Akibat Kerusakan Alat Pengukur Dan Pembatas, Retnowulan Sopiyani

Dharmasisya

One of the rights and obligations of consumers and also PLN which is regulated by the Power Purchase Agreement (SPJBTL) is to pay electricity bills. The amount of electricity bills issued by PLN must comply with energy consumption, which is measured by the Limiting and Measuring Devices (APP). The problem occurs when there is damage to the APP, so it can not work as it should. As a results there is a mismatch between the energy used and measured. So that both parties could potentially suffer losses due to more or less electricity bills. Losses due to loss of energy ...


Tanggung Jawab Pengusaha Dan Pekerja Dalam Penerapan K3 Pada Proyek Konstruksi Ditinjau Dari Pelaksanaan Hak Dan Kewajiban Para Pihak, Rahadian Ratry Jul 2021

Tanggung Jawab Pengusaha Dan Pekerja Dalam Penerapan K3 Pada Proyek Konstruksi Ditinjau Dari Pelaksanaan Hak Dan Kewajiban Para Pihak, Rahadian Ratry

Dharmasisya

Occupational Health and Safety is a matter that must be considered by all parties in a company. The implementation of this program is an effort to protect employees from the risks of work hazards and their impacts. Occupational Health and Safety is one of the supporting factors in increasing company productivity and the welfare of its employees. But there are still many people and companies, especially in the field of construction, who have not been aware of and adequately equipped about the importance of occupational health and safety in Indonesia. The parties, workers and employers, have the rights and obligations ...


Kewenangan International Criminal Court Dalam Mengadili Pelaku Kejahatan Perang Pada Negara Yang Tidak Meratifikasi Rome Statute 1998, R Gilang Wisnhu Dhuara Jul 2021

Kewenangan International Criminal Court Dalam Mengadili Pelaku Kejahatan Perang Pada Negara Yang Tidak Meratifikasi Rome Statute 1998, R Gilang Wisnhu Dhuara

Dharmasisya

International Humanitarian Law is a part of the law that regulates provisions for protection of victims of war, the law of war that rule the war itself and everything that concerns the way of war itself. Rome Statute 1998 became the foundation of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is a permanent and independent court that can prosecute the perpetrators of serious crimes, one of them is war. to be able to do the jurisdiction of the ICC in a country, then the country must ratify the Statute. Furthermore, if a country does not ratify the Statute, how the ICC can ...


Buy Spear From Side Or Bear It: Kajian Komparatif Pengaturan Perbuatan Melawan Hukum Di Indonesia Dan Belanda, Parade Sitorus Jul 2021

Buy Spear From Side Or Bear It: Kajian Komparatif Pengaturan Perbuatan Melawan Hukum Di Indonesia Dan Belanda, Parade Sitorus

Dharmasisya

In Indonesia, Acts against the Law (PMH) have remained the same since the KUHPer was enacted in Stb. 1847 No. 23, namely an engagement born for the sake of the law or arising from the law as a result of the actions of people who violate the law. The term Buy spear from side or bear it contains meanings that need to be studied. Indonesia, which inherits the Dutch Criminal Code and the Netherlands itself, needs to be looked at further. For this reason, this research was conducted. In this article, the author uses a normative juridical method with a ...


Peran Negara D Alam Menjaga Kedaulatan Pada Ruang Maya (Cyberspace) Sebagai Upaya Perlindungan Terhadap Masyarakat, Nurharis Wijaya Jul 2021

Peran Negara D Alam Menjaga Kedaulatan Pada Ruang Maya (Cyberspace) Sebagai Upaya Perlindungan Terhadap Masyarakat, Nurharis Wijaya

Dharmasisya

Development of Internet technology has the potential to boost economic growth of a country. On the other hand, Internet technology also increases the amount and form of threat to the sovereignty of a state in the virtual world. Sovereignty in cyberspace become an important topic in the discussion of national and international security. In the context of the definition of space was no longer relevant in the light confined to the Regional Land, Sea, and Air. Developments Period increasingly cradles State with indulgence will ease in accessing information technology, which is certainly without successfully taking on the role that space-Maya ...


Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Kelompok Minoritas Gender Sebagai Implementasi Pemenuhan Hak Asasi Manusia (Perbandingan Kasus Lgbt Di Indonesia, India Dan Brunei Darussalam), Nindra Wahyu Hapsari Jul 2021

Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Kelompok Minoritas Gender Sebagai Implementasi Pemenuhan Hak Asasi Manusia (Perbandingan Kasus Lgbt Di Indonesia, India Dan Brunei Darussalam), Nindra Wahyu Hapsari

Dharmasisya

Every country has an obligation to fulfill the Human Rights of all citizens. Human rights are legal rights that everyone has as human beings and are universal. Issues regarding human rights are growing from time to time, one of which is the emergence of gender minority groups in this case are Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender (LGBT). Gender issues should be a private domain that is included in civil rights guaranteed by human rights and protected by law. LGBT people in various countries get different treatment both from the government of the country, and from the people. Some state governments in ...


Pengenaan Bea Masuk Tindakan Pengamanan Perdagangan Sementara (Bmtps) Terhadap Impor Produk Kain Tahun 2019 Sebagai Akibat Peningkatan Volume Impor Tekstil, Nanang Suhendra Jul 2021

Pengenaan Bea Masuk Tindakan Pengamanan Perdagangan Sementara (Bmtps) Terhadap Impor Produk Kain Tahun 2019 Sebagai Akibat Peningkatan Volume Impor Tekstil, Nanang Suhendra

Dharmasisya

Domestic textile industry should ideally get protection through the application of safeguard policies. The WTO Agreement on Safeguard is an instrument established by the World Trade Organization to provide protection for domestic industries that suffer losses due to a flood of textile imports. The impact of increasing the volume of imports of textiles, especially fabrics that occur in Indonesia, can be further studied to determine the relationship of causality with serious losses or the threat of serious losses to the domestic industry. So that with the BMTPS domestic textile companies get the opportunity to improve their financial condition through increased ...


Penerapan Prinsip Keadilan Restoratif Pada Tindak Pidana Korupsi Dalam Rangka Penyelamatan Keuangan Negara, Murpraptono Adhi Sulantoro Jul 2021

Penerapan Prinsip Keadilan Restoratif Pada Tindak Pidana Korupsi Dalam Rangka Penyelamatan Keuangan Negara, Murpraptono Adhi Sulantoro

Dharmasisya

Restorative justice is a thought or theory that promotes the recovery of damages as a result of a crime. There is important to maintain State finance well-managed management, therefore, the regulation stipulates that any state financial losses incurred must be immediately recovered. Every year, the state has suffered trillions of rupiah in state financial losses due to corruption. The current criminal sanctions on corruption are more retributive in the form of retaliation under crimes committed by the corruptor, but on the other hand, the state financial losses incurred cannot be recovered, even new cases of criminal acts of corruption still ...


Analisis Sistem Pemilihan Umum Noken Di Provinsi Papua Dalam Prinsip Demokrasi Dan Sistem Hukum Nasional, Muhammad Malikul Lubbi Jul 2021

Analisis Sistem Pemilihan Umum Noken Di Provinsi Papua Dalam Prinsip Demokrasi Dan Sistem Hukum Nasional, Muhammad Malikul Lubbi

Dharmasisya

Nokensis the name of a typical Papua bag. But in matters of elections or local elections, noken is a system. There are two patterns used in this system. The first pattern, the choice of votes of all members of the tribe, is represented by the respective chiefs. The second pattern, noken functions as a substitute for the ballot box. Where the voters' ballot papers are put in noken are hung according to the number of parties or pairs of candidates. This practice has received sharp criticism from many parties since it was implemented separately in a number of ...


Penerapan Perlindungan Kesehatan Dan Keselamatan Kerja Terhadap Buruh Anak Yang Bekerja Di Perkebunan Tembakau Garut, Jawa Barat, Monalisa Silitonga Jul 2021

Penerapan Perlindungan Kesehatan Dan Keselamatan Kerja Terhadap Buruh Anak Yang Bekerja Di Perkebunan Tembakau Garut, Jawa Barat, Monalisa Silitonga

Dharmasisya

The research is aimed to analyze the application of occupational health and safety protection to child laborers and analyze the obstacles that may occur in the application of occupational health and safety protection to child laborers in Tobacco Plantation in Garut, West Java. This research is an empirical legal research, which is conducted by looking at the law in a real sense in the scope of society, which is primary data and legislation as secondary legal material. So the approach taken is a case approach and a statute approach. Based on an analysis of Indonesian laws and regulations governing the ...