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2019

Signal Processing

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Objective Estimation Of Tracheoesophageal Speech Quality, Yousef S Ettomi Ali Dec 2019

Objective Estimation Of Tracheoesophageal Speech Quality, Yousef S Ettomi Ali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Speech quality estimation for pathological voices is becoming an increasingly important research topic. The assessment of the quality and the degree of severity of a disordered speech is important to the clinical treatment and rehabilitation of patients. In particular, patients who have undergone total laryngectomy (larynx removal) produce Tracheoesophageal (TE) speech. In this thesis, we study the problem of TE speech quality estimation using advanced signal processing approaches. Since it is not possible to have a reference (clean) signal corresponding to a given TE speech (disordered) signal, we investigate in particular the non-intrusive techniques (also called single-ended or blind approaches ...


A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou Dec 2019

A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tremor, one of the most disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), significantly affects the quality of life of the individuals who suffer from it. These people live with difficulties with fine motor tasks, such as eating and writing, and suffer from social embarrassment. Traditional medicines are often ineffective, and surgery is highly invasive and risky. The emergence of wearable technology facilitates an externally worn mechatronic tremor suppression device as a potential alternative approach for tremor management. However, no device has been developed for the suppression of finger tremor that has been validated on a human.

It has been reported ...


Image Restoration Using Automatic Damaged Regions Detection And Machine Learning-Based Inpainting Technique, Chloe Martin-King Dec 2019

Image Restoration Using Automatic Damaged Regions Detection And Machine Learning-Based Inpainting Technique, Chloe Martin-King

Computational and Data Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

In this dissertation we propose two novel image restoration schemes. The first pertains to automatic detection of damaged regions in old photographs and digital images of cracked paintings. In cases when inpainting mask generation cannot be completely automatic, our detection algorithm facilitates precise mask creation, particularly useful for images containing damage that is tedious to annotate or difficult to geometrically define. The main contribution of this dissertation is the development and utilization of a new inpainting technique, region hiding, to repair a single image by training a convolutional neural network on various transformations of that image. Region hiding is also ...


Radio Direction Finding Using Pseudo-Doppler For Uav-Based Animal Tracking, Anup Karki Dec 2019

Radio Direction Finding Using Pseudo-Doppler For Uav-Based Animal Tracking, Anup Karki

Masters Theses

Radio Direction Finding (RDF) is commonly used for low cost tracking and navigation systems. However, for a low cost application and mobility, the design constraints are highly limited. Pseudo Doppler (PD) can improve RDF capabilities without being cost prohibitive. This work entails the analysis of PD RDF and its potential use for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that are currently employed in wildlife research animal tracking. PD is based on the doppler effect or doppler shift. The doppler effect works like a frequency modulator that increases or decreases the observed frequency depending on whether a signal source is approaching or receding ...


Visual Speech Recognition Using A 3d Convolutional Neural Network, Matthew Rochford Dec 2019

Visual Speech Recognition Using A 3d Convolutional Neural Network, Matthew Rochford

Master's Theses

Main stream automatic speech recognition (ASR) makes use of audio data to identify spoken words, however visual speech recognition (VSR) has recently been of increased interest to researchers. VSR is used when audio data is corrupted or missing entirely and also to further enhance the accuracy of audio-based ASR systems. In this research, we present both a framework for building 3D feature cubes of lip data from videos and a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture for performing classification on a dataset of 100 spoken words, recorded in an uncontrolled envi- ronment. Our 3D-CNN architecture achieves a testing accuracy of ...


Exploitation Of Robust Aoa Estimation And Low Overhead Beamforming In Mmwave Mimo System, Yuyan Zhao Nov 2019

Exploitation Of Robust Aoa Estimation And Low Overhead Beamforming In Mmwave Mimo System, Yuyan Zhao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The limited spectral resource for wireless communications and dramatic proliferation of new applications and services directly necessitate the exploitation of millimeter wave (mmWave) communications. One critical enabling technology for mmWave communications is multi-input multi-output (MIMO), which enables other important physical layer techniques, specifically beamforming and antenna array based angle of arrival (AoA) estimation. Deployment of beamforming and AoA estimation has many challenges. Significant training and feedback overhead is required for beamforming, while conventional AoA estimation methods are not fast or robust. Thus, in this thesis, new algorithms are designed for low overhead beamforming, and robust AoA estimation with significantly reduced ...


Algorithms And Circuits For Analog-Digital Hybrid Multibeam Arrays, Paboda Viduneth A. Beruwawela Pathiranage Nov 2019

Algorithms And Circuits For Analog-Digital Hybrid Multibeam Arrays, Paboda Viduneth A. Beruwawela Pathiranage

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fifth generation (5G) and beyond wireless communication systems will rely heavily on larger antenna arrays combined with beamforming to mitigate the high free-space path-loss that prevails in millimeter-wave (mmW) and above frequencies. Sharp beams that can support wide bandwidths are desired both at the transmitter and the receiver to leverage the glut of bandwidth available at these frequency bands. Further, multiple simultaneous sharp beams are imperative for such systems to exploit mmW/sub-THz wireless channels using multiple reflected paths simultaneously. Therefore, multibeam antenna arrays that can support wider bandwidths are a key enabler for 5G and beyond systems.

In general ...


Continuous-Time Algorithms And Analog Integrated Circuits For Solving Partial Differential Equations, Nilan Udayanga Galabada Kankanamge Nov 2019

Continuous-Time Algorithms And Analog Integrated Circuits For Solving Partial Differential Equations, Nilan Udayanga Galabada Kankanamge

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Analog computing (AC) was the predominant form of computing up to the end of World War II. The invention of digital computers (DCs) followed by developments in transistors and thereafter integrated circuits (IC), has led to exponential growth in DCs over the last few decades, making ACs a largely forgotten concept. However, as described by the impending slow-down of Moore’s law, the performance of DCs is no longer improving exponentially, as DCs are approaching clock speed, power dissipation, and transistor density limits. This research explores the possibility of employing AC concepts, albeit using modern IC technologies at radio frequency ...


Sensor-Based Adaptive Control And Optimization Of Lower-Limb Prosthesis., Roozbeh Atri Nov 2019

Sensor-Based Adaptive Control And Optimization Of Lower-Limb Prosthesis., Roozbeh Atri

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent developments in prosthetics have enabled the development of powered prosthetic ankles (PPA). The advent of such technologies drastically improved impaired gait by increasing balance and reducing metabolic energy consumption by providing net positive power. However, control challenges limit performance and feasibility of today’s devices. With addition of sensors and motors, PPA systems should continuously make control decisions and adapt the system by manipulating control parameters of the prostheses. There are multiple challenges in optimization and control of PPAs. A prominent challenge is the objective setup of the system and calibration parameters to fit each subject. Another is whether ...


#43 - Gesture Recognition Of Eeg Signals Using Wavelet Transform And Artificial Neural Networks For Bci Applications, Hugo Flores Garcia Nov 2019

#43 - Gesture Recognition Of Eeg Signals Using Wavelet Transform And Artificial Neural Networks For Bci Applications, Hugo Flores Garcia

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems present many advantages for their use in the fields of robotics and prosthetics. BCIs enable the control of electronic systems using only the central nervous system, allowing, for example, patients with motor neuron disease to control prosthetic limbs or electronic devices. In this study, an electroencephalographic (EEG) signal gesture recognition process for BCI applications is described. The gesture recognition process receives a raw EEG signal as an input and classifies the received input into its corresponding gesture.

The gesture data was acquired from different subjects using the EMOTIVR EPOC, a 14-channel EEG headset. 402 samples ...


Average Speech Directivity, Samuel D. Bellows, Claire M. Pincock, Jennifer K. Whiting, Timothy W. Leishman Nov 2019

Average Speech Directivity, Samuel D. Bellows, Claire M. Pincock, Jennifer K. Whiting, Timothy W. Leishman

Directivity

Speech directivity describes the angular dependence of acoustic radiation from a talker’s mouth and nostrils and diffraction about his or her body and chair (if seated). It is an essential physical aspect of communication affecting sounds and signals in acoustical environments, audio, and telecommunication systems. Because high-resolution, spherically comprehensive measurements of live, phonetically balanced speech have been unavailable in the past, the authors have undertaken research to produce and share such data for simulations of acoustical environments, optimizations of microphone placements, speech studies, and other applications. The measurements included three male and three female talkers who repeated phonetically balanced ...


Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson Oct 2019

Demonstration Of Visible And Near Infrared Raman Spectrometers And Improved Matched Filter Model For Analysis Of Combined Raman Signals, Alexander Matthew Atkinson

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique that has found applications in fields such as analytical chemistry, planetary sciences, and medical diagnostics. Recent studies have shown that analysis of Raman spectral profiles can be greatly assisted by use of computational models with achievements including high accuracy pure sample classification with imbalanced data sets and detection of ideal sample deviations for pharmaceutical quality control. The adoption of automated methods is a necessary step in streamlining the analysis process as Raman hardware becomes more advanced. Due to limits in the architectures of current machine learning based Raman classification models, transfer from pure ...


Paper-Based Flexible Electrode Using Chemically-Modified Graphene And Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composites For Electrophysiological Signal Sensing, Md Faruk Hossain, Jae Sang Heo, John Nelson, Insoo Kim Oct 2019

Paper-Based Flexible Electrode Using Chemically-Modified Graphene And Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composites For Electrophysiological Signal Sensing, Md Faruk Hossain, Jae Sang Heo, John Nelson, Insoo Kim

Bioelectrics Publications

Flexible paper-based physiological sensor electrodes were developed using chemically-modified graphene (CG) and carboxylic-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (f@MWCNTs). A solvothermal process with additional treatment was conducted to synthesize CG and f@MWCNTs to make CG-f@MWCNT composites. The composite was sonicated in an appropriate solvent to make a uniform suspension, and then it was drop cast on a nylon membrane in a vacuum filter. A number of batches (0%~35% f@MWCNTs) were prepared to investigate the performance of the physical characteristics. The 25% f@MWCNT-loaded composite showed the best adhesion on the paper substrate. The surface topography and ...


Schrödinger Filtering: A Novel Technique For Removing Gradient Artifact From Electroencephalography Data Acquired During Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Gabriel Bruno Benigno Sep 2019

Schrödinger Filtering: A Novel Technique For Removing Gradient Artifact From Electroencephalography Data Acquired During Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Gabriel Bruno Benigno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are complementary modalities commonly acquired simultaneously to study brain function with high spatial and temporal resolution. The time-varying gradient fields from fMRI induce massive-amplitude artifacts (GRAs) that overlap in time and frequency with EEG, making GRA removal a challenge for which no satisfactory solution yet exists. We present a new GRA removal method termed Schrödinger filtering (SF). SF is based on semi-classical signal analysis in which a signal is decomposed into a series of energy-based components using the discrete spectrum of the Schrödinger operator. Using a publicly available dataset, we compared our ...


Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski Sep 2019

Target Detection In Heterogeneous Clutter With Low Resolution Radar, Kyle G. Stankowski

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis develops a framework for SAR target detection and super-resolution in low-resolution environments. The primary focus in this research is the background clutter heterogeneity that often accompanies low range and cross-range resolutions. A corrective model which accounts for clutter replacement is developed to define the detection and false alarm rates of the detector more accurately than a traditional model in which the radar return from the target supplements the existing clutter. In a heterogeneous clutter cell, the clutter replacement model leverages the different scattering distributions among the individual clutter types to generate a probability distribution function for the areas ...


A Harmless Wireless Quantum Alternative To Cell Phones Based On Quantum Noise, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Victor Christianto Sep 2019

A Harmless Wireless Quantum Alternative To Cell Phones Based On Quantum Noise, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Victor Christianto

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

In the meantime we know that 4G and 5G technologies cause many harms to human health. Therefore, here we submit a harmless wireless quantum alternative to cell phones. It is our hope that this alternative


Digital Holography Efficiency Experiments For Tactical Applications, Douglas E. Thornton Sep 2019

Digital Holography Efficiency Experiments For Tactical Applications, Douglas E. Thornton

Theses and Dissertations

Digital holography (DH) uses coherent detection and offers direct access to the complex-optical field to sense and correct image aberrations in low signal-to-noise environments, which is critical for tactical applications. The performance of DH is compared to a similar, well studied deep-turbulence wavefront sensor, the self-referencing interferometer (SRI), with known efficiency losses. Wave optics simulations with deep-turbulence conditions and noise were conducted and the results show that DH outperforms the SRI by 10's of dB due to DH's strong reference. Additionally, efficiency experiments were conducted to investigate DH system losses. The experimental results show that the mixing efficiency ...


Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado Sep 2019

Autonomous And Resilient Management Of All-Source Sensors For Navigation Assurance, Juan D. Jurado

Theses and Dissertations

All-source navigation has become increasingly relevant over the past decade with the development of viable alternative sensor technologies. However, as the number and type of sensors informing a system increases, so does the probability of corrupting the system with sensor modeling errors, signal interference, and undetected faults. Though the latter of these has been extensively researched, the majority of existing approaches have constrained faults to biases, and designed algorithms centered around the assumption of simultaneously redundant, synchronous sensors with valid measurement models, none of which are guaranteed for all-source systems. This research aims to provide all-source multi-sensor resiliency, assurance, and ...


Objective And Subjective Evaluation Of Binaural Beamformers In Hearing Aids, Scott Aker Aug 2019

Objective And Subjective Evaluation Of Binaural Beamformers In Hearing Aids, Scott Aker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hearing aids use a variety of noise reduction techniques to enhance the experience of hearing impaired listeners. One of these techniques is beamforming, which typically aims to preserve sounds coming from the front of the user and suppresses those from the sides and back. Recently, hearing aids have begun employing a wireless connection between the left and right hearing aids in order to augment the directionality of the beamformers, called binaural beamformers. However, the effect of these binaural beamformers on perceived quality and intelligibility has not been thoroughly tested. This thesis investigated the benchmarking of hearing aids which utilize binaural ...


The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez Aug 2019

The Umass Experimental X-Band Radar (Umaxx): An Upgrade Of The Casa Ma-1 To Support Cross-Polarization Measurements, Jezabel Vilardell Sanchez

Masters Theses

Ground-based radars are instruments commonly used to surveil the precipitation climate of the surrounding areas. Weather events are characterized by collecting backscatter data and analyzing computed products such as the Reflectivity Factor, the Doppler Velocity, the Spectrum Width, the Differential Reflectivity, the Co-polar Correlation Coefficient and the Differential Propagation Phase. The ability of the radar to transmit different polarization waves, such as horizontal and vertical polarization, allow for further analysis of the weather given the capability to perform co-polar and cross-polar measurements. The Linear Depolarization Ratio is another computed product based on the difference in power between the co-polarized and ...


Gaussian Conditionally Markov Sequences: Theory With Application, Reza Rezaie Aug 2019

Gaussian Conditionally Markov Sequences: Theory With Application, Reza Rezaie

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Markov processes have been widely studied and used for modeling problems. A Markov process has two main components (i.e., an evolution law and an initial distribution). Markov processes are not suitable for modeling some problems, for example, the problem of predicting a trajectory with a known destination. Such a problem has three main components: an origin, an evolution law, and a destination. The conditionally Markov (CM) process is a powerful mathematical tool for generalizing the Markov process. One class of CM processes, called $CM_L$, fits the above components of trajectories with a destination. The CM process combines the Markov ...


Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng Jul 2019

Sparsity In Machine Learning: An Information Selecting Perspective, Siwei Feng

Doctoral Dissertations

Today we are living in a world awash with data. Large volumes of data are acquired, analyzed and applied to tasks through machine learning algorithms in nearly every area of science, business, and industry. For example, medical scientists analyze the gene expression data from a single specimen to learn the underlying causes of disease (e.g. cancer) and choose the best treatment; retailers can know more about customers' shopping habits from retail data to adjust their business strategies to better appeal to customers; suppliers can enhance supply chain success through supply chain systems built on knowledge sharing. However, it is ...


A Discrete-Time Technique For Linearity Enhancement Of Wideband Receivers, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi Jul 2019

A Discrete-Time Technique For Linearity Enhancement Of Wideband Receivers, Mohammad Ghadiri Sadrabadi

Doctoral Dissertations

A new signal processing technique is introduced to enhance the linearity performance of wideband radio frequency (RF) receivers. The proposed technique combines the advancements in mixer first architectures with a library of binary sequences as local oscillator signals to enable wide instantaneous bandwidth and high linearity for the RF receiver. To do so, N-bit pseudo-random-binary-sequences (PRBS) are used as local oscillator signals. The RF input signal is multiplied with the PRBS at the mixer and then averaged over the full sequence. This in effect reduces the amplitude of the signal and improves the overall linearity of the system. In order ...


Interchangeable All Fiber-Based Passive Voa/Voc System, Andrei Statchevschi Jul 2019

Interchangeable All Fiber-Based Passive Voa/Voc System, Andrei Statchevschi

Publications and Research

A passive interchangeable variable optical coupler and attenuator system is demonstrated. A maximum coupling ratio of 99.94/0.06 and attenuation of up to 30 dB were achieved respectively.


Non-Intrusive Affective Assessment In The Circumplex Model From Pupil Diameter And Facial Expression Monitoring, Sudarat Tangnimitchok Jun 2019

Non-Intrusive Affective Assessment In The Circumplex Model From Pupil Diameter And Facial Expression Monitoring, Sudarat Tangnimitchok

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Automatic methods for affective assessment seek to enable computer systems to recognize the affective state of their users. This dissertation proposes a system that uses non-intrusive measurements of the user’s pupil diameter and facial expression to characterize his /her affective state in the Circumplex Model of Affect. This affective characterization is achieved by estimating the affective arousal and valence of the user’s affective state.

In the proposed system the pupil diameter signal is obtained from a desktop eye gaze tracker, while the face expression components, called Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) are obtained from a Microsoft Kinect module, which ...


Re-Annotation Of Cough Events In The Ami Corpus, Paul Leamy, Damon Berry, David Dorran, Ted Burke Jun 2019

Re-Annotation Of Cough Events In The Ami Corpus, Paul Leamy, Damon Berry, David Dorran, Ted Burke

Conference papers

Cough sounds act as an important indicator of an individual's physical health, often used by medical professionals in diagnosing a patient's ailments. In recent years progress has been made in the area of automatically detecting cough events and, in certain cases, automatically identifying the ailment associated with a particular cough sound. Ethical and sensitivity issues associated with audio recordings of coughs makes it more difficult for this data to be made publicly available. However, without the public availability of a reliable database of cough sounds, developments in the area of audio event detection are likely to be hampered ...


Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle Controller With Pid Stability Regulation, Christian E. Aguirre Jun 2019

Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle Controller With Pid Stability Regulation, Christian E. Aguirre

Electrical Engineering

The earth’s oceans and rivers remain widely unexplored. Hobbyists and companies across the globe invest money and resources into remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to further expand underwater knowledge. Each ROV includes a controller that operates motors and monitors other crucial system vitals. The ROV Controller project makes the process of designing an ROV simpler and more affordable by providing a multi-purpose programmable controller.

The ROV controller features programmable digital inputs/outputs and analog inputs. The controller processes control signals from analog joysticks, digital signals from a gyroscope and utilizes a MUX to expand the analog input capabilities of the ...


Pseudo-Stereo Audio Processor, Zachariah David Bunce Jun 2019

Pseudo-Stereo Audio Processor, Zachariah David Bunce

Electrical Engineering

Due to both technical and resource limitations, non-professional audio production must often record with a single microphone, creating a mono audio signal. Even some originally multi-channel audio files often combine the separate channels into a single channel to save memory. However, this channel limitation makes any music held within the audio duller during listening. The Pseudo-Stereo Audio Processor remedies this situation, introducing a quadrature phase shift onto a given single-channel audio signal, producing multiple phase shifted output signals. These separate fixed-phase output signals are then recombined to produce a variable phase difference, emulated two-channel version of the input signal, allowing ...


Virtual Eye: A Spatial-Temporal Bottom-Up Eye Sensitivity Model, Todd Goodall May 2019

Virtual Eye: A Spatial-Temporal Bottom-Up Eye Sensitivity Model, Todd Goodall

MODVIS Workshop

Video quality and compression models use the

spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF), which is solved

based on a linear system approximation. This function measures

the eye’s sensitivity to sinusoid gratings, ignoring the subtle

connectivity and inhomogeniety of cell density across the

visual field. Non-linear aspects of the eye, such as the change

in frequency sensitivity with changing illumination, are not

captured by this simple approximation. We propose Virtual

Eye, a bottom-up approach that models the spatio-temporal

dynamics of the eye across the visual field. Each functional

retinal cell layer in the eye is modeled using non-uniform spatial

cell responses ...


The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster May 2019

The Challenge For Vision Of Fluctuating Real-World Illumination, David H. Foster

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.