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2019

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni Dec 2019

Bio-Inspired Learning And Hardware Acceleration With Emerging Memories, Shruti R. Kulkarni

Dissertations

Machine Learning has permeated many aspects of engineering, ranging from the Internet of Things (IoT) applications to big data analytics. While computing resources available to implement these algorithms have become more powerful, both in terms of the complexity of problems that can be solved and the overall computing speed, the huge energy costs involved remains a significant challenge. The human brain, which has evolved over millions of years, is widely accepted as the most efficient control and cognitive processing platform. Neuro-biological studies have established that information processing in the human brain relies on impulse like signals emitted by neurons called …


Generating Energy Data For Machine Learning With Recurrent Generative Adversarial Networks, Mohammad Navid Fekri, Ananda M. Ghosh, Katarina Grolinger Dec 2019

Generating Energy Data For Machine Learning With Recurrent Generative Adversarial Networks, Mohammad Navid Fekri, Ananda M. Ghosh, Katarina Grolinger

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

The smart grid employs computing and communication technologies to embed intelligence into the power grid and, consequently, make the grid more efficient. Machine learning (ML) has been applied for tasks that are important for smart grid operation including energy consumption and generation forecasting, anomaly detection, and state estimation. These ML solutions commonly require sufficient historical data; however, this data is often not readily available because of reasons such as data collection costs and concerns regarding security and privacy. This paper introduces a recurrent generative adversarial network (R-GAN) for generating realistic energy consumption data by learning from real data. Generativea adversarial …


Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin Dec 2019

Finding A Viable Neural Network Architecture For Use With Upper Limb Prosthetics, Maxwell Lavin

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

This paper attempts to answer the question of if it’s possible to produce a simple, quick, and accurate neural network for the use in upper-limb prosthetics. Through the implementation of convolutional and artificial neural networks and feature extraction on electromyographic data different possible architectures are examined with regards to processing time, complexity, and accuracy. It is found that the most accurate architecture is a multi-entry categorical cross entropy convolutional neural network with 100% accuracy. The issue is that it is also the slowest method requiring 9 minutes to run. The next best method found was a single-entry binary cross entropy …


Rehabilitation Training System Of Vr-Based Speech Apraxia, Huanhuan Jiao, Zhigeng Pan, Shuchang Xu, Qingshu Yuan Dec 2019

Rehabilitation Training System Of Vr-Based Speech Apraxia, Huanhuan Jiao, Zhigeng Pan, Shuchang Xu, Qingshu Yuan

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the enthusiasm of active training in patients with traditional speech apraxia rehabilitation is gradually weakened, a virtual reality-based rehabilitation training system for speech apraxia is designed. The system simulates the 26 monosyllabic pronunciation mouths shapes made by virtual human in Chinese and uses it for the learning module. It is proposed to identify 26 monosyllabic words by using the isolated word speech recognition algorithm, which improves the accuracy of speech recognition. The system includes a training module and a scene module for assisting the patient's pronunciation rehabilitation training. The evaluation results show that …


Multi-Objective Optimization Design Of Aerodynamic Layout For Twin Swept-Wing Aircraft, Yuchang Lei, Dengcheng Zhang, Yanhua Zhang, Guangxu Su, Luo Hao, Zhan Ren Dec 2019

Multi-Objective Optimization Design Of Aerodynamic Layout For Twin Swept-Wing Aircraft, Yuchang Lei, Dengcheng Zhang, Yanhua Zhang, Guangxu Su, Luo Hao, Zhan Ren

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Multi-objective optimization of aerodynamic layout is a key technology in the design of vehicles. The overall configuration of the shape parameters is optimized with a double swept-shaped wave shape as the basic configuration. We use NSGA-Ⅱ multi-objective genetic algorithm, take the aircraft double sweep angle as the design variable, consider the maximum takeoff weight, range, volume ratio and other performance indicators, use Elman neural network to establish the relationship between shape parameters and performance parameters, and establish constraints based on mission planning requirements. The Pareto optimal solution set is obtained by using optimized design and the individuals with …


Pedestrian Navigation Method Based On Uwb And Sins, Yang Yang, Li Qing Dec 2019

Pedestrian Navigation Method Based On Uwb And Sins, Yang Yang, Li Qing

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: In view of the problem that the inertial navigation error is accumulating with time and UWB indoor is hard to continue tracking problems in complex environment, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) fusing UWB and sins pedestrian navigation is proposed.The zero speed correction algorithm is used to trigger EKF at zero speed. The sins is corrected by the velocity error measurement provided by sins and the position error measurement provided by UWB restraining error accumulation.When UWB signal is interrupted, the position of UWB output without interruption is taken as the starting position. The experiment results of SINS autonomous navigation …


Intelligent Collaborative Networking Method For Workshop Emergencies, Kong Tao, Wang Yan Dec 2019

Intelligent Collaborative Networking Method For Workshop Emergencies, Kong Tao, Wang Yan

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Due to the complex environment of intelligent manufacturing workshop, abnormal emergencies will cause huge security threats and economic losses to the workshop. It is difficult to transmit the abnormal event data continuously, quickly and completely in the workshop production site, and the fluctuation of abnormal event data is great with high requirements on the integrity and real-time of data transmission. In this paper, a multi-agent cooperative networking method for workshop emergencies is proposed. Mobile robots are introduced as intermediary Sink nodes for data transmission between sensor networks and the Internet. In case of emergencies, the intelligent node and cluster …


Intelligent Manufacturing Plan Management Based On Digital Twins, Yingying Xiao, Wang Mei, Liqin Guo, Xing Chi, Changhui Zhuang Dec 2019

Intelligent Manufacturing Plan Management Based On Digital Twins, Yingying Xiao, Wang Mei, Liqin Guo, Xing Chi, Changhui Zhuang

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: For the multi-variety and small-batch manufacturing mode, the planning management system cannot be timely automatically adjusted according to uncertain factors. This paper proposes an intelligent manufacturing plan management system based on factory digital twins. The plan management PDCA business process model is established. In addition, the processing logic model and constraints of the periodic static scheduling model and the dynamic emergency scheduling model are proposed. Based on the planning management case of hybrid assembly of two types of aerospace complex products, it is verified that the management model proposed in this paper can support the intelligent dynamic adjustment of …


Design Of Universal Control Load System Of Helicopter Flight Simulator, Chen Zhen, Haikuan Yang, Jiang Nan, Yuancheng Wang, Tianjiao Jiang Dec 2019

Design Of Universal Control Load System Of Helicopter Flight Simulator, Chen Zhen, Haikuan Yang, Jiang Nan, Yuancheng Wang, Tianjiao Jiang

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: To improve the universality and handling quality of control system of helicopter flight simulator, a universal control load system of helicopter flight simulator suitable for helicopter flight simulator is designed. The dynamic feedback model is proposed to solve the contradiction between control rigidity and stability, control precision and response frequency, the control rigidity and kinematic accuracy are improved.The operating load mechanism is designed, the system structure and drive system are simplified, the smoothness of force perception is improved; the third order smoothing algorithm and fieldbus technology based on EtherCAT are applied to improve the anti-jamming capability and response speed, …


Numerical Simulation Analysis Of Anti-Blast Impact Of Underground Rescue Capsule Based On Ls-Dyna, Zhang Fan, Yuanhua Yang, Xiaoxu He, Deng Yu Dec 2019

Numerical Simulation Analysis Of Anti-Blast Impact Of Underground Rescue Capsule Based On Ls-Dyna, Zhang Fan, Yuanhua Yang, Xiaoxu He, Deng Yu

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Aiming at the strength problem of the underground rescue cabin under explosion impact load, a finite element model of overall explosion impact load and fluid-solid coupling structure response is established in transient dynamic soft LS-DYNA. The flow field impact load is generated by explosion algorithm, and the propagation of the impact load in the air is calculated. The dynamic response of the rescue cabin structure under the impact load is calculated by the fluid-solid coupling method. The results show that the maximum load occurs on the end surface closest to the explosion source, and the structural deformation is small …


Synergic Production Scheduling Method For Distributed Multi-Plants Based On Fusion Decision Tree, Wang Yan, Tianlun Jiang Dec 2019

Synergic Production Scheduling Method For Distributed Multi-Plants Based On Fusion Decision Tree, Wang Yan, Tianlun Jiang

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: In the synergic production scheduling optimization problem of distributed multi-plants, it is necessary to consider the two stages of job allocation between factories and job scheduling in factories at the same time. This paper first establishes a distributed multi-plant scheduling model with total cost and advance/delay as the optimization objectives, and then proposes a nested optimization algorithm framework integrating ID3 decision tree with Gauss particle swarm optimization. In this framework, independent scheduling optimization within the factory is nested in the process of inter factory allocation optimization, and elite retention strategy is introduced to improve the algorithm optimization. In …


A Parallel Simulation Method For Combat Organization And Implementation, Yaxin Tan, Jianhua Luo, Fan Rui, Zhiming Dong Dec 2019

A Parallel Simulation Method For Combat Organization And Implementation, Yaxin Tan, Jianhua Luo, Fan Rui, Zhiming Dong

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Aiming at the difficult problem of battle parallel simulation, the realization of parallel simulation based on combat organization is analyzed theoretically. Furthermore, a parallel simulation based on combat organization is proposed. One by one, the methods of the simulation task partitioning, the simulation task integration and interaction between integration method are given. This paper breaks through the key technology of parallel simulation, based on the parallel simulation integration framework, implements the system integration, builds the parallel simulation prototype system of the size of the brigade, develops parallel simulation task allocation software, designs the operational application case, and tests parallel …


Research On Simulation Optimization Of Disk-Based Storage Operation Mode In Warehouse, Danlan Xie, Liu Meng, Haihong Yu, Chen Jing, Yubo Zhou, Kazi Mohiuddin Dec 2019

Research On Simulation Optimization Of Disk-Based Storage Operation Mode In Warehouse, Danlan Xie, Liu Meng, Haihong Yu, Chen Jing, Yubo Zhou, Kazi Mohiuddin

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: As the efficiency of operation affects the overall competitiveness of the port, it is very necessary to design the storage operation mode reasonably. A disk-based storage operation mode is proposed. And the simulation model is established by using the logistics simulation software FlexSim based on the operational requirements of the warehouse. Through a large number of simulation experiments, comparing the primary storage mode with the disk-based storage mode, the results of the increase in total idle rate and the more balanced distribution of each hour utilization ratio of the forklifts are obtained. The result verifies the feasibility and effectiveness …


Size Optimization Method Of 6r Manipulator Based On Global Maneuverability, Xianhua Li, Xuesong Shi, Lü Lei, Leigang Zhang, Song Tao Dec 2019

Size Optimization Method Of 6r Manipulator Based On Global Maneuverability, Xianhua Li, Xuesong Shi, Lü Lei, Leigang Zhang, Song Tao

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Aiming at the six-DOF manipulator of service robot, the structure size parameters are optimized and analyzed. The global manipulability index of the manipulator workspace is defined, the coordinate system of the position and attitude is established, and the reachability of the position and attitude is calculated with the inverse solution of the manipulator, and the global manipulability index of the manipulator is proposed. Taking the maximum value of this index as the optimization target, the size parameters of the connecting rod of the manipulator are optimized by genetic algorithm, the size of the optimized connecting rod and the global …


Design Of Combat Simulation And Visualization System Of Hypersonic Vehicle, Yu Ying, Weidong Liang, Xiujuan Zhu, Jianlin Wang, Wang Ling Dec 2019

Design Of Combat Simulation And Visualization System Of Hypersonic Vehicle, Yu Ying, Weidong Liang, Xiujuan Zhu, Jianlin Wang, Wang Ling

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Based on the thought of combat simulation, the system of combat simulation and visualization is designed to show the typical combat mode and the characteristics of near space vehicles. Taking the aircraft attacking a fixed target as an example, the formulation of combat plan, the deployment of forces and the design of combat process of both sides are realized. On the one hand, a combat simulation platform which covers various combat modes of attack and defense is established. On the other hand, the whole process of combat confrontation of hypersonic vehicles is presented, driven by the real-time simulation data. …


On Operational Experiment Systematization, Xiaogang Qiu, Duan Hong, Bin Chen Dec 2019

On Operational Experiment Systematization, Xiaogang Qiu, Duan Hong, Bin Chen

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: With the complexity of military simulation object, the way of operational experiment is changing. Based on the discussion of operational experiment requirements, we first present the concepts, objectives, requirements, ideas and related technologies of operational experiment systematization, discuss the requirements, objectives and tasks of the construction of the operational experiment system and point out that simulation engineering in military field is the basis of efficient systematic operational experiment. After that, we describe the concept of domain simulation briefly, and analyze the work needed to be carried out in military simulation engineering from the perspective of sharing the results of …


Design And Implement Of Semi Physical Simulation System For Underwater Acoustic Imaging, Ruonan Fan, Jijun Jiang, Naiwei Sun Dec 2019

Design And Implement Of Semi Physical Simulation System For Underwater Acoustic Imaging, Ruonan Fan, Jijun Jiang, Naiwei Sun

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: A semi physical simulation system based on underwater scale target and acoustic imaging is designed. Functional requirements are presented, the echo models of underwater scale target acoustic image are established through the planar element method, the structure, hardware and software are designed, the real-time signal generation techniques of applying the model to the simulation system are researched. The results of underwater experiment show that the simulation system can simulate the acoustic imaging echo signal of Benchmark submarine model, the imaging results are recognizable to some extent, it can be promoted to any underwater scale target and meet the …


Research On The Simulation Technology For Multi-Aerocraft Cooperative Guidance, Li Jing, Han Jian, Zhang Qing Dec 2019

Research On The Simulation Technology For Multi-Aerocraft Cooperative Guidance, Li Jing, Han Jian, Zhang Qing

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: The formal system of multi- aerocraft cooperative simulation system is identified as the discrete event system & different equation system specifications (DEV&DESS) through the analysis of the composition and running mechanism. The running control problem of cooperative simulation system is transformed into simulation control problem of a specific DEV&DESS system. A dynamic operation control method for cooperative guidance simulation system based on coordinator is proposed, and this method is validated by real-time mathematical simulation experiments.


Survey Of Vision-Based Augmented Reality 3d Registration Technology, Shouming Hou, Han Ji, Yudong Zhang, Ziqiu Zhu Dec 2019

Survey Of Vision-Based Augmented Reality 3d Registration Technology, Shouming Hou, Han Ji, Yudong Zhang, Ziqiu Zhu

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Three-dimensional registration technology is one of the core technologies for augmented reality system implementation. In recent years, with the maturity of augmented reality hardware technology and the expansion of application fields, vision-based three-dimensional registration technology has received more attention and development. This paper introduces the basic principles and classification methods of 3D registration technology, focuses on the analysis of the principles and research status of three kinds of visual three-dimensional registration technology based on artificial identification, natural feature points and model.Furthermore, the defects and treatment methods of three visual registration technologies are discussed. The development prospect of visual 3D …


Decision-Making Method For Formulating Spares Reserve Scheme Based On Deep Neural Network, Yunjing Zhang, Guangming Tang, Xiaoyu Xu Dec 2019

Decision-Making Method For Formulating Spares Reserve Scheme Based On Deep Neural Network, Yunjing Zhang, Guangming Tang, Xiaoyu Xu

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Spare parts classification is important for spare parts storage and is a key part of spare parts decision-making activities. This paper analyzes the factors affecting the reserve scheme of wartime spares. Then by analyzing the inherent attributes of wartime spares, two methods of spare parts classification are proposed to determine the variety and quantity of wartime spares based on deep neural network: (1) Ranks wartime spares according to their importance. A relatively simple deep neural network is used to analyze every attribute of the wartime spares in turn; (2) Inputs all the attributes of wartime spares into a relatively …


Moving Object Detection Based On Deep Convolutional Neural Network, Yuqiu Lu, Jinyu Sun, Shiwei Ma Dec 2019

Moving Object Detection Based On Deep Convolutional Neural Network, Yuqiu Lu, Jinyu Sun, Shiwei Ma

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: A deep convolution neural network MONet is designed for the intermittent motion problem in moving objects detection. In the absence of training data sets, a synthetic dataset GoChairs is generated by affine transformation, and on this basis the network training and testing are performed. The results show that the trained MONet can effectively detect the moving objects based on the correspondence between the pixels. The traditional datasets CDnet and I2R are also tested to verify the generalization performance of the network. In addition, MONet is compared qualitatively and quantitatively with classical methods for the intermittent motion problem of …


Intelligent Fire Rescue Based On Internet Of Things And Virtual Reality, Fengting Yan, Zhicai Shi, Qianmin Su, Dong Jing, Jue Chen, Yunyu Shi, Tang Xian Dec 2019

Intelligent Fire Rescue Based On Internet Of Things And Virtual Reality, Fengting Yan, Zhicai Shi, Qianmin Su, Dong Jing, Jue Chen, Yunyu Shi, Tang Xian

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: The integration of virtual reality, Internet of Things and artificial intelligence can provide intelligent WebVR interaction for fire rescue decision-making. However, it is necessary to solve the problems of data lightweight, real-time data transmission based on the Internet of Things, and visualization of fire scenario data on the web, and to build effective mechanisms and algorithms. This paper proposes an intelligent fire rescue (IVIFR) mechanism based on the integration of Internet of Things and Virtual Reality, gives a virtual intelligent fire rescue (VIFR) algorithm, and constructs a prototype system of intelligent fire rescue. The VIFR algorithm …


Modeling And Simulation Of Complex Equipment Health Management System Based On Cloud Computing, Tianrui Zhang, Chuansheng Qu, Baoku Wu, Jianan Xu Dec 2019

Modeling And Simulation Of Complex Equipment Health Management System Based On Cloud Computing, Tianrui Zhang, Chuansheng Qu, Baoku Wu, Jianan Xu

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: For complex equipment operation safely, the health management problems of complex equipment life cycle is analyzed. In order to realize remote service, complex equipment health management mode based on cloud computing is proposed. Aiming at the accuracy problem in the process of extracting and recognizing complex equipment characteristic data, the feature knowledge acquisition method based on ontology is researched, and the expression and acquisition algorithm of state characteristic knowledge is proposed. A task sequencing algorithm faults based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is proposed, an appropriate task assignment model is selected for scheduling health management technicians. …


Research On Eye Location And Head State Detection Based On Integrated Learning, Yingnian Wu, Mengjia He, Xiang Wei Dec 2019

Research On Eye Location And Head State Detection Based On Integrated Learning, Yingnian Wu, Mengjia He, Xiang Wei

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: For real-time detection of eye location problem, a real-time detection system of human eye based on Viola Jones algorithm is designed. Through the MATLAB, the real-time reading and positioning of the detected human eye pictures are controlled by the external or webcam. Through side view, top view, and upward view, it is shown that the human eye real-time positioning system has good detection effect and robustness. In view of the poor classification effect of small data sets on the head state, the random forest algorithm is used to classify the pitching Angle and yaw Angle by HOG-LBP fusion feature …


Simulation Of Vehicle Startup Delay At Green Light And Its Direct And Chain-Reaction Impact On Traffic Flow, Longxi Luo, Lijun Xie, Jianping Wu, Xu Ming Dec 2019

Simulation Of Vehicle Startup Delay At Green Light And Its Direct And Chain-Reaction Impact On Traffic Flow, Longxi Luo, Lijun Xie, Jianping Wu, Xu Ming

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: In current traffic simulations, it is implicitly assumed vehicles are driven by ideal drivers. Therefore, simulated vehicles make the most reasonable decisions such as moving out immediately when traffic lights turn green, resulting in a gap between simulations and real traffics. Research shows that drivers, including those who follow the rules, show a delay in starting-up their vehicles at the green light. The vehicle startup delay (SUD) is even more significant for drivers by things such as cell phones during waiting. However, the SUD has rarely been considered in simulations. The SUD is simulated to study its impacts on …


Microscopic Simulation Based Evaluation Of Congestion Pricing For Beijing Urban Area, Jingchen Dai, Ruimin Li Dec 2019

Microscopic Simulation Based Evaluation Of Congestion Pricing For Beijing Urban Area, Jingchen Dai, Ruimin Li

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: In order to study the potential effect of congestion charging policy in large-scale road network, a micro-simulation platform Paramics is used to establish a simulation model within Beijing fourth ring road. On this basis, multiple congestion pricing scenarios are assessed in consideration of charging zones size, charging rate, and travel mode shift. When the travel mode shift is put aside, the analysis shows that selecting a larger charging zone is more effective on reducing vehicle kilometers of travel and may increase the total charge revenue. However, congestion pricing appears no potential to significantly affect the average speed of …


Numerical Simulation Of Rock Breaking Mechanism For Compound Percussion Drilling, Yumei Li, Liwei Yu, Zhang Tao, Su Zhong, Jianming Liu Dec 2019

Numerical Simulation Of Rock Breaking Mechanism For Compound Percussion Drilling, Yumei Li, Liwei Yu, Zhang Tao, Su Zhong, Jianming Liu

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: The ABAQUS dynamic impact module is used to establish the numerical calculation model for PDC single tooth-rock impact. The effects of PDC cutting teeth on the dynamic rock breaking mode and rock breaking effect under the combined action of rotating speed, drilling pressure, alternating impact torque and alternating impact force are studied. The study shows that the torsional impact mode is 39.28% higher than the rock breaking efficiency of the rotary impact, and the compound percussion mode is 27.79% higher than the rock breaking efficiency of the torsional impact. Under the same conditions of impact time, the rock surface …


Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Based On Improved Firefly Algorithm, Jiale Ding, Guochu Chen, Kuo Yuan Dec 2019

Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Based On Improved Firefly Algorithm, Jiale Ding, Guochu Chen, Kuo Yuan

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: A wind power prediction model based on improved complementary set empirical mode decomposition and improved firefly algorithm to optimize echo state network is proposed to solve the problems of low accuracy in wind power with large randomness and strong volatility prediction of traditional echo state network prediction model. The wind speed series are decomposed into a series of intrinsic modes by using the improved complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition. The new modes are used to predict wind power by using echo state network, the optimal weight of the model is found by the improved firefly algorithm. The output results …


Path Planning For Mobile Sink Based On Enhanced Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm In Wireless Sensor Networks, Shanshan Ji Dec 2019

Path Planning For Mobile Sink Based On Enhanced Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm In Wireless Sensor Networks, Shanshan Ji

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: To reduce the energy consumption and sink mobile distance of mobile sink wireless sensor networks simultaneously, a path planning algorithm for mobile sink based on enhanced ant colony optimization algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. Genetic operators are introduced to ant colony optimization algorithm in order to prevent ant colony optimization premature. The non-uniform of data distribution is considered as the constraint condition, the network lifetime and sink mobile distance are considered as a multi-objective problem, and the enhanced ant colony optimization is adopted to search the Pareto sub-optimal sets of rendezvous points. The simulation results show that …


Attitude Control Of Hypersonic Vehicle Considering Input Saturation, Xiaocen Liu, Yunjie Wu, Xu Peng Dec 2019

Attitude Control Of Hypersonic Vehicle Considering Input Saturation, Xiaocen Liu, Yunjie Wu, Xu Peng

Journal of System Simulation

Abstract: Aiming at the design of attitude control of hypersonic vehicles, the sliding mode disturbance observer is used to compensate the composite disturbance, meanwhile the dynamic surface control method is used to deal with the design of the nonlinear control system. Considering the input saturation problem, the control input is expanded into a new variable to design the controller, which is different from the direct limit of the rudder deviation. The simulation results show that the dynamic surface control method based on sliding mode observer has stronger robustness than the simple dynamic inversion control method, but the control inputs of …