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Environmental Engineering

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 115

Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Effective Medium Equations For Chemotaxis In Porous Media, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada, Mark L. Porter, K. Narayanaswamy, Roseanne Ford, Brian D. Wood Dec 2008

Effective Medium Equations For Chemotaxis In Porous Media, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada, Mark L. Porter, K. Narayanaswamy, Roseanne Ford, Brian D. Wood

Francisco J. Valdes-Parada

Biodegradation is an important mechanism for contaminant reduction in groundwater environments; in fact, in-situ bioremediation and bioaugmentation methods represent alternatives to traditional methods such as pump-and-treat. Chemotaxis has shown to enhance bacterial transport toward or away from concentration gradients of chemical species in laboratory experiments and can signifficantly increase contaminant flux undergoing degradation at the interfaces of lowand high-permeability regions. In this work, the method of volume averaging is used to upscale the microscale description of chemotactic microbial transport in order to obtain the corresponding macroscale equations for bacteria and the attractant. As a first apprach, cellular growth/death and ...


Separation Of Time Scales For Transient Dispersion, Mark L. Porter, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada, Brian D. Wood Dec 2008

Separation Of Time Scales For Transient Dispersion, Mark L. Porter, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada, Brian D. Wood

Francisco J. Valdes-Parada

No abstract provided.


Green Roofs For A Green Town: Possibilities Of Green Roof Implementation In The Town Of Normal, Lindsey Sihau, '09 Dec 2008

Green Roofs For A Green Town: Possibilities Of Green Roof Implementation In The Town Of Normal, Lindsey Sihau, '09

Outstanding Senior Seminar Papers

Green roofs have been growing in popularity throughout the world. Scientists have been studying them since the 1980’s. This research project reviews the literature regarding both the benefits and barriers to green roof construction and management. Policies around the nation are then examined and analyzed. Suggestions are made regarding possible additions to the local Stormwater Management Policy that would emphasize the importance of sustainable building techniques such as green roofs, and hopefully offer incentive to their implementation.


Experimental And Modeling Studies For Optimizing Flocculant-Aided Sediment Retention Ponds, Byung Joon Lee Dec 2008

Experimental And Modeling Studies For Optimizing Flocculant-Aided Sediment Retention Ponds, Byung Joon Lee

All Dissertations

Attempts to control sediment-containing runoff and associated water quality problems have involved the establishment of many small to medium sediment retention ponds and the injection of nonionic and anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants to enhance colloid removal. However, to date use has been driven more by practicing engineers and trial-and-error approaches than by logical and consistent design approaches. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to optimize colloidal clay removal in PAM-aided sediment retention ponds by applying experimental and theoretical methodologies.
Initially, simple measurement techniques for the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of various PAMs were tested and their ...


Measuring And Modeling Of Plant Root Uptake Of Organic Chemicals, Erik Dettenmaier Dec 2008

Measuring And Modeling Of Plant Root Uptake Of Organic Chemicals, Erik Dettenmaier

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Determining the root uptake of xenobiotic organic chemicals into plants is critical for assessing the human and ecological health risks associated with the consumption of plants growing in contaminated environments. Root uptake of xenobiotic organics occurs passively in conjunction with transpiration and the transport from root to shoot is ultimately controlled by passage through one or more lipid root membranes. The transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), the ratio between the concentration of a chemical in the xylem to that in the solution used by the roots, is used to describe the relative ability of an organic chemical to be passively ...


Bioflocculation For Control Of Wastewater Pond Microalgae, Daniel Thomas Frost Dec 2008

Bioflocculation For Control Of Wastewater Pond Microalgae, Daniel Thomas Frost

Master's Theses

Investigates several hypotheses regarding the use of bioflocculation as a harvesting method for wastewater pond microalgae. Research performed on pilot-scale high rate ponds (HRPs) on the California Central Coast.


Identification Of Chlorinated Solvent Sources In The Indoor Air Of Private Residences Around Hill Air Force Base, Utah, Andrew Jensen Hall Dec 2008

Identification Of Chlorinated Solvent Sources In The Indoor Air Of Private Residences Around Hill Air Force Base, Utah, Andrew Jensen Hall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Volatile chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA), and perchloroethylene (PCE) have been identified in the indoor air of residences located near Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Utah. These vapors can originate from either volatilization of contaminates from shallow contaminated groundwater and transport into residences or from sources within the residence. The focus of the thesis was the development of a testing strategy for determining sources of TCE, 1,2 DCA, and PCE in the indoor air of residences near Hill AFB. Eight residences were selected for this study by Hill AFB based on prior ...


Dechlorinating And Iron Reducing Bacteria Distribution In A Trichloroethene Contaminated Aquifer, Carmen Lourdes Yupanqui Zaa Dec 2008

Dechlorinating And Iron Reducing Bacteria Distribution In A Trichloroethene Contaminated Aquifer, Carmen Lourdes Yupanqui Zaa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Operable Unit 5 (OU 5) area of Hill Air Force Base currently has two trichloroethene-contaminated groundwater plumes underneath residential areas in Sunset and Clinton, Utah. Bioremediation by biological reductive dechlorination can be an important mechanism for the removal of chlorinated compounds from the plumes. The presence of suitable bacteria to carry on reductive dechlorination is the key in the bioremediation process. The goal of this study was to determine the distribution and population density of the 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria, Dehalococcoides ethenogenes, Desulfuromonas michiganensis, Geobacter spp and Rhodoferax ferrireducens-like bacteria, as well as the functional genes trichloroethene reductive ...


Volatilization Of Trichloroethylene From Shallow Subsurface Environments: Trees And Soil, Rachel Melanie Winters Dec 2008

Volatilization Of Trichloroethylene From Shallow Subsurface Environments: Trees And Soil, Rachel Melanie Winters

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Results from two previous studies conducted at Operable Unit 2 (OU2) of Hill Air Force Base, Utah indicate that the phytovolatilization (volatilization from leaves and trunk) of TCE by indigenous trees as well as soil surface flux may play a significant role in the removal of TCE from shallow groundwater plumes around the base. Previous studies investigated late summer and early autumn TCE leaf volatilization but no attempt was made to examine potential TCE volatilization seasonal variability and the volatilization of TCE directly from tree trunks. Whole tree transpiration rates were also not directly measured. To address those limitations and ...


Uptake And Release Kinetics Of Sulfolane By Cattail Plants, Tiffany Leo Dec 2008

Uptake And Release Kinetics Of Sulfolane By Cattail Plants, Tiffany Leo

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene 1,1-dioxide, C4H8O2S) is a highly water-soluble, non-ionizable, organic compound used along with diisopropanolamine in the SulfinolTM process to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Sulfolane has been identified in wetland vegetation near a sour gas processing facility in Alberta, Canada, and extensive uptake of sulfolane by cattails has also been demonstrated in a laboratory environment. Consequently, it has been suggested that plants could play an important role in the natural attenuation of sulfolane in contaminated wetlands. This assumes that the sulfolane is metabolized and/or sequestered in the plant and not released back into the environment during ...


The Influence Of Debris Cages On Critical Submergence Of Vertical Intakes In Reservoirs, Skyler D. Allen Dec 2008

The Influence Of Debris Cages On Critical Submergence Of Vertical Intakes In Reservoirs, Skyler D. Allen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study quantifies the influence of debris cages on critical submergence at vertical intakes in reservoir configurations. Four model debris cages were constructed of light panel material. A vertical intake protruding one pipe diameter above the floor of a model reservoir was tested in six configurations: open intake pipe, a debris grate placed directly over the intake pipe, and debris cages representing widths of 1.5*d and 2*d and heights of 1.5*c and 2*c, where d is diameter of the intake and c is height of intake above reservoir floor. A selection of top grating ...


Rank-Data Distribution Method (R-D Method) For Daily Time-Series Bayesian Networks And Total Maximum Daily Load Estimation, Joon-Hee Lee Dec 2008

Rank-Data Distribution Method (R-D Method) For Daily Time-Series Bayesian Networks And Total Maximum Daily Load Estimation, Joon-Hee Lee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Daily time series-based models are required to estimate the higher frequency fluctuations of nutrient loads and concentrations. Some mechanistic mathematical models can provide daily time series outputs of nutrient concentrations but it is difficult to incorporate non-numerical data, such as management scenarios, to mechanistic mathematical models. Bayesian networks (BNs) were designed to accept and process inputs of varied types of both numerical and non-numerical inputs. A Rank-Data distribution method (R-D method) was developed to provide large time series of daily predicted flows and Total Phosphorus (TP) loads to BNs driving daily time series estimates of T-P concentrations into Hyrum and ...


Evaluation Of Arrayed-Field Concentration Measurements And U. S. Epa-Regulatory Models For The Determination Of Mixed-Source Particulate Matter Emissions, Derek Jones Dec 2008

Evaluation Of Arrayed-Field Concentration Measurements And U. S. Epa-Regulatory Models For The Determination Of Mixed-Source Particulate Matter Emissions, Derek Jones

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the continued population growth and the blurring of the urban and rural interface, air quality impacts associated with agricultural particle-producing processes are becoming increasingly important. There is a lack of emission rate data from these source types and no prescribed measurement technique available to the agricultural and regulatory communities. One technique that has shown promise is combining field measurements with inverse modeling. This approach was used herein to examine particulate emissions from an almond harvesting operation, a cotton ginning facility, and comparative emissions from conservation versus conventional tillage practices. EPAapproved models ISCST3 and AERMOD were used with AirMetrics samplers ...


Estimating Total Phosphorus And Total Suspended Solids Loads From High Frequency Data, Amber Spackman Jones Dec 2008

Estimating Total Phosphorus And Total Suspended Solids Loads From High Frequency Data, Amber Spackman Jones

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Frequently measured turbidity was examined as a surrogate for total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) loads at two locations in the Little Bear River, Utah, USA. Using regression techniques, equations were developed for TP and TSS as functions of turbidity. The equations accounted for censored data, and additional explanatory variables to represent hydrological conditions were considered for inclusion in the equations. By using the resulting surrogate relationships with high frequency turbidity measurements, high frequency estimates of TP and TSS concentrations were calculated. To examine the effect of sampling frequency, reference loads were determined from the concentration records for ...


Hydrogen Production By Anaerobic Fermentation Using Agricultural And Food Processing Wastes Utilizing A Two-Stage Digestion System, Reese S. Thompson Dec 2008

Hydrogen Production By Anaerobic Fermentation Using Agricultural And Food Processing Wastes Utilizing A Two-Stage Digestion System, Reese S. Thompson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogen production by means of anaerobic fermentation was researched utilizing three different substrates. Synthetic wastewater, dairy manure, and cheese whey were combined together at different concentrations under batch anaerobic conditions to determine the optimal hydrogen producing potential and waste treatment of each. Cheese whey at a concentration of 55% was combined with dairy manure at a concentration of 45% to produce 1.53 liters of hydrogen per liter of substrate. These results are significant because the control, synthetic wastewater, which was a glucose-based substrate, produced less hydrogen, 1.34 liters per liter of substrate, than the mixture of cheese whey ...


Site Response Zones And Short-Period Earthquake Ground Motion Projections For The Las Vegas Basin, Barbara Luke, Ying Liu Nov 2008

Site Response Zones And Short-Period Earthquake Ground Motion Projections For The Las Vegas Basin, Barbara Luke, Ying Liu

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements were collected from which characteristic shear wave velocity profiles were developed for each response unit. An equivalent-linear one-dimensional site response model was used. The model was calibrated using a basin-wide, small-strain ground motion database. Calibration tests showed that ground motion ...


Characterizing Anomalous Ground For Engineering Applications Using Surface-Based Seismic Methods, Barbara Luke, Wanda Taylor, Carlos Calderon-Macias, Xiaohui Jin, Helena Murvosh, Jeff Wagoner Nov 2008

Characterizing Anomalous Ground For Engineering Applications Using Surface-Based Seismic Methods, Barbara Luke, Wanda Taylor, Carlos Calderon-Macias, Xiaohui Jin, Helena Murvosh, Jeff Wagoner

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

Shallow seismics are in demand today in tectonically active regions to characterize and classify sites for earthquake response studies. The surface-based seismic methods are the most widely used for this purpose. In developed areas, the passive-source methods, also known as microtremor methods, are popular because of their efficiency and because the available frequency content is appropriate to determine an average shear-wave velocity for the upper 30 m. This information is required by the International Building Code, which is used by many municipalities in the US and elsewhere.


Creating Useful Products From Connecticut's 2000 Lidar Data Set Jhr 08-314 Project 07-2, Thomas H. Meyer Oct 2008

Creating Useful Products From Connecticut's 2000 Lidar Data Set Jhr 08-314 Project 07-2, Thomas H. Meyer

Department of Natural Resources and the Environment Articles

The State of Connecticut owns a LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data set that was collected in 2000 as part of the State’s periodic aerial reconnaissance missions. Although collected eight years ago, these data are just now becoming ready to be made available to the public. These data constitute a massive “point cloud”, being a long list of east-north-up triplets in the State Plane Coordinate System Zone 0600 (SPCS83 0600), orthometric heights (NAVD 88) in US Survey feet. Unfortunately, point clouds have no structure or organization, and consequently they are not as useful as Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs), digital ...


Ocena Wpływu Arcelormittal Poland S.A. Oddział W Krakowie Na Jakość Powietrza, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Przemysław Szczygłowski Oct 2008

Ocena Wpływu Arcelormittal Poland S.A. Oddział W Krakowie Na Jakość Powietrza, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki, Przemysław Szczygłowski

Robert Oleniacz

The work presents selected results of atmospheric dispersion modeling and air quality impact assessment for pollutant emissions from installations of ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. Unit in Krakow (Poland). The assessment was carried out for the most unfavourable emission variant probable to take place in the period 2007-2016. In the calculations were taken into consideration typical for steelworks particle matter pollutants (total dust, heavy metals, tar substances and PAHs including benzo-a-piren) and gaseous substances (SO2, NO2, CO, HC, HCl, HF, NH3, HCN, H2S, CS2, H2SO4, BTX, phenol and pyridine). As the result of estimations, carried out according to the Polish reference ...


Ocena Wielkości Emisji Do Powietrza Z Arcelormittal Poland S.A. Oddział W Krakowie W Odniesieniu Do Standardów Unii Europejskiej, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz Oct 2008

Ocena Wielkości Emisji Do Powietrza Z Arcelormittal Poland S.A. Oddział W Krakowie W Odniesieniu Do Standardów Unii Europejskiej, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

The work presents emission factors of main air pollutants for installations of ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. Unit in Krakow (Poland) in comparison with analogous characteristic emissions for iron and steel industry in West Europe. In the comparison four installations (to coke, sinter, pig iron and steel production) were taken into consideration. The emission rates from ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. Unit in Krakow were estimated on the basis of the emission levels and production data from 2004, when took place the most significant production of liquid steel during last several years. As a result of the analysis, most the emission factors ...


European Climate Policy And The Position Of Cyprus, Theodoros Zachariadis Oct 2008

European Climate Policy And The Position Of Cyprus, Theodoros Zachariadis

Theodoros Zachariadis

No abstract provided.


Modelado Matemático En Ingeniería, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada Oct 2008

Modelado Matemático En Ingeniería, Francisco J. Valdes-Parada

Francisco J. Valdes-Parada

En esta plática se discute de una manera sencilla la importancia que tiene el modelado matemático en Ingeniería. Para ello, se presenta una visión personal sobre el papel que juegan asignaturas como fenómenos de transporte y termodinámica en la formación de licenciatura y posgrado en Ingeniería. Más aún, con el objetivo de ilustrar la importancia de los cambios de escala que frecuentemente aparecen en Ingeniería, se analiza el caso del flujo de un soluto a través de tubos capilares. De esta manera, se tiene un sistema donde a escala microscópica son relevantes la difusión (radial y axial) y convección (axial ...


Effect Of Nitrification On Lead Corrosion In Chloraminated Distribution Systems, Michael Shade Sep 2008

Effect Of Nitrification On Lead Corrosion In Chloraminated Distribution Systems, Michael Shade

All Theses

Water treatment facilities have been shifting from using chlorination to chloramination as a primary disinfectant since 2004, when the EPA enacted the Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products (D/DBP) Rule mandating the decrease of DBPs. After the switch to chloramination, an unexpected lead concentration increase was detected in the Washington, D. C., and Greenville, NC water systems. These increases may be associated with the switch from chlorination to chloramination. Decomposition of chloramines results in higher ammonia loading to drinking water distribution systems, which may increase nitrification. Nitrifying bacteria may facilitate lead corrosion via two mechanisms: use of nitrite or nitrate as an ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Greenroof Designs Including Depth Of Media, Drainage Layer Materials, And Pollution Control Mediaa, Martin Wanielista, Michael Hardin Sep 2008

A Comparative Analysis Of Greenroof Designs Including Depth Of Media, Drainage Layer Materials, And Pollution Control Mediaa, Martin Wanielista, Michael Hardin

BMP Trains Research and Publications

No abstract provided.


Disinfection Byproduct (Dbp) Precursors In Central Ma, Cynthia M. Castellon Sep 2008

Disinfection Byproduct (Dbp) Precursors In Central Ma, Cynthia M. Castellon

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Masters Projects

Controlling disinfection byproduct formation is one of the biggest challenges facing drinking water providers. This report examines two issues regarding disinfection byproducts in public water systems: 1) watershed sources of DBP precursors and watershed characteristics, such as precipitation, season, and land use, which influence DBP formation; and, 2) factors, such as treatment practices, season, and raw water quality, that affect DBP formation at water treatment plants and in distribution systems. In order to analyze these issues, this project utilized two databases, one consisting of DBP precursor data from Wachusett Reservoir located in Central Massachusetts, and the other consisting of historical ...


Cryptosporidium Outbreak (Water Treatment Failure): North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Spring 2001, Patrick B. Jameson, Yung-Tse Hung, Chin Y. Kuo, Paul A. Bosela Sep 2008

Cryptosporidium Outbreak (Water Treatment Failure): North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Spring 2001, Patrick B. Jameson, Yung-Tse Hung, Chin Y. Kuo, Paul A. Bosela

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in the town of North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada in the spring of 2001. The outbreak left thousands of people sick including about 50 people hospitalized. The source of the outbreak was from the city's surface water treatment plant. The Sedimentation Contact Unit did not satisfactorily remove suspended solids from the source water, resulting in filter breakthrough. Contaminated water was released into the distribution system causing the outbreak. Communication breakdown and confusion exacerbated the situation, extending the duration of the outbreak. The outbreak prompted the province to change the way it regulated municipal utilities of ...


Bypass Flow And Ozone Proportion Method And System, Johannes Van Leeuwen, Michael D. Jennings, Richard A. Mueller, Jack H. Robinson Aug 2008

Bypass Flow And Ozone Proportion Method And System, Johannes Van Leeuwen, Michael D. Jennings, Richard A. Mueller, Jack H. Robinson

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Patents

A method and system of ozone treatment diverts a portion of water from a flow of water in a conduit; injects an ozone-containing gas into the portion to provide an ozonated portion; recombines the ozonated portion with the flow of water in the conduit; and regulates the diverted portion to provide a minimum diverted portion flow rate according to flow in the conduit and proportion of ozone in the injected gas.


Ozone Retention Method And System, Johannes Van Leeuwen, Michael D. Jennings, Richard A. Mueller, Jack H. Robinson Aug 2008

Ozone Retention Method And System, Johannes Van Leeuwen, Michael D. Jennings, Richard A. Mueller, Jack H. Robinson

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Patents

A method and system of ozone treatment diverts a portion of water from a flow of water in a conduit, injects ozone into the portion to provide an ozonated portion, and recombines the ozonated portion with the flow of water in the conduit. Another method and system identifies a species-destructive reaction product of ozone with a water constituent, determines a life of the reaction product, and contacts ozone with a water containing the species for a period determined according to the determined life of the reaction product.


Development Of A Problem-Based Learning (Pbl) And Cooperative Learning (Cl) Transportation Engineering Course For Undergraduate Students, Deogratias Eustace Aug 2008

Development Of A Problem-Based Learning (Pbl) And Cooperative Learning (Cl) Transportation Engineering Course For Undergraduate Students, Deogratias Eustace

Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Faculty Publications

This study reports the findings of a project that was done during the implementation of a problem-based learning (PBL) and cooperative learning (CL) elements into an undergraduate transportation engineering course. The study procedure used the student course evaluations, including a survey questionnaire, and university-wide standardized student evaluations. Additionally, student homework, tests, and exam grades were used as part of the evaluation process. Two methods of teaching formats were evaluated: the traditional teaching method of lecturing and using end-of-chapter book questions for homework assignments and the new currently used teaching method of student field data collection, preparation of a lab report ...


Spatial Variability Of Radionuclide Distribution Coefficients At The Savannah River Site And The Sub-Surface Transport Implications, Kelly Grogan Aug 2008

Spatial Variability Of Radionuclide Distribution Coefficients At The Savannah River Site And The Sub-Surface Transport Implications, Kelly Grogan

All Theses

Distribution coefficients, Kd, were measured for a suite of gamma-emitting radionuclides in uncontaminated soils from the E-Area burial grounds at the Savannah River Site. The objectives of the study were to (1) characterize the spatial variability of Kd, (2) evaluate the effect of spatial variability on vadose zone transport, and (3) develop statistical models for predicting Kd from physical or chemical characteristics.
Equilibrium batch sorption tests were performed on 27 soil samples collected from depths ranging from 11 ft to 100 ft from the BGO-3A core with 241Am, 109Cd, 139Ce, 137Cs, 57Co, 60Co, 203Hg, 85Sr, and 88Y. Distribution coefficients were ...