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Special education

2021

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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Why, The Who, The How… A Guide To Planning Effective, Collaborative, Person-Centered Transition Services For Students With Disabilities, Kristie Covington, Lorita Rowlett Dec 2021

The Why, The Who, The How… A Guide To Planning Effective, Collaborative, Person-Centered Transition Services For Students With Disabilities, Kristie Covington, Lorita Rowlett

Kentucky Teacher Education Journal: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Kentucky Council for Exceptional Children

Providing effective transition services and plans for students with disabilities can seem like a daunting task to special education teachers and supporting agencies. Planning effective collaboration and coordination between stakeholders increases the likelihood that students with disabilities will graduate high school and participate in desired postsecondary activities, be it paid employment or postsecondary education (NTACT, 2019). Many special education teachers and supporting agencies are unsure where to start when planning and coordinating transition services; in response we created a document that can be used as a guidance and planning tool to design effective, person-centered, collaborative transition services. The planning tool …


Race, Dis/Ability, And The Potential Of The Co-Taught Classroom: Exploring Co-Teachers' Interruptions Of Inequity, Mallory A. Locke Dec 2021

Race, Dis/Ability, And The Potential Of The Co-Taught Classroom: Exploring Co-Teachers' Interruptions Of Inequity, Mallory A. Locke

Theses and Dissertations

Although the co-taught classroom is the fastest-growing inclusion model in U.S. public schools, an increasingly-diverse student population coupled with the continued overrepresentation of students of color in special education threatens to undermine its potential as an inclusive space that ensures success for all students. This multiphase, critical qualitative study explored how three pairs of co-teachers navigated race and dis/ability within co-taught classroom spaces serving students with multiple, intersecting identities. Informed by Disability Critical Race Theory (DisCrit), Critical Race Spatial Analysis, and the DisCrit Classroom Ecology framework, this study sought to examine how co-teachers’ own educational histories and beliefs about race …


Rural Leaders’ Experiences Implementing Fape For Students With Intellectual Disabilities, Jessica J. Vogel Dec 2021

Rural Leaders’ Experiences Implementing Fape For Students With Intellectual Disabilities, Jessica J. Vogel

Dissertations and Theses

To provide effective leadership and ensure students with intellectual disabilities are receiving an appropriate education, principals must understand the substantial needs of these students. The experiences of rural principals’ leadership in providing a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) for students with intellectual disabilities are not well known. In this study, I sought to describe the experiences of remote rural principals in South Dakota in providing FAPE for students with intellectual disabilities. Eight principals of remote rural school districts, with at least one year of leadership experience, participated in this study. This phenomenological study utilized structured interviews to collect data. …


Working Toward “Achievement”: Key Considerations For Providing Access To Equitable Opportunities To Students With Disability Labels, Kyle William Resch Dec 2021

Working Toward “Achievement”: Key Considerations For Providing Access To Equitable Opportunities To Students With Disability Labels, Kyle William Resch

Theses and Dissertations

School personnel are accountable for the academic “achievement” of students with and without disability labels (Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA], 2015). In Wisconsin, “achievement” is measured via performance on standardized academic assessments (Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction [DPI], 2019). The use of these assessments privileges White middle-class students without disability labels (Ladson-Billings, 2006). Outcomes have been used to shame schools’ so-called poor performance while ignoring other indicators of success such as instilling real-world problem-solving skills, building positive learning communities, using a critical lens, and engaging in social activism (Connor et al., 2019).Many students with disability labels now receive instruction in …


Protocol: Teacher Professional Development For Disability Inclusion In Low- And Middle-Income Asia-Pacific Countries: An Evidence And Gap Map, Syeda Kashfee Ahmed, David Jeffries, Anannya Chakraborty, Petra Lietz, Amit Kaushik, Budiarti Rahayu, David Armstrong, Kris Sundarsagar Dec 2021

Protocol: Teacher Professional Development For Disability Inclusion In Low- And Middle-Income Asia-Pacific Countries: An Evidence And Gap Map, Syeda Kashfee Ahmed, David Jeffries, Anannya Chakraborty, Petra Lietz, Amit Kaushik, Budiarti Rahayu, David Armstrong, Kris Sundarsagar

Assessment and Reporting

According to prior research, teacher readiness and capability are key contributors for successful transition towards disability inclusive education, yet in-service teacher professional development for disability inclusion remains an under-researched area. The key objective of this evidence and gap map (EGM) is to locate evidence on interventions for disability inclusion focused teacher professional development (TPD) in low-to-middle-income-countries (LMICs) in the Asia-Pacific region. As such, it will illustrate different levels of evidence for TPD interventions as well as where there is no evidence (i.e., gaps). In other words, the EGM can make agencies aware where they might be operating in an area …


Improving Inclusion: The Ongoing And Transformative Process Of Improving Education Systems To Meet The Needs Of All Students, Robert Mistler Dec 2021

Improving Inclusion: The Ongoing And Transformative Process Of Improving Education Systems To Meet The Needs Of All Students, Robert Mistler

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

For this Capstone Project the researcher will investigate how instructors view the environment of the classroom when there is a mix of special needs students incorporated into the general population classroom setting and what they think could be done to improve the environment. The inclusion of special needs is necessary for fair and equal treatment; further, by separating the general population from special needs students, brings about a culture of segregation that can have lifelong impacts. Through an evaluation of scholarly literature and interviews conducted with teachers at an elementary school the findings uncovered three emergent themes: collaboration with teachers …


African American Female Caregivers’ Perceptions, Experiences, And Expectations Of The Special Education Process, Lenell Denise Walton Nov 2021

African American Female Caregivers’ Perceptions, Experiences, And Expectations Of The Special Education Process, Lenell Denise Walton

Special Education ETDs

A select few African American families who have a child with a disability have the skills and knowledge to be proactive in the special education process. Special education teams must guide and mentor African American students and their families through the special education process. However, African American families have consistently contended that their child’s special education team does not provide the services necessary to meet their child’s academic goals. This qualitative study examined the perceptions, experiences, and expectations of African American female caregivers regarding the special education process. Participants were nine African American mothers and one sibling whose family members …


Parental Understanding Of Special Education Legislation And Case Law, Advocacy, And Perceptions Of The Iep Process For Children With Autism, Rachel Treshan Oct 2021

Parental Understanding Of Special Education Legislation And Case Law, Advocacy, And Perceptions Of The Iep Process For Children With Autism, Rachel Treshan

Theses and Dissertations

Despite the legal statutes in place that mandate parental participation in the individualized education program (IEP) process, the decision-making process is mainly dominated by educators. In addition, information on parental perceptions of IEP meetings is limited, especially in regard to parents of children with autism. Parental understanding of special education legislation and case law, advocacy, and perceptions of the IEP process for children with autism was explored in this study. Using a generic qualitative approach, 11 parents of children ages 3 to 13 years old with autism were interviewed via Zoom to develop an understanding of their experiences. Data were …


Experiences Of Saudi Arabian Mothers Of Young Children With Disabilities: An Exploratory Study, Samirah Bahkali Oct 2021

Experiences Of Saudi Arabian Mothers Of Young Children With Disabilities: An Exploratory Study, Samirah Bahkali

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that seeks to provide and develop services for children with disabilities and their families. As times have progressed, regulations and laws have placed an emphasis on providing suitable and better services for children with disabilities and their families. However, a gap exists in the literature regarding the overall experiences of Saudi Arabian mothers of children with disabilities in the early childhood years from birth to age ten (Al Otaibi & Al Sartawi, 2009; Alazemi, 2010). This study explored the experiences of Saudi Arabian mothers of children with disabilities. A qualitative interview approach, utilizing …


University-Based Principal Preparation Programs In Texas In 2019: Where Is Special Education?, Ann Hoa Lê, Julie Peterson Combs Oct 2021

University-Based Principal Preparation Programs In Texas In 2019: Where Is Special Education?, Ann Hoa Lê, Julie Peterson Combs

School Leadership Review

Most principal training programs in the United States focus very little on preparing aspiring instructional leaders to lead programs for students with disabilities. An examination of principal preparation programs and their SPED components is necessary at a time when standards have been revised and new certification exams have been constructed in Texas. To explore the presence of SPED topics in principal certification courses, we used a classical content analysis with a group of university-based principal preparation programs. Almost half of the universities in our study required 18 semester hours or fewer for principal certification, and none of these had course …


Systematic Review Of Transition Assessments For Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder From Early Intervention To Special Education, Akrum Hassan Eidelsafy, Katherine Lalonde, Starla Scott Oct 2021

Systematic Review Of Transition Assessments For Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder From Early Intervention To Special Education, Akrum Hassan Eidelsafy, Katherine Lalonde, Starla Scott

The Hilltop Review

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), their families, and teachers face many challenges during the transition from early intervention into public education. One tool that may facilitate and streamline this transition is the use of a comprehensive transition assessment. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic literature review on peer-reviewed kindergarten transition assessments for children with ASD. The systematic literature review yielded six studies that met inclusion criterion. Within those six studies, 20 assessments were analyzed by reviewing the (1) type of assessment, (2) assessment timeline, and (3) use of assessment results. The results of this …


Secondary Administrators’ Perspectives On Their Involvement In And Barriers To Supporting Secondary Transition Programs For Students With Disabilities, Dottie H. Brown Oct 2021

Secondary Administrators’ Perspectives On Their Involvement In And Barriers To Supporting Secondary Transition Programs For Students With Disabilities, Dottie H. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

To address disparities in post-school outcomes for students with disabilities, federal legislation mandates appropriate education programs to include transition planning and programs for students with disabilities. Because administrators are held responsible for ensuring appropriate educational programs for all learners including those with disabilities, it is important to understand their perspectives on secondary transition; however, research on administrators’ involvement in secondary transition activities is limited. Using a single-state survey, this study examined the perspectives of secondary school administrators on their involvement and engagement in providing effective transition programs and services for students with disabilities and their perceptions of barriers to providing …


Inclusion Isn't Always The Answer: Effects Of Alternate Learning Environments For Elementary Students With Disabilities, Emily Mick Oct 2021

Inclusion Isn't Always The Answer: Effects Of Alternate Learning Environments For Elementary Students With Disabilities, Emily Mick

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

When it comes to writing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs), the least restrictive environment (LRE) is described as the general education classroom. However for some students, especially those who struggle socially, emotionally, and behaviorally, the general education environment is the most restrictive. This research aims to answer the question of whether inclusion should be the goal for all students or if an alternate learning environment would lead to improved social emotional health of students with special needs. Through quantitative data collection and a descriptive research design, the researcher challenges the idea that inclusive practice is best practice. Findings suggest that although …


The Implementation And Impact Of The Leveled Literacy Intervention System On Middle School Students In Special Education, Krystin Mccormick Williams Oct 2021

The Implementation And Impact Of The Leveled Literacy Intervention System On Middle School Students In Special Education, Krystin Mccormick Williams

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed-methods action research study was to determine the effects of a direct, individualized, and intensive reading intervention on middle school students with identified learning disabilities in the area of reading. The Leveled Literacy Intervention System was used as the reading intervention in this study. Oral reading fluency and reading comprehension skills were measured, as well as the student participants’ attitude toward reading. Data collection methods included LLI system assessments, district level benchmark reading assessments, and student questionnaires. The teacher-researcher analyzed the data and determined the 18-week LLI intervention had positive impacts on the student participants’ oral …


Enhancing Job Performance For Students With High-Incidence Disabilities, Randa Arvold Oct 2021

Enhancing Job Performance For Students With High-Incidence Disabilities, Randa Arvold

Culminating Projects in Special Education

Not submitted


Field-Based Experiences In Special Education Teacher Training: What Teacher Educators Do (And Should Do), Michelle Simmons, Laurie A. Sharp Sep 2021

Field-Based Experiences In Special Education Teacher Training: What Teacher Educators Do (And Should Do), Michelle Simmons, Laurie A. Sharp

Journal of Research Initiatives

Beginning teachers face a wide array of challenges in today’s PreK-12 classrooms. These challenges are magnified for beginning special education teachers who must meet the needs of an extremely diverse student population. To prepare beginning special education teachers for classroom realities, teacher educators must recognize and use high-leverage preparation practices in coursework and field-based experiences during teacher training. The goal of the present study was to conduct a state-level analysis that examined ways in which teacher educators implemented field-based experiences with preservice special education teachers. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to gather qualitative data from a sample of …


Perceptions Of General Education And Special Education Teachers Towards Inclusion: A Quantitative Study, Charity Leigh Kinneer Sep 2021

Perceptions Of General Education And Special Education Teachers Towards Inclusion: A Quantitative Study, Charity Leigh Kinneer

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the attitudes of general education teachers and special education teacher of the inclusion classroom in the middle and high school levels. Using casual- comparative and survey methodology, the level of agreement or disagreement of these teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusive procedures was assessed in four areas: Planning, Classroom/School Environment, Collaboration/Team Partners, and Resources/Supports/Professional Development. The survey measured general education teachers and special education teachers in the middle and high school levels using a 19- item, five-point Likert scale. To address the research questions, an ANOVA was initially proposed. However, due to the low sample size of administrators …


Recommendations To Improve Co-Teaching Strategies In The Secondary Inclusion Classroom, Linda A. Stephen Sep 2021

Recommendations To Improve Co-Teaching Strategies In The Secondary Inclusion Classroom, Linda A. Stephen

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this applied research study was to improve co-teaching strategies at Belmont Middle School (a pseudonym), in north Georgia. The researcher used a multi-method design that included qualitative and quantitative data. Three data collection strategies were used in this applied research study; interviews from general education teachers, a focus group with special education teachers, and a survey completed by general education and special education teachers. The central question that guided the research study was: How can co-teaching be improved at Belmont Middle School located in north Georgia? Common themes that emerged revealed that co-teachers desired more time to …


Using Disability Studies In Education (Dse) And Professional Development Schools (Pds) To Implement Inclusive Practices, Brent Elder, Lesa Givens, Andrea Locastro, Lisa Rencher Aug 2021

Using Disability Studies In Education (Dse) And Professional Development Schools (Pds) To Implement Inclusive Practices, Brent Elder, Lesa Givens, Andrea Locastro, Lisa Rencher

College of Education Faculty Scholarship

This article highlights ways in which disability studies in education (dse) and professional development school (pds) partnerships can be used to provide students with disability labels more access to inclusive classrooms. The authors of this qualitative exploratory case study interviewed 16 teacher and administration pds steering committee members to better understand how students with disability labels could be supported through the development and implementation of dse-informed inclusive practices. The findings indicate that instituting proactive communication structures, providing ongoing dse-informed professional development to teachers, administration, and staff, and teachers taking inclusive action increased the number of students with disability labels accessing …


School Choice Considerations Of Black Parents Of Students With Dis/Abilities, Jaleah Robinson Aug 2021

School Choice Considerations Of Black Parents Of Students With Dis/Abilities, Jaleah Robinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Forty-four states and Washington, D.C. have passed legislation to expand school choice options for students and families (Cardine, 2019). In addition to a student’s assigned neighborhood school, one may enact choice by way of tax credits, charter schools, vouchers, relocation, and through other means, depending on where one lives. The act of choosing a school has been simplified by some to economic principles of competition and consumer satisfaction. What research has shown, however, is enacting school choice is much more complex and commonly intertwined with concepts of race, class, and ability (Ellison & Aloe, 2019). Academic quality (Mavrogordato & Stein, …


Understanding Principals’ Knowledge Of Special Education, Whitney G. Schexnider Aug 2021

Understanding Principals’ Knowledge Of Special Education, Whitney G. Schexnider

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The percentage of students identified as eligible to receive special education services in the United States has grown from 8.3% in the 1976-77 school year to 14% during the 2018-19 school year (Hussar et al., 2020). Given this level of growth and the myriad of levels of support principals provide for students with disabilities, one would assume that principal preparation programs have adjusted their curriculum to ensure future school administrators are prepared to support every student, including those with disabilities. The purpose of this research study is to better understand how current school administrators learned special education-related information for their …


Young Adults With Disabilities Acquire Vocational Skills With Video Modeling, Carly Schroeder-Mackay Aug 2021

Young Adults With Disabilities Acquire Vocational Skills With Video Modeling, Carly Schroeder-Mackay

Dissertations

Students with disabilities often require substantial support to acquire the skills needed to secure work experience and paid employment. Special education transition programs have an obligation to utilize evidence-based practices to facilitate the acquisition of such skills. In the present project, three studies were conducted to examine the effects of video modeling on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of job-related tasks taught in a classroom setting to young adults with developmental disabilities. In Study 1, a multiple baseline across behaviors experimental design with four participants was used to assess the effects of video prompts on the percentage of correctly completed …


The Experience Of Special Education Graduates Who Received Pull-Out Social Skills Instruction: A Phenomenological Study, Sharon Diane Flucker Aug 2021

The Experience Of Special Education Graduates Who Received Pull-Out Social Skills Instruction: A Phenomenological Study, Sharon Diane Flucker

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of high school graduates who received special education services, in part, through a pull-out program that focused on the development of social skills in the northeast region of the state of South Carolina. The theory guiding this study was Bandura's social cognitive theory as it addressed the role of the environment, modeling, goal setting, evaluation, and sense of efficacy in human development and learning. The central research question and three sub-questions were based on the triadic reciprocality causation in Bandura’s theory. The sample size was 12. Purposeful …


Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training On Preservice Teachers’ Ability To Code Articles, Rena Vanderwall Aug 2021

Effects Of Behavioral Skills Training On Preservice Teachers’ Ability To Code Articles, Rena Vanderwall

Dissertations

The research-to-practice gap in education has been well documented over the decades (e.g., Abbott et al., 1999; Burns & Ysseldyke, 2009; Cook & Odom, 2013; van Ingen & Ariew, 2015). To best benefit PreK-12 student outcomes, educators must understand and implement scientifically based practices in their teaching (Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 et seq., 2015; Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq., 2004). However, this task can be daunting. When presented with educational research, teachers often struggle with identifying the key information, as well as applying it to their …


All About The Special Education Process: A Handbook For Parents, Mikayla Reinke Jul 2021

All About The Special Education Process: A Handbook For Parents, Mikayla Reinke

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Until 1976 and the passing of P.L. 94-482 parents or caregivers of children with disabilities were not significantly involved in the education of their children. Even after this, many parents have felt they were in unknown territory regarding the field of special education. With different types of meetings, definitions, and processes that are not explained in a form that those who have not studied special education would understand, how could there not be unknown territory? Parents are provided with the Parent’s Guide to Special Education (2018) and the Parental Rights for Public School Students Receiving Special Education Services: Notice of …


Preservice Teachers' Attitudes And Knowledge Towards Assistive Technology: Exploring And In-Class Workshop Approach, Stacey Keown, Moriah Smothers, Tori Colson Jul 2021

Preservice Teachers' Attitudes And Knowledge Towards Assistive Technology: Exploring And In-Class Workshop Approach, Stacey Keown, Moriah Smothers, Tori Colson

Kentucky Teacher Education Journal: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Kentucky Council for Exceptional Children

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that all students receiving special education services should be considered for assistive technology; therefore, it is imperative that teacher preparation programs prepare preservice teachers to select, implement, and evaluate assistive technology for their future students. This mixed-methods study explored the influence an in-class workshop had on preservice teachers’ feelings of preparedness to use assistive technology in their future classrooms. The participants were all enrolled in a 400-level special education methods course, and their perceptions were assessed by administering a pre- and post- survey. The workshop consisted of an independent online training …


Examining Teacher Advocacy For Full Inclusion, Jill Bradley-Levine Jul 2021

Examining Teacher Advocacy For Full Inclusion, Jill Bradley-Levine

Journal of Catholic Education

This critical ethnography examined the motivations of, and processes used by teachers to advocate for the inclusion of students with exceptionalities in their Catholic school. Because students with exceptionalities have been marginalized in K-12 Catholic schools, learning more about teachers who have been successful advocates on their behalf is essential to building more inclusive schools, as well as inclusive local and global communities. The findings of this study help to identify some key elements for teacher-led advocacy including practices that align with ethical leadership and that encourage teachers to take risks and pursue passions when there is potential for positive …


Implementing Effective Inclusion In Prekindergarten, Jennifer L. Wenke Jul 2021

Implementing Effective Inclusion In Prekindergarten, Jennifer L. Wenke

Master's Theses & Capstone Projects

This literature review will act as a guide for implementing quality inclusion effectively in preschool classrooms. The inclusion of children with special needs in education is of concern to educators worldwide. "Inclusive education involves the transformation of the education system-legislation and policy, systems for financing, administration, design, delivery, and monitoring of the education and the way schools are organized" (Zabeli & Gjelaj, 2020, p. 3). This literature review examines the variables predicting overall quality, curriculum, training, tools for communication and engagement, teacher views, and peer interaction pertaining to inclusion in prekindergarten classrooms. Two themes were constant in the research: training …


The Effect Of Using Literacy Assessment And Standards Based Teaching For Students With Cognitive Disabilities In Secondary Education, Annie Elias Jul 2021

The Effect Of Using Literacy Assessment And Standards Based Teaching For Students With Cognitive Disabilities In Secondary Education, Annie Elias

Masters of Arts in Education Action Research Papers

The‌ ‌effect‌ ‌of‌ ‌using‌ ‌‌literacy‌ ‌assessment‌‌ ‌and‌‌ ‌standards‌ ‌based‌ ‌teaching‌‌ ‌for‌ ‌students‌ ‌with‌ ‌ cognitive‌ ‌disabilities‌‌ ‌in‌ ‌secondary‌ ‌education,‌ ‌refers‌ ‌to‌ ‌using‌ ‌an‌ ‌assessment‌ ‌connected‌ ‌to‌ ‌ Kindergarten‌ ‌state‌ ‌standards‌ ‌called‌ ‌the‌ ‌‌BRIDGE‌ ‌assessment‌.‌ ‌Data‌ ‌was‌ ‌collected‌ ‌for‌ ‌the‌ ‌ BRIDGE‌ ‌assessment‌ ‌with‌ ‌five‌ ‌students‌ ‌from‌ ‌my‌ ‌special‌ ‌education‌ ‌‌Federal‌ ‌Setting‌ ‌IV‌‌ ‌classroom.‌ ‌ The‌ ‌students‌ ‌used‌ ‌in‌ ‌this‌ ‌research,‌ ‌ages‌ ‌11-18,‌ ‌have‌ ‌a‌ ‌range‌ ‌of‌ ‌severe‌ ‌to‌ ‌profound‌ ‌developmental‌ ‌ and‌ ‌cognitive‌ ‌disabilities‌ ‌with‌ ‌speech‌ ‌language‌ ‌disorder‌ ‌and‌ ‌also‌ ‌blind/visually‌ ‌impaired.‌ ‌Using‌ ‌ a‌ ‌variety‌ ‌of‌ ‌‌quantitative‌ ‌and‌ ‌qualitative‌ ‌research‌ ‌methods‌,‌ ‌findings‌ ‌showed‌ ‌that‌ ‌all‌ ‌students‌ ‌can‌ ‌ strengthen‌ …


The Impact Of Inclusive Middle School Classrooms On Students’ Academic Self-Efficacy During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Ashley Barbara Reichert Jul 2021

The Impact Of Inclusive Middle School Classrooms On Students’ Academic Self-Efficacy During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Ashley Barbara Reichert

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The effects of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic continue to be unveiled. The pressures and stipulations for inclusion can cause great stress for teachers and administrators to attempt ways to create a least restrictive environment (LRE) for students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), while maintaining rigor and safety for all students in the midst of changing policy and practice. Self-efficacy allows individuals to measure their beliefs in the ability to complete a task. The pandemic led to a need of examining students’ self-efficacy within the inclusive environment. The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in academic self-efficacy …