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Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Out-Of- School Time Use In Pakistan: A Qualitative Study Featuring Youth's Voices, Salima Kerai, Marium Ibrahim, Tonje M. Molyneux, Uzma Hussain, Anne Gadermann, Rosemin Kassam, Almina Pardhan Dr., Eva Oberle Feb 2024

Out-Of- School Time Use In Pakistan: A Qualitative Study Featuring Youth's Voices, Salima Kerai, Marium Ibrahim, Tonje M. Molyneux, Uzma Hussain, Anne Gadermann, Rosemin Kassam, Almina Pardhan Dr., Eva Oberle

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The current study addresses the lack of out-of-school time (OST) research in low- and middle-income countries by exploring OST use in the context of Pakistan and incorporating youth's voices. Using a qualitative descriptive design with focus-group discussions, we conducted a study in three middle schools set in low- to middle-income neighborhoods in urban and rural areas of Karachi, Pakistan. We engaged 86 youth (50% girls; aged 10–15 years) that were purposefully selected from grade six (31.4%), seven (44.2%) and eight (24.4%) classrooms, balancing gender and locality. In each focus group, we asked participants to describe their afterschool activity routine on …


Development And Validation Of A Questionnaire To Explore Teachers’ Knowledge About The Nature Of Mathematics The Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics, Munira Amirali Aug 2023

Development And Validation Of A Questionnaire To Explore Teachers’ Knowledge About The Nature Of Mathematics The Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics, Munira Amirali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Investigating teachers’ knowledge about the nature of mathematics and their viewpoints about the teaching and learning of mathematics is important as it has a great influence on what they do in classrooms. This paper describes the two phases of the development and validation process of an instrument named as Mathematics Teacher Survey Questionnaire (MTSQ) developed to determine Pakistani teachers’ knowledge about the nature of mathematics, its influence on their viewpoints about the teaching and learning of mathematics. Phase one includes item writing, item analysis and item administration whereas phase two includes the tool validation process using Cronbach’s alpha and content …


Thinking Global, Acting Local, Ali Gohar Qazi Mar 2023

Thinking Global, Acting Local, Ali Gohar Qazi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Ongoing or continuous professional development is essential for teachers to develop and maintain the knowledge base required to produce more powerful learning outcomes among their students. Research has shown that professional development is more effective and meaningful to teachers when it is content focused, involves active learning and collective participation, and when it is sustained in duration, instead of being top-down, episodic, or delivered as ‘one-shot’ training workshops.


Policy Analysis Of Girls’ Primary School Completion In Rural Sindh: Root Causes And Policy Recommendations Using Iiep Education Policy Toolbox, Sajid Ali, Aisha Naz Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmed, Zobia Israr Ahmed, Naveed Saleh Siddique, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Shazia Solangi, Mujeeb Rehman Khatri, Tauseef Lateef Mar 2023

Policy Analysis Of Girls’ Primary School Completion In Rural Sindh: Root Causes And Policy Recommendations Using Iiep Education Policy Toolbox, Sajid Ali, Aisha Naz Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmed, Zobia Israr Ahmed, Naveed Saleh Siddique, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Shazia Solangi, Mujeeb Rehman Khatri, Tauseef Lateef

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This report emerged from the policy analysis work produced as part of the course titled ‘Diagnostic tools for improving education policy planning’ by the IIEP-UNESCO with support from KIX. This course enabled us to explore diagnostic tools and their implications, specifically for developing countries, and helped the team unpack diagnostic tools and learn the history of their evolution. We further learned how the education management information system works and how data is essential for policy decisions. Finally, we engaged with real policy analysis using the IIEP Education Policy Toolbox. As a team, we chose to study the issue of girls’ …


Policy Analysis: School Clustering Policy, Sajid Ali, Aisha Naz Ansari Jan 2023

Policy Analysis: School Clustering Policy, Sajid Ali, Aisha Naz Ansari

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Online Early Childhood Teacher Education Program: Practices And Future Possibilities, Yasmeen Mehboob, Silpa Aziz Karim Jan 2023

Online Early Childhood Teacher Education Program: Practices And Future Possibilities, Yasmeen Mehboob, Silpa Aziz Karim

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The study aimed to test the effectiveness and the feasibility of Zoom and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) for early childhood teacher education (ECTE) at a university in Pakistan. The study addresses how a Community of Inquiry (COI) framework can be embedded within Zoom and VLE to make the online course meaningful, interactive and accessible. This is an exploratory case study with a mixed method approach. Data was gathered through survey, focus group discussion, reflective journals, observations and meeting notes. Pre- and post-online knowledge tests and assignments were used to assess changes in participant’s knowledge and understanding. Survey result indicated positive …


Pakistan’S First-Ever Participation In An International Large-Scale Assessment (Timss): Critique And Implications, Sohail Ahmad, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta Dec 2022

Pakistan’S First-Ever Participation In An International Large-Scale Assessment (Timss): Critique And Implications, Sohail Ahmad, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The International Large-Scale Assessment (ILSA) is a rapidly growing field in education which has gained considerable attention of stakeholders across the globe. Historically, ILSA emerged from the developed context which has drifted to the developing contexts in a short span of time due to globalisation. Pakistan has participated in ILSA (i.e., TIMSS) for the first time in the 2019 cycle. In light of the global critique on ILSA, this paper presents a critical analysis on Pakistan’s participation in TIMSS by raising questions embedded in contextual realities. The discussion adds to the understanding of ILSA in terms of historical developments, theoretical …


Role Of Personality Traits For Entrepreneurial Intentions Of Young Entrepreneurs: A Case Study Of Higher Education Institution, Yuanyuan Cao, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Lu Wang, Aisha Naz Ansari, Norah Almusharraf Oct 2022

Role Of Personality Traits For Entrepreneurial Intentions Of Young Entrepreneurs: A Case Study Of Higher Education Institution, Yuanyuan Cao, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Lu Wang, Aisha Naz Ansari, Norah Almusharraf

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Pakistan being a young country is struggling to provide employment opportunities. However, entrepreneurship is a perceived strategy for reducing unemployment. The trend of entrepreneurship is also emerging among university students. Thus, the ratio of entrepreneurial intention and start-ups is also increasing among university students and graduates. Therefore, this study aims to examine the role of personality traits in the entrepreneurial intentions of young entrepreneurs. Considering this, qualitative methodology was employed with the case study as the research design. A single case of a university with three different departments was taken. In total, n = 9 entrepreneurs were purposely selected from …


School Teachers And Principals’ Experiences During Covid-19 In Pakistan, Azra Naseem, Mirat Al Fatima Ahsan, Sohail Ahmad, Tasneem Anwar, Razia Fakir Mohammad Jul 2022

School Teachers And Principals’ Experiences During Covid-19 In Pakistan, Azra Naseem, Mirat Al Fatima Ahsan, Sohail Ahmad, Tasneem Anwar, Razia Fakir Mohammad

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, educational activities were disrupted globally. In Pakistan, schools were also closed, and though some schools had started teaching online, the staff (including principals and teachers) and students' readiness for education during the pandemic remained unexplored. An internet-based survey was conducted to explore the experiences of the teachers and principals during the lockdown. The survey included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. Responses were collected from respondents in different parts of Pakistan, with the majority coming from Sindh and coming from both the private and public sector. While the respondents from private schools reported that …


Examining The Self-Efficacy For Online Learning Across Young And Old Age Students Of Sindh, Aisha Naz Ansari Jun 2022

Examining The Self-Efficacy For Online Learning Across Young And Old Age Students Of Sindh, Aisha Naz Ansari

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper presents the self-efficacy for online learning during the pandemic, across two age groups young (25 and below) and old (above 25) from different schools and universities in Sindh based on five constructs of self-efficacy. These constructs include completion of online courses, social interaction among students, academic interaction among students, interaction with instructors, and handling online tools of course management. This was a quantitative study with a web-based survey. The population of the study was school and university students of Sindh aging from 18 onwards and have taken online classes. The sample (n=162) was selected conveniently. And the data …


Mix Method Approach Of Measuring Vr As A Pedagogical Tool To Enhance Experimental Learning: Motivation From Literature Survey Of Previous Study, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Aisha Naz Ansari, Prathamesh Churi, Antonio José Moreno Guerrero, Anas A. Salameh Mar 2022

Mix Method Approach Of Measuring Vr As A Pedagogical Tool To Enhance Experimental Learning: Motivation From Literature Survey Of Previous Study, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Aisha Naz Ansari, Prathamesh Churi, Antonio José Moreno Guerrero, Anas A. Salameh

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This research has been experimented on our previous literature review. Technological advancement has prevailed in the modern era from the 20th century. Artificial intelligence and virtual worlds have been created for rapid technological development. This paper is aimed at exploring the effect of virtual reality as a pedagogical tool for enhancing experiential learning among undergraduate students. Considering this, it was a mixed-methods study following the design of sequential exploratory–which includes qualitative followed by quantitative part. The targeted population was undergraduate students taking education programs from Public Sector Universities of Sindh. For the qualitative part, the sample of eight undergraduate students …


Assessing Teachers’ Pedagogical Practices And Students’ Learning Outcomes In Science And Mathematics Across Primary And Secondary School Level: A Nationwide Study (2018-21), Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi Jan 2022

Assessing Teachers’ Pedagogical Practices And Students’ Learning Outcomes In Science And Mathematics Across Primary And Secondary School Level: A Nationwide Study (2018-21), Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Changing Parental Perceptions Adding Value To School Improvement Processes In Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa, Sharifullah Baig Jan 2022

Changing Parental Perceptions Adding Value To School Improvement Processes In Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Mola Dad Shafa, Sharifullah Baig

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Parental perceptions and perspectives play a critical role in their motivation, interest, participation, and valuation of children’s education which ultimately influences the quality of education in schools. This article reports the change of perception and perspectives of the parents under the influence of a comprehensive school improvement intervention. A quantitative survey approach was employed in this study including 680 parents from 6 districts. The data was collected in two rounds following the pre- and post- intervention approach. The first round of data was collected at the beginning of the project and the second round was collected at its end. The …


Teaching License In Pakistan: A White Paper 2022, Sajid Ali, Afaq Ahmed Jan 2022

Teaching License In Pakistan: A White Paper 2022, Sajid Ali, Afaq Ahmed

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Teachers’ Perceptions About Mathematics In A Socio-Religious Context: A Case From Pakistan, Munira Amirali, Anjum Halai Dec 2021

Teachers’ Perceptions About Mathematics In A Socio-Religious Context: A Case From Pakistan, Munira Amirali, Anjum Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This study investigated mathematics teachers’ beliefs about the nature of mathematics and the contributory factors shaping them. A survey of 200 trained and untrained mathematics teachers from public and private schools was carried out in Karachi Pakistan, a context with a strong influence of religion on the socio-cultural practices of the people. The survey was followed by a focus-group discussion with selected teachers and is the focus of this paper. This is a ground-breaking study in a hitherto under-researched socio-religious context.
Teachers across the system showed a strong similarity in beliefs. A commonly held view was that mathematics is created …


Virtual Reality As Pedagogical Tool To Enhance Experiential Learning: A Systematic Literature Review, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Aisha Naz Ansari, Prathamesh Churi, Mohammad Mehdi Tahanzadeh Nov 2021

Virtual Reality As Pedagogical Tool To Enhance Experiential Learning: A Systematic Literature Review, Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Aisha Naz Ansari, Prathamesh Churi, Mohammad Mehdi Tahanzadeh

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Since half of the century, technology has dominated the modern era. The rapid advancement of technology has reached generating artificial intelligence and artificial realities. So, virtual reality is an emerging technology and is applicable in education as well. Virtual reality is a computer-generated simulation, where people can interact within an artificial environment. Moreover, in an educational setting, such an environment provides students with a chance to get experiential learning. This paper has a systematic literature review on emerging technologies, such as virtual reality as a pedagogical tool for enhancing students’ experiential learning. This review aims to explore and understand the …


Developing A Rubric To Assess Critical Thinking In A Multidisciplinary Context In Higher Education, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Sahreen Chauhan, Syeda Kausar Ali, Raisa Gul, Shanaz Cassum, Tashmin Khamis Apr 2019

Developing A Rubric To Assess Critical Thinking In A Multidisciplinary Context In Higher Education, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Sahreen Chauhan, Syeda Kausar Ali, Raisa Gul, Shanaz Cassum, Tashmin Khamis

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Critical thinking (CT) is a generic attribute that is greatly valued across academic disciplines in higher education, and around the globe. It is also defined as one of the graduate attributes of higher education for the sample private university where this research was conducted, as it is perceived that CT helps the graduate to become ‘engaged citizens’ in the twenty-first century. Despite the well-documented importance of CT, its assessment remains a challenge. This study addresses this challenge through the systematic development and field-testing of a rubric for assessing critical thinking in a multidisciplinary context in higher education. A multidisciplinary group …


Designing Ethakul: A Mobile Just-In-Time Learning Environment For Bioethics In Pakistan, Azra Naseem, Kulsoom Ghias, Sohail Bawani, Mohammad Ali Shahab, Sameer Nizamuddin, Waqar Kashif, Kausar S. Khan, Tashfeen Ahmad, Murad Khan Apr 2019

Designing Ethakul: A Mobile Just-In-Time Learning Environment For Bioethics In Pakistan, Azra Naseem, Kulsoom Ghias, Sohail Bawani, Mohammad Ali Shahab, Sameer Nizamuddin, Waqar Kashif, Kausar S. Khan, Tashfeen Ahmad, Murad Khan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

In developing countries such as Pakistan, bioethics has not been included in mainstream thinking in medical education. The authors’ experiences suggest that current methods of teaching bioethics are problematic as students are unable to translate theory to practice. Alternative pedagogies, such as just-in-time learning (JiTL) using mobile devices, may be able to foster the development and implementation of ethical reasoning among nurses, doctors, and medical and nursing students. This research was conceived to determine the effectiveness of mobile JiTL – anytime, anyplace learning through mobile devices – for teaching bioethics. After obtaining ethical clearance, a participatory design (PD) approach was …


Decolonizing Nature/Knowledge: Indigenous Environmental Thought And Feminist Praxis, Nosheen Ali, Binish Samnani, Abdul Wali Khan, Najmi Khatoon, Barkat Ali, Sadia Asfundyar, Muhammad Aslam, Sumaira Amirali Apr 2019

Decolonizing Nature/Knowledge: Indigenous Environmental Thought And Feminist Praxis, Nosheen Ali, Binish Samnani, Abdul Wali Khan, Najmi Khatoon, Barkat Ali, Sadia Asfundyar, Muhammad Aslam, Sumaira Amirali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This faculty-student collaborative article is a result of a graduate seminar on ‘Environmental Education’ taught at the Aga Khan University’s Institute for Educational Development in Karachi, and it illuminates new perspectives and pedagogies of nature from the global South, specifically South Asia. Drawing inspiration from feminist and indigenous thought, the narratives of ecology shared here center the place of emotions, experience, memory and spiritual intimacy, offering one means of decolonizing environmental studies and expanding our understanding of ‘environmental consciousness’. These narratives defy ontologies of nature-human separation, capturing not just the co-existence of animals, spirits and humans but their co-constitution. Such …


Implementing A Teaching And Learning Enhancement Workshop At Aga Khan University: Reflections Onthe Implementation And Outcomes Of An Instructional Skills Workshop In The Context Of Pakistan, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Zeenar Salim, Sahreen Chauhan, Naghma Rizvi Apr 2019

Implementing A Teaching And Learning Enhancement Workshop At Aga Khan University: Reflections Onthe Implementation And Outcomes Of An Instructional Skills Workshop In The Context Of Pakistan, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Zeenar Salim, Sahreen Chauhan, Naghma Rizvi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The Teaching and Learning Enhancement Workshop (TLEW) is an indigenous name for the Canadian-based Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW). TLEW is a teaching development workshop aimed at enhancing faculty members’ stances towards student-centred teaching and reflective practice at the higher education level. This short paper discusses the initiation, implementation and institutionalisation of the TLEW at Aga Khan University (AKU) across entities in Asia and Africa. In total, 77 faculty members drawn from different entities of AKU participated in the workshop in 2016-2017. Empirical evidence collected from TLEW graduates through a survey and interviews suggests that the intense episode of planning, teaching …


On Being An Activist: Silence, Technology And Feminist Solidarity In South Asia, Nosheen Ali Dec 2018

On Being An Activist: Silence, Technology And Feminist Solidarity In South Asia, Nosheen Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Relationship Between Students’ Digital Literacy And Their Attitude Towards Using Ict, Salma Jan Jan 2018

Investigating The Relationship Between Students’ Digital Literacy And Their Attitude Towards Using Ict, Salma Jan

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This study aimed to explore the relationship between secondary school students’ digital literacy and their attitude towards using information and communication technology in a private secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan. For this study, the data were collected through survey questionnaire using google forms. The total sample size for this study was 344 secondary school students having almost equal ratio of male and female. On bivariate correlation analysis, digital literacy was found to be associated with students’ attitude towards using information and communication technology (ICT) and other ICT related demographics. Further analysis using multiple linear regression analysis showed that digital literacy …


Conversations On Critical Thinking: Can Critical Thinking Find Its Way Forward As The Skill Set And Mindset Of The Century?, Maura Sellars, Razia Fakir Mohammad, Linh Bui, John Fishetti, Sarfaroz Niyozov, Ruth Reynolds, Nisha Thapliyal, Yuling Smith, Nosheen Ali Jan 2018

Conversations On Critical Thinking: Can Critical Thinking Find Its Way Forward As The Skill Set And Mindset Of The Century?, Maura Sellars, Razia Fakir Mohammad, Linh Bui, John Fishetti, Sarfaroz Niyozov, Ruth Reynolds, Nisha Thapliyal, Yuling Smith, Nosheen Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The capacity to successfully, positively engage with the cognitive capacities of critical thinking has become the benchmark of employability for many diverse industries across the globe and is considered critical for the development of informed, decisive global citizenship. Despite this, education systems in several countries have developed policies and practices that limit the opportunities for students to authentically participate in the discussions, debates, and evaluative thinking that serve to develop the skill set and mindset of critical thinkers. This writing examines the status of critical thinking in four different contexts across the globe as reflected in educational policies and academic …


Barriers In Adopting Blended Learning In A Private University Of Pakistan And East Africa: Faculty Members’ Perspective, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi, Saleema Gulzar, Wachira Nicholas, Beatrice Nkoroi Jan 2017

Barriers In Adopting Blended Learning In A Private University Of Pakistan And East Africa: Faculty Members’ Perspective, Nusrat Fatima Rizvi, Saleema Gulzar, Wachira Nicholas, Beatrice Nkoroi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Background: Education methods have undergone transformation over the centuries. Use of technology is the cornerstone for innovation in teaching methods. Hence, blended learning which includes face to face and online modalities is being increasingly explored as effective method for learning. This pilot study determines the perceptions of faculty members in a private international university on barriers influencing adoption of technology for teaching and learning.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-reported questionnaire using ‘survey monkey’. The data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). Frequencies and proportions are reported.

Results: Findings …


Science Education For The Future: Five Recommendations A Policy Brief For Pakistan, Nelofer Halai Jan 2017

Science Education For The Future: Five Recommendations A Policy Brief For Pakistan, Nelofer Halai

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

High quality education and particularly in the area of what is generally called STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is the greatest indicator of quality of life. Sustainable human development, eradication of poverty and removing unequal distribution of resources all depend on high quality education. High quality education in the area of science has been defined as far back as 1962 by Schwab and Brandwein as teaching through inquiry-based methods. Continuing to teach science content through rote memorization produces teachers who know of no better method to teach other than memorization. These teachers themselves lack conceptual understanding of science content …


The Effects Of Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme On Classroom Teaching Practices: Lessons From Pakistan, Meher Rizvi, Philip Nagy Jan 2016

The Effects Of Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme On Classroom Teaching Practices: Lessons From Pakistan, Meher Rizvi, Philip Nagy

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This paper presents and evaluates a teacher training approach called the cluster-based mentoring programme (CBMP) for the professional development of government primary school teachers in Pakistan. The study sought to find differences in the teaching practices between districts where the CBMP was used (intervention) and control districts where it was not used (non-intervention). Data were analysed to examine the effectiveness of the CBMP in terms of enhancing teacher practices and student behaviour. The paper differentiates those aspects of classroom teaching where the CBMP has been the most effective and where it has been marginally effective or not effective at all, …


From Hallaj To Heer: Poetic Knowledge And The Muslim Tradition, Nosheen Ali Jan 2016

From Hallaj To Heer: Poetic Knowledge And The Muslim Tradition, Nosheen Ali

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

How do we comprehend the poetic universe of Muslim South Asia, and why is it important to do so? This is the larger question — at once historical, sociological, literary, and political — which forms the heart of the inquiry in this paper. In my attempt to address this question, I attend particularly to the themes of language, time, love, spiritual subjectivity, key figures, and resistance in understanding the place of the poetic in Muslim tradition. I then offer glimpses of the Seraiki poetic landscape from southern Punjab in Pakistan, to illuminate the continued power and politics of poetic practice …


Role Of Civil Society Institutions In Promoting Diversity And Pluralism In Chitral District Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Mir Afzal Tajik Mar 2015

Role Of Civil Society Institutions In Promoting Diversity And Pluralism In Chitral District Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Mir Afzal Tajik

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

Pakistan is a country with a fast growing population of nearly 190 million people divided into a large number of ethnic, cultural, linguistic, political and religious groups. The basic ideology behind the creation of Pakistan was Islam and it was considered to be the unique force which could bind together the religiously, ethnically, linguistically, and culturally diverse society.

An overwhelming majority of Pakistan’s population is Muslim with Sunni and Shia as the two major schools of thoughts but there are many other smaller sects within Muslim and non-Muslim population. Ethnically, Pakistani society is divided into major groups such as Punjabis, …


Transforming Pedagogies: Emerging Contexts And Texts Of Teaching Learning, Dilshad Ashraf Jan 2015

Transforming Pedagogies: Emerging Contexts And Texts Of Teaching Learning, Dilshad Ashraf

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

This brief offers recommendations for policy and practice around ensuring continuity of education in emergency situations. It also aims at engaging important stakeholders to assert the need for education in emergencies in countries like Pakistan, which frequently confront natural and human-led disasters. This brief also discusses the need for ‘education in emergencies’ in a ‘low HDI’ developing nation such as Pakistan, where being exposed to natural and human-led disasters seems to be a way of life. It provides an initial platform for those who are interested in understanding the scope of this theme, as well as designing and delivering educational …


Exploring The Contribution Of Teaching And Learning Processes : Constructing Students’ Gender Identity In An Early Years Classroom Of A Government Girls Primary School In Pakistan, Amina Bibi Baig Jan 2015

Exploring The Contribution Of Teaching And Learning Processes : Constructing Students’ Gender Identity In An Early Years Classroom Of A Government Girls Primary School In Pakistan, Amina Bibi Baig

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The construction of gender identity is a complex process which begins at a very early formative age. In these formative years, children begin making sense of how men and women are positioned in society. Schools as important institutions play a significant role in this process particularly with reference to students’ understanding of the gender relationships around them. This article reports on a study which explored how gender identity construction takes place in a single sex (girls) classroom for early years. The study investigated the teacher-student interactions and student-student interactions in the real environment of the classroom. Qualitative research guided the …