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Exploring Teachers’ Views Of The Nature Of Science And Their Beliefs And Understanding About Viruses And Covid-19: A Multiple Case Study Of Three Secondary Science Teachers At A Rural High School In The Southeastern United States, Jeffrey Chalfant Jan 2024

Exploring Teachers’ Views Of The Nature Of Science And Their Beliefs And Understanding About Viruses And Covid-19: A Multiple Case Study Of Three Secondary Science Teachers At A Rural High School In The Southeastern United States, Jeffrey Chalfant

Theses and Dissertations--Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

Over the past several decades, science education reforms have called for students to develop appropriate views of the nature of science and have a comprehensive understanding of subject matter. Additionally, education research has demonstrated that teachers must have appropriate views of the nature of science and strong content knowledge as necessary conditions for appropriate instruction on the nature of science. However, research has consistently shown that teachers hold naïve or inadequate views of the nature of science. This is problematic as teachers are tasked with teaching science to students that is aligned with current education standards. Therefore, teachers need to …


Understanding The Effects Of Hormone Treatments On The Transgender Singer: A Pedagogical Study And Voice Studio Guide, Erin M. Hannon Jan 2024

Understanding The Effects Of Hormone Treatments On The Transgender Singer: A Pedagogical Study And Voice Studio Guide, Erin M. Hannon

Theses and Dissertations--Music

Transitioning from one gender to another can be an arduous and emotionally charged experience, accompanied by many physical and mental transformations. The journey of self-discovery and vocal explorations is both unique and deeply personal. Modifications that emerge in an individual's vocal characteristics have a profound influence on their capacity to communicate and express themselves.

Transgender vocal students and professional singers must navigate the delicate balance between their vocal and gender identities while considering the possible risks of Gender Affirming Hormone Therapy. Though these therapies may significantly alter one's appearance and overall well-being, they are also capable of causing notable declines …


Evaluating A Rapid Coaching Intervention That Includes Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Teaching A Parent Naturalistic Strategies, Lauren Reiss Jan 2023

Evaluating A Rapid Coaching Intervention That Includes Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Teaching A Parent Naturalistic Strategies, Lauren Reiss

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

Parents of young children with or at risk for disabilities face added stress and challenges every day. This study implemented a rapid coaching intervention to teach a parent naturalistic language interventions such as mapping language onto their child's play, narrating their own play, and arranging the environment. In addition, parents were trained to use a milieu teaching procedure. In addition, a pre-service behavior interventionist and speech-language pathologist collaborated on selecting instructional targets for the child.


Teachers’ Sustained Culturally Responsive Practices Three Years After Participation In Professional Development, Brittany Manion Jan 2023

Teachers’ Sustained Culturally Responsive Practices Three Years After Participation In Professional Development, Brittany Manion

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

Teacher professional development (PD) on culturally responsive practices (CRP) provides teachers the opportunity to increase their knowledge and change their practices to better support students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. This study sampled from a year-long intensive PD on effective instructional practices for English learners (ELs). Grounded in transformative and situated learning theories, this study was designed to understand teachers’ sustained CRP and their experiences four years after participating in a CRP PD. Several questions were investigated in this study: What CRP do teachers sustain? What are factors and supports related to teachers’ sustained implementation? What challenges do teachers …


Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge As Communal Practice: A Case Study Of Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants, Walker Bryan Mask Jan 2023

Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge As Communal Practice: A Case Study Of Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants, Walker Bryan Mask

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

Learning does not only happen during dedicated instructional time, which also applies to learning how to teach. Teachers can reflect on their practice while working to continue to improve and develop their teaching skills. In addition to self-reflection, teachers can also learn from their colleagues to experiment with new practices and take others’ teaching knowledge into their repertoire. Understanding how these two processes function can lead to developments in teacher education and professional development, specifically for initiatives that seek to promote collaboration among teachers. Post-secondary educators in particular can benefit from collaborative and reflective practices to improve their teaching, especially …


Evaluating The Differential Effects Of Using A Technology-Based Antecedent Intervention In Comparison To A Technology-Based Treatment Package, Rachel Fosnaught Jan 2023

Evaluating The Differential Effects Of Using A Technology-Based Antecedent Intervention In Comparison To A Technology-Based Treatment Package, Rachel Fosnaught

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

This study investigated the differential effects of using non-contingent reinforcement in the form of attention as an antecedent intervention in comparison to using non-contingent reinforcement in addition to self-monitoring as a treatment package. A multi treatment single case research design was utilized in this study. Levels of student’s on-task behavior were measured to evaluate the differential effects of an antecedent intervention in comparison to the combination of an antecedent and consequent intervention. This study also only used treatments that were technologically delivered to the participants.


Cold Calling In The Classroom: Exploring Student Perceptions Of Instructor Communication Using The Face Negotiation Theory, Cynthia Chinazo Nnagboro Jan 2023

Cold Calling In The Classroom: Exploring Student Perceptions Of Instructor Communication Using The Face Negotiation Theory, Cynthia Chinazo Nnagboro

Theses and Dissertations--Communication

Using face negotiation theory (Ting-Toomey, 1988) as a theoretical framework, this dissertation sought to determine students’ perceptions of instructor communication during classroom discussions where instructors use cold calling tactics. According to FNT, students perceived that self-construal determines their face concern as either self, other/mutual face. Therefore, an instructor must determine the best facework strategies to prevent face loss during classroom discussions to maintain optimal student outcomes in communication satisfaction and motivation to participate. This was accomplished by using 8 hypothetical vignettes, a pilot test and an experiment that measured face threat, face support, student communication satisfaction and motivation, intention to …


Elementary Preservice Teachers Self-Efficacy And Confidence Teaching Engineering, Andrea Perrin Jan 2022

Elementary Preservice Teachers Self-Efficacy And Confidence Teaching Engineering, Andrea Perrin

Theses and Dissertations--Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

Engineering has become a popular topic within science standards in recent years. However, many teachers do not have experience teaching or doing engineering. With the possibility of engineering becoming a major part of the science curriculum, it is important that teachers are prepared and well equipped to teach and instruct engineering activities, lessons, and support. This quantitative study studied elementary preservice teachers’ self-efficacy and confidence with teaching engineering in the classroom after experiencing and teaching engineering activities. Overall, the implementation of the engineering activities had both positive and negative impacts on preservice teachers’ perceptions of themselves and teaching engineering in …


The Underlying Issue: Acknowledging The Impact The Race-Based Bias Of Some White Teachers Poses For Black Adolescents, Cerenity Leavell-Barker Jan 2022

The Underlying Issue: Acknowledging The Impact The Race-Based Bias Of Some White Teachers Poses For Black Adolescents, Cerenity Leavell-Barker

DSW Capstone Projects

Current literature fails to assess the race-based bias of some white teachers and its impact on the school-to-prison pipeline. The actions of some white teachers due to unconscious or conscious race-based bias can increase race-based stress experienced by Blacks students and lead to racial trauma. Racial trauma is a traumatic experience that can alter this stage of development and have significant impact on the academic achievement of Black adolescents and influence behaviors perceived as negative. The purpose of this capstone is to enhance awareness and knowledge on the traumatic impact the race-based bias of some white teachers poses for Black …


The Best Of Both Worlds: A Study Of Agreement Between University Teacher Preparation In Literacy And Schools’ Needs/Expectations Of Novice Literacy Teachers, Kristy Lyn Zak Jan 2022

The Best Of Both Worlds: A Study Of Agreement Between University Teacher Preparation In Literacy And Schools’ Needs/Expectations Of Novice Literacy Teachers, Kristy Lyn Zak

Theses and Dissertations--Curriculum and Instruction

The purpose of this dissertation was to understand non-tenured and tenured teachers’, administrators’, and literacy support staff’s perceptions of the most imperative practices new teachers should know to teach reading in local elementary schools located in one regional state university’s service region. As well, this dissertation sought to determine the degree to which there was alignment between what is being taught in reading methods classes at one regional, state university with those practices. Questionnaire data were used to determine the level of alignment between stakeholders at the elementary school districts and university teacher preparation program. The results showed that there …


Exploring The Relationship Between Reported Instructional Leadership Behaviors And High-Quality Professional Development Factors, Shelby Lea Daeschner Jan 2022

Exploring The Relationship Between Reported Instructional Leadership Behaviors And High-Quality Professional Development Factors, Shelby Lea Daeschner

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

With the reauthorization of the 2015 Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), a focus has been placed on the principal as an instructional leader to improve school culture and student achievement. Professional Development (PD) can improve teacher capacity and student outcomes through long-term, job-embedded, coherent, collaborative, and focused activities. This correlational study explored the relationship between principals’ reported behaviors and rankings of the importance of high-quality PD factors. Through a self-reported survey, elementary school principals across the United States were asked to report the frequency of instructional leader behaviors as measured via the Principal Instructional Management Scale (PIMRS) and rank the …


Investigating Discussion Forum Impact On Students’ Social Justice Beliefs In Online Undergraduate Mathematics Courses: A Mixed Methods Study, Ashlee Lynn Akin Matney Jan 2022

Investigating Discussion Forum Impact On Students’ Social Justice Beliefs In Online Undergraduate Mathematics Courses: A Mixed Methods Study, Ashlee Lynn Akin Matney

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

While teaching math for social justice and equity has become a heavily researched topic in recent decades with Jo Boaler (2008, 2015, 2016), Rochelle Gutiérrez (2009, 2013), and Eric (Rico) Gutstein (2003, 2006, 2007, 2013) emerging as recent leaders in the charge, the focus has consistently remained on traditional classroom teaching (e.g. Boaler, 2008; Gutiérrez, 2009; Gutstein, 2003). This convergent design mixed methods study investigated the impact of teaching math for social justice in the online learning environment, specifically, the impact of discussion forums on students’ social justice beliefs in fully online undergraduate math courses.

Quantitatively, 56 students completed pre- …


An Investigation Into The Relationship Between Teacher Grit, Technology Self-Efficacy, And Technology Integration, Joshua Jeremiah Shiloh Marsh Jan 2022

An Investigation Into The Relationship Between Teacher Grit, Technology Self-Efficacy, And Technology Integration, Joshua Jeremiah Shiloh Marsh

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

The use of educational technology applications has grown tremendously in the last decade. Instructors are now equipped with hardware and software applications previously unavailable, such as mobile and interactive technologies. These tools can have tremendous impact on students’ learning and teacher practices. Teachers can improve their assessment capabilities through technology integration, provide better learning opportunities for students with learning disabilities, and promote deeper learning practices. Due to these benefits, budgets at the federal, state, and local levels of the United States now have specific allocations regarding technology-related purchases. Nevertheless, barriers remain regarding the effective integration of technologies in public schools. …


Collaborative Learning In An Asynchronous Online Introductory Statistics Course, Marla Lemmon Jan 2022

Collaborative Learning In An Asynchronous Online Introductory Statistics Course, Marla Lemmon

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

Collaborative learning has been shown to improve student learning and performance; however, the influence of collaboration has not yet been examined in the context of an online introductory statistics course. Often the influence of collaborative learning is measured using only one outcome variable, typically course achievement. This study will contribute a more thorough examination of the influence collaboration has on student learning by operationalizing the learning construct with the use of multiple measures: academic performance, perceived learning, and growth in statistical knowledge. In addition, this study will provide a model for incorporating collaborative learning in an asynchronous online course.


A Survey Of Elementary Educators' Self-Efficacy Related To Stem Education, Elizabeth Mckenzie Johnson Jan 2022

A Survey Of Elementary Educators' Self-Efficacy Related To Stem Education, Elizabeth Mckenzie Johnson

Theses and Dissertations--Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

While the call for STEM and engineering design has increased since the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, the implementation of STEM in elementary grades has been slow. A variety of factors play a role in why educators, schools, or districts make the informed decisions they do regarding curriculum and instruction. Identifying strengths and challenges elementary educators face in implementing STEM into the curriculum can guide schools and districts in creating supports for increasing STEM in the elementary grades. This study sought to create and test a survey instrument for use with elementary educators in a large urban district …


Inclusive Practices In Teacher Education Programs, Melike Yozgatli Jan 2022

Inclusive Practices In Teacher Education Programs, Melike Yozgatli

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

Inclusive education is a global trend and an educational right that refers to the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education settings (GECs). Applying to the most effective practices is particularly essential for students with disabilities in GECs. Most of the responsibility to implement inclusive practices and create a positive inclusive classroom environment falls on special and general education teachers in GECs. Thus, pre-service teacher education is crucial for teachers’ future achievements in inclusionary settings to address the diverse needs of students with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to investigate teacher education programs in the United …


Career Development And Employability Skill Integration Within The Equine Science And Management Undergraduate Program At The University Of Kentucky, Savannah Faye Robin Jan 2022

Career Development And Employability Skill Integration Within The Equine Science And Management Undergraduate Program At The University Of Kentucky, Savannah Faye Robin

Theses and Dissertations--Educational Leadership Studies

College graduates need to be equipped with career and employability skills that are necessary to be meaningfully and gainfully employed in their future. These skills consist of self-management, career-management, essential-employability, and discipline-specific skills. More responsibility is being placed on college and university academic programs to ensure that students are graduating with these skills when they enter the workforce. However, students are growing less likely to participate in out of course career development activities and resources. Integrating these skills into program curriculum can be an effective way to ensure that all students have the ability to develop these necessary skills.

While …


How Do Parents Of Typically Developing Children Perceive And Interact With Children With Exceptionalities?, Zurisaday N. Decker Jan 2022

How Do Parents Of Typically Developing Children Perceive And Interact With Children With Exceptionalities?, Zurisaday N. Decker

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to examine how parents with children displaying typical development, perceive and interact with children who have exceptionalities or disabilities and explore parents’ openness to having discussions about exceptional children in inclusive classrooms. Given that parents function as foundational sources of knowledge to children in their early childhood years, understanding parents’ perceptions of and interactions with children with disabilities may help to understand how these parents’ children will, in-turn, perceive and interact with classroom peers with disabilities. This line of inquiry is supported by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, which views microsystems such as the family, …


The Potential Role Of Trauma-Informed Positive Education In The Secondary Mathematics Classroom In Disrupting The Preschool-To-Prison Pipeline, Jessica Michele Doering Jan 2021

The Potential Role Of Trauma-Informed Positive Education In The Secondary Mathematics Classroom In Disrupting The Preschool-To-Prison Pipeline, Jessica Michele Doering

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

This mixed-methods study considered the potential for trauma-informed mathematics education to disrupt the preschool-to-prison (or school-to-prison) pipeline. Phenomenological qualitative interviews were conducted in conjunction with the use of the Attitudes Related to Trauma-Informed Care (ARTIC; Baker et al., 2016) scale to determine teacher perceptions of trauma-informed care practices, their thoughts regarding challenging classroom behaviors and the connection of these behaviors with trauma and the pipeline, and their ideas about how much of an impact teachers can have on students who present with challenging behaviors that might be symptoms of trauma or that might be an indicator of future incarceration. This …


Rate To Measure Mathematics Teaching: Using The Many-Facet Rasch Modeling To Reevaluate The Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol For Practices (Mcop2), Chunling Niu Jan 2021

Rate To Measure Mathematics Teaching: Using The Many-Facet Rasch Modeling To Reevaluate The Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol For Practices (Mcop2), Chunling Niu

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

Rater-mediated classroom observation protocols are increasingly being used for teaching performance assessments, which makes identifying and controlling for various rater effects a central issue to ensure the rating quality. A series of validation studies under the classical test theory framework, including content validity, interrater reliability, and structure analysis, have been completed for the 16-item Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol for Practices (MCOP2).

However, the MCOP2 data have never been investigated under the Rasch framework. Due to the methodological limitations of the CTT approach for rater-mediated assessments, it is imperative to examine the MCOP2 validity and reliability using …


“I’M Like Their Gps”: How Mathematics Faculty Support Underprepared Community College Students In Corequisite Courses, Bonita B. Tyler Jan 2021

“I’M Like Their Gps”: How Mathematics Faculty Support Underprepared Community College Students In Corequisite Courses, Bonita B. Tyler

Theses and Dissertations--Educational Policy Studies and Evaluation

As American community colleges replace prerequisite developmental mathematics courses with corequisite courses, the work of faculty to support underprepared students merits attention. This curricular change means underprepared students are enrolling directly in both college-level content courses with required corequisite support courses for necessary remediation, thus broadening the range of student skills and abilities in the classroom. Faculty work is significantly impacted by this change. Previous research indicates that corequisite course configurations have mitigated some problems with the traditional multi-course sequence of developmental courses. Noticeably, scholars described course structures in detail but failed to describe adequately how students were actually supported. …


Living As An Impostor: An Exploration Of The Lived Experiences Among Multiracial Youth In Secondary Agricultural Education, Juliana Danielle Markham Jan 2021

Living As An Impostor: An Exploration Of The Lived Experiences Among Multiracial Youth In Secondary Agricultural Education, Juliana Danielle Markham

Theses and Dissertations--Community & Leadership Development

The racial demographic of the United States is ever changing, and the increase of multiracial children is substantial. This multiple-case study examined the lived experiences of multiracial youth in secondary agricultural education. This study finds evidence of Impostor Phenomenon among these multiracial students in regard to their races. This study provides insight to advise other educational institutions and organizations on how these multiracial students perceive and are perceived, within agricultural education, how it affects them, and gives recommendations to improve the future experiences of multiracial students within agricultural education.


An Explorative Study Of Kentucky Teacher Leader Graduate Programs: Response To Policy Change, Bailey M. Ubellacker Jan 2021

An Explorative Study Of Kentucky Teacher Leader Graduate Programs: Response To Policy Change, Bailey M. Ubellacker

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

Teacher leadership is a growing practice for supporting K-12 teachers and students. Recent policy regulations in the Commonwealth of Kentucky mandated a change in the professional standards used by approved graduate programs that prepare teacher leaders. To support this foundational change, program leaders designed programmatic goals, curriculum, structure, and tasks to align with the Teacher Leader Model Standards that emphasize promising research-based practices. The programs support development of teacher leadership through pedagogical approach, requirements, and programmatic structure.

Using a qualitative, multi-site case-study approach, this dissertation explored Kentucky teacher leadership graduate programs to understand how teacher leaders were formally prepared. Program …


Teacher Perspectives On The Influence Of Participation In Dalcroze Training In The K–12 Music Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study, Holly Smith Jan 2021

Teacher Perspectives On The Influence Of Participation In Dalcroze Training In The K–12 Music Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study, Holly Smith

Theses and Dissertations--Music

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the teacher perspectives on the influence of participation in Dalcroze training in the K–12 music classroom. A primary goal was to investigate how Dalcroze training influenced music teachers’ classroom instructional practices. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was use for this study. Participants (N = 91) completed a cross-sectional survey, the Dalcroze Training Experience Questionnaire (DTEQ). Interview participants (N = 6) were selected using stratified sampling based on their years of Dalcroze experience and not demographic characteristics. Each participated in one semi-structured interview.

Quantitative data was analyzed using a …


Action Research As Professional Development: Creating Effective Professional Development In Every Classroom, Lori A. Cambareri Jan 2021

Action Research As Professional Development: Creating Effective Professional Development In Every Classroom, Lori A. Cambareri

Theses and Dissertations--Educational Leadership Studies

Professional development is a critical component of teacher professional growth that directly influences increased student learning and achievement. As professionals, teachers continue to develop their knowledge and skills with the aim of improving their teaching to assure that students can learn better. A huge investment in time and resources is invested in teacher professional learning every year. However, teachers report, and research supports, that teacher professional development often does not meet teachers’ needs and does not perform its integral function of creating a sustained change in teacher behavior that leads to a corresponding positive change in student achievement. This problem …


Bridging The Gap: Effects Of Dual Credit College Algebra On Postsecondary Education Outcomes, Karen S. Heavin Jan 2020

Bridging The Gap: Effects Of Dual Credit College Algebra On Postsecondary Education Outcomes, Karen S. Heavin

Theses and Dissertations--Education Sciences

The contraction of the blue-collar economy is slowly rendering the high school diploma obsolete as an entry-level requirement for middle class employability. Over the last 40 years, jobs requiring some sort of postsecondary education or post-high school credential increased from 28% to 62%, while lower-skilled jobs, traditionally filled by high school graduates or those without a high school diploma, decreased from 72% to 38%. As automation slowly replaces the blue-collar workforce, it is critical that our educational system provides all students the necessary tools to successfully complete a postsecondary degree or credential.

This study examined two groups of graduating high …


The Impact Of Clinical Reasoning Seminars On Medical-Surgical Specialty Hesi Exam Scores, Stephanie Fugate Jan 2020

The Impact Of Clinical Reasoning Seminars On Medical-Surgical Specialty Hesi Exam Scores, Stephanie Fugate

DNP Projects

Abstract

Background: Clinical reasoning and clinical judgement have been identified as essential skills for the delivery of quality patient care. Nursing education relies heavily on standardized exams like the HESI to predict success on the national licensure exam.

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of clinical reasoning seminars (CRS) on medical-surgical specialty HESI exam scores of first semester junior BSN nursing students.

Methods: A retrospective correlational design was used for this study, which involved a review of medical-surgical HESI scores for 115 junior level baccalaureate nursing students who were identified as academically high-risk and who …


The Effects Of Three Service Delivery Models On Vocabulary Learning By Second-Grade Children, Laura Stone Jan 2020

The Effects Of Three Service Delivery Models On Vocabulary Learning By Second-Grade Children, Laura Stone

Theses and Dissertations--Rehabilitation Sciences

Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs) provide services to children in schools across the United States primarily in a direct small group service delivery model outside of the regular education classroom. To date little research exists to indicate that direct pull-out service delivery is an effective model in elementary schools for students requiring speech and language therapy. One area that has been studied is the effectiveness of vocabulary intervention among service delivery models. Preliminary findings suggest that students with language and literacy deficits learn vocabulary well within a regular education environment with SLP support. However, there is little consensus on how service delivery …


A Systematic Review Of Peer-Mediated Interventions And Topic Maintenance For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alyssa Colston Jan 2020

A Systematic Review Of Peer-Mediated Interventions And Topic Maintenance For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alyssa Colston

Theses and Dissertations--Early Childhood, Special Education, and Counselor Education

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the current literature on the use of peer mediated instruction to address topic maintenance for indiviuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A literature review using the standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse was conducted. The studies included in the review met the following criteria: (a) use of SCRD; (b) inclusion of at least one participant with ASD as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) or DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD; (c) examination of the use of peer instruction containing any of the …


Reviving The Rules, Roles, And Rituals Of Resiliency, Don Offutt Jan 2020

Reviving The Rules, Roles, And Rituals Of Resiliency, Don Offutt

Theses and Dissertations--Curriculum and Instruction

This descriptive case study of a historical period in education in the Commonwealth of Kentucky identifies the resiliency factors utilized by the first class to desegregate the Bowling Green, Kentucky, public school system. The participants in the study were members of the first African-American class to integrate the Bowling Green school system in 1965.

Critical Race Theory provided the tenets undergirding the research study. The qualitative research methods included conducting semi-structured interviews with participants; studying documents and artifacts from the era; having conversations with community members and educators; and collecting, archiving, and housing Bowling Green African-American education documents, artifacts, and …