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2017

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Full-Text Articles in Business

The Seventeenth Annual Albert A. Destefano Lecture On Corporate, Securities & Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, Caroline M. Gentile, The Honorable Karen L. Valihura Dec 2017

The Seventeenth Annual Albert A. Destefano Lecture On Corporate, Securities & Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, Caroline M. Gentile, The Honorable Karen L. Valihura

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

No abstract provided.


Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, Spencer Williams Dec 2017

Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, Spencer Williams

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

This Article presents an empirical analysis of the connection between bargaining power and contract design using an original dataset of over 5,500 equity and debt venture financings from 2004–2015. Using the total supply of venture capital in the U.S. as a measure of relative bargaining power between entrepreneurs and investors, this Article finds that venture capital supply has a statistically significant relationship with price and non-price terms in both equity and debt financings. These results contradict one of three theoretical accounts of bargaining power and support the other two.


Proxy Access And Optimal Standardization In Corporate Governance: An Empirical Analysis, Reilly S. Steel Dec 2017

Proxy Access And Optimal Standardization In Corporate Governance: An Empirical Analysis, Reilly S. Steel

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

According to the conventional wisdom, “one size does not fit all” in corporate governance. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to their governance needs, implying that the optimal corporate governance structure must also vary from firm to firm. This one-size-does-not-fit-all axiom has featured prominently in arguments against numerous corporate law regulatory initiatives, including the SEC’s failed Rule 14a-11—an attempt to impose mandatory, uniform “proxy access” on all public companies—which the D.C. Circuit struck down for inadequate costbenefit analysis.

This Article presents an alternative theory as to the role of standardization in corporate governance—in which investors prefer standardized terms—and empirical …


A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, Ian A. Engoron Dec 2017

A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, Ian A. Engoron

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Following the Financial Crisis of 2008, trust in the financial industry was at an all-time low as the American taxpayer was forced to bailout the very same institutions responsible for their suffering. In response, Congress passed Dodd-Frank in 2010 to ensure another crisis like 2008 never happen again. Section 78u-6 of the Act provides incentives and protections for whistleblowers who report violations of securities laws. In recent years there has been a divide among circuit courts over the question of whether employees who report violations internally to their bosses—and not directly to the SEC—are protected by the Act. Currently, the …


Intraday Volatility And The Implementation Of A Closing Call Auction At Borsa Istanbul, A. Can Inci, Deniz Ozenbas Dec 2017

Intraday Volatility And The Implementation Of A Closing Call Auction At Borsa Istanbul, A. Can Inci, Deniz Ozenbas

Department of Accounting and Finance Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

The implementation of a closing call auction on market quality and volatility is examined at Borsa Istanbul in Turkey. Using 5- and 15-minute intervals, we document the accentuated volatility after the open and before the close during the morning and afternoon sessions. We show that the implementation of a closing call decreases volatility accentuation just prior to the market close, and increases market quality. We also document the evolution of intraday volatility patterns at Borsa Istanbul using the longest to date high frequency dataset available, and show that volatility has been increasing over time, especially at the close.


Foreign Capital Flows, Uncertainties Of Exchange Rates And Central Bank Independence: Implications For Emerging Economies, Hermann Sintim-Aboagye, Chandana Chakraborty, Serapio Byekwaso Dec 2017

Foreign Capital Flows, Uncertainties Of Exchange Rates And Central Bank Independence: Implications For Emerging Economies, Hermann Sintim-Aboagye, Chandana Chakraborty, Serapio Byekwaso

Department of Accounting and Finance Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Utilizing time series data for a panel of 22 emerging countries and applying Granger causality tests, this paper extends the relationship between central bank independence (CBI) and uncertainties of inflation by including the phenomena of exchange rates and foreign capital flows. There are two specific objectives of this investigation. The first objective is to see whether uncertainty of inflation induces volatility of exchange rates, and vice versa, under differing degrees of CBI. The second objective is to explore whether the dynamics of the former relationship influence foreign capital flows in turn and, if so, whether the extent of CBI plays …


Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy Dec 2017

Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy

Amar Gande

We examine whether risk-taking among the largest financial firms in the U.S. is related to CEO equity incentives before the 2008 financial crisis. Using data on U.S. Federal Reserve emergency loans provided to these firms, we find that the amount of emergency loans and total days the loans are outstanding are increasing in pre-crisis CEO risk-taking incentives – “vega”. Our results are robust to accounting for endogeneity in CEO equity incentives and selection of financial firms into emergency loan programs. We also rule out the possibility that our results are driven by a bank’s funding base, bank complexity, CEO overconfidence, …


Voluntary Changes In Accounting Principle: Literature Review, Descriptive Data, And Opportunities For Future Research, Marsha B. Keune, Timothy M. Keune, Linda C. Quick Dec 2017

Voluntary Changes In Accounting Principle: Literature Review, Descriptive Data, And Opportunities For Future Research, Marsha B. Keune, Timothy M. Keune, Linda C. Quick

Accounting Faculty Publications

Voluntary changes in accounting principle represent explicit and fundamental decisions by managers to exercise accounting discretion. This paper develops an organizing framework to review prior literature on voluntary changes, provides descriptive insights on contemporary changes, and identifies opportunities for future research on voluntary changes. The voluntary change literature is robust and has examined many questions using data prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). We find that contemporary voluntary changes often vary across the pre-SOX, post-SOX, and post-SFAS No. 154 periods by the materiality of their income effect, issue type, and justifications provided by managers, suggesting that manager use …


2017 Q4 Private Capital Access Index Report, Craig R. Everett Dec 2017

2017 Q4 Private Capital Access Index Report, Craig R. Everett

Pepperdine Private Capital Access Report

The Pepperdine Private Capital Access Index (PCA) is a quarterly indicator produced by the Graziadio School of Business and Management at Pepperdine University, and with the support of Dun & Bradstreet. The index is designed to measure the demand for, activity, and health of the private capital markets. The purpose of the PCA Index is to gauge the demand of small and medium sized businesses for financing needs, the level of accessibility of private capital, and the transparency and efficiency of private financing markets.


Profitability Ratios In The Early Stages Of A Startup, Erkki K. Laitinen Nov 2017

Profitability Ratios In The Early Stages Of A Startup, Erkki K. Laitinen

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

This study develops a mathematical framework to analyze the time series of profitability ratios in the early stages of a startup. It is assumed that the expenditure of the startup grows at a steady rate and generates a proportionally identical flow of revenue in each period. The profitability in terms of the internal rate of return (IRR) and the lag structure of revenue flows are assumed constant over time in describing the adjustment process towards the steady state. The startup is assumed to expense in each period a constant part of periodic expenditure and beginning-of-the-period assets. The adjustment processes of …


Currency Mismatch And Balance Sheet Effects Of Exchange Rate In Turkish Non-Financial Corporations, Serkan Demirkilic Nov 2017

Currency Mismatch And Balance Sheet Effects Of Exchange Rate In Turkish Non-Financial Corporations, Serkan Demirkilic

Doctoral Dissertations

Until the East Asian Crisis of 1990s, literature exclusively focused on the assumed expansionary competitiveness channel of deprecation in the domestic currency. The East Asian and Latin American Crisis of 1990s proved that depreciation in the domestic currency caused fragilities through the deterioration in firms’ balance sheet net- worth. Many have argued that excessive reliance on short-term debt and un-hedged foreign currency borrowings of firms were responsible of fragilities, and resulting poor performances of firms in these countries. The latter body of the literature introduced the contractionary balance sheet effects of foreign currency indebtedness through depreciation, and argued that if …


Lobbying In Finance Industry: Evidence From Us Banking System, Omer Unsal, M.Kabir Hassan, William Hippler Nov 2017

Lobbying In Finance Industry: Evidence From Us Banking System, Omer Unsal, M.Kabir Hassan, William Hippler

Finance Faculty Publications

We examine the relationship between corporate lobbying, shareholder-based litigation outcomes, and firm value for financial firms. First, we show that political lobbying lowers the litigation likelihood for financial institutions. Secondly, lobbying firms experience a higher likelihood of having litigation dismissed, and the average settlement amount is significantly lower for lobbying institutions. In addition, shortly after a litigation announcement, lobbying firms experience significantly higher cumulative abnormal returns (CARs), compared to non-lobbying firms. Finally, we show that lobbying firms have higher long-run buy-and-hold abnormal stock returns (BHARs) following lobbying activities. Our results link financial institution lobbying activity with improved legal outcomes and …


Big Data And Analytics In The Modern Audit Engagement: Research Needs, Deniz Appelbaum, Alexander Kogan, Miklos A. Vasarhelyi Nov 2017

Big Data And Analytics In The Modern Audit Engagement: Research Needs, Deniz Appelbaum, Alexander Kogan, Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

Department of Accounting and Finance Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Modern audit engagements often involve examination of clients that are using Big Data and analytics to remain competitive and relevant in today’s business environment. Client systems now are integrated with the cloud, the Internet of Things, and external data sources such as social media. Furthermore, many engagement clients are now integrating this Big Data with new and complex business analytical approaches to generate intelligence for decision making. This scenario provides almost limitless opportunities and the urgency for the external auditor to utilize advanced analytics. This paper first positions the need for the external audit profession to move toward Big Data …


The Flow Of Funds In Asean, Philip C. Zerrillo Nov 2017

The Flow Of Funds In Asean, Philip C. Zerrillo

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

In his novel, Memoirs of a Geisha, Arthur Golden wrote, “Water can carve its way even through stone. And when trapped, water makes a new path.” Something similar seems to be happening with the flow of funds in ASEAN.


Heineken's Acquisition Of Asia Pacific Breweries: Accounting For Business Combinations And Ownership Interests, Pearl Hock Neo Tan, Chu Yeong Lim Nov 2017

Heineken's Acquisition Of Asia Pacific Breweries: Accounting For Business Combinations And Ownership Interests, Pearl Hock Neo Tan, Chu Yeong Lim

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

On July 20, 2012, Heineken, a Dutch brewery offered S$5.125 billion (Singapore dollars; approximately US$4.1 billion) to buy Asia Pacific Breweries Ltd (APB; formerly, Malayan Breweries Limited) from its Singapore-based joint venture partner, Fraser and Neave, Limited. (F&N). At that point, Heineken and F&N had joint control over APB through the joint venture vehicle Asia Pacific Investments Pte Ltd (APIPL). Brewery business under the joint arrangement had moved on quite predictably from the time APB was formed in 1931. However, the calm changed to high drama when Thai Beverage, owned by one of Thailand's tycoons, made a bid for F&N …


Protecting The Viability Of The Small Donor In Modern Elections, Ben Miller Oct 2017

Protecting The Viability Of The Small Donor In Modern Elections, Ben Miller

Arkansas Law Review

Campaign finance reform stands as one of the most important issues in today’s modern elections. From national to municipal contests, the influx of large donations places wealthy individuals—and interests—at odds with the average voter. Over the years, volumes of academic and legislative reforms have been proposed that encompass a wide range of electoral subject matter. From Citizens United to Federal Elections Commission (FEC) control mechanisms, solutions on how to change our campaign finance regulatory regime cover a large and diverse area of law and policy. However, the central theme throughout these reforms is maximizing transparency and curbing the undue influence …


Additional Evidence On The Impact Of The International Financial Reporting Standards On Earnings Quality: Evidence From Latin America, Mauricio Melgarejo Oct 2017

Additional Evidence On The Impact Of The International Financial Reporting Standards On Earnings Quality: Evidence From Latin America, Mauricio Melgarejo

Scholarship and Professional Work - Business

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has an impact on the quality of earnings in Latin America. Studying a sample offirms from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru, I find that management reports a lower level of discretionary accruals after the implementation of the IFRS. In addition, this study provides evidence that earnings are more persistent and stock prices are more associated with earning numbers after the application of IFRS. This paper provides evidence that earnings quality has increased after the adoption of IFRS in Latin America.


Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti Oct 2017

Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti

Accounting Faculty Publications

Because the term materiality arose within the context of financial reporting and statement assurance, internal auditors have been challenged in adapting or creating a definition that is relevant for themselves and their stakeholders. In the context of financial reporting, materiality is relevant to three stakeholder groups: 1) preparers of financial statements, 2) auditors, and 3) users of financial statements. Although materiality decisions are made by only two of these three groups--preparers and auditors--most internal auditors' conception of materiality likely has a user orientation. The auditor might ask, "How would a reasonably prudent investor react to the magnitude of misstatement (under- …


Analyzing Cyber Threats Affecting The Financial Industry, Anna Skelton Oct 2017

Analyzing Cyber Threats Affecting The Financial Industry, Anna Skelton

Student Works

As critical infrastructure, financial institutions must execute the highest level of cybersecurity as the threat of a crippling cyberattack continues to develop. Malicious actors, including disenfranchised employees, state sponsored actors, and traditional hackers, all have motivations to target the financial industry, and do so frequently. However, the threat changes slightly between resource rich large institutions and their smaller, community bank counterparts. The complex and multifaceted threat must be fully understood in order to properly address and analyze solution options to preserve the security of these institutions and the economy that they contribute to.


Essays On The El Niño Anomaly And Stock Return Predictability, Zhijun Yang Oct 2017

Essays On The El Niño Anomaly And Stock Return Predictability, Zhijun Yang

Finance Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation is to examine the impact of the El Niño phenomenon on the international stock market, both at the aggregate level and the portfolio level.

In first essay, I study the predictive relation between the El Niño phenomenon and international stock market aggregate returns. I find that the El Niño anomaly can predict all 14 countries’ stock returns. Specifically, the El Niño unconditional effect can predict stock return negatively in Japan, Malaysia, and South Africa, while the El Niño conditional on winter season can predict positively stock returns in 13 countries’ stock markets except for Japan. This conditional effect …


Making Financial Disclosure More Readable, Clarence Goh, Poh Sun Seow, Gary Pan Oct 2017

Making Financial Disclosure More Readable, Clarence Goh, Poh Sun Seow, Gary Pan

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

There are many benefits tohaving disclosures written in plain English. Investors would be more likely tounderstand the disclosures and to make informed judgments. Investment analystswould also be able to make more timely and accurate recommendations to theirclients if they can understand such disclosures more quickly and easily


Additional Evidence On The Impact Of The International Financial Reporting Standards On Earnings Quality: Evidence From Latin America, Mauricio A. Melgarejo Sep 2017

Additional Evidence On The Impact Of The International Financial Reporting Standards On Earnings Quality: Evidence From Latin America, Mauricio A. Melgarejo

Mauricio Melgarejo

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has an impact on the quality of earnings in Latin America. Studying a sample offirms from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru, I find that management reports a lower level of discretionary accruals after the implementation of the IFRS. In addition, this study provides evidence that earnings are more persistent and stock prices are more associated with earning numbers after the application of IFRS. This paper provides evidence that earnings quality has increased after the adoption of IFRS in Latin America.


Ceo’S Inside Debt And Dynamics Of Capital Structure, Eric Brisker, Wei Wang Sep 2017

Ceo’S Inside Debt And Dynamics Of Capital Structure, Eric Brisker, Wei Wang

Business Faculty Publications

Debt-type compensation (inside debt) exacerbates the divergence in risk preferences between the chief executive officer (CEO) and shareholders and, in turn, affects capital structure decisions. An excessively risk-averse CEO tends to use less debt than the shareholders desire, reduce debt
quickly when the firm is overlevered, but is reluctant to increase debt when the firm is underlevered. We find that higher CEO’s inside debt ratio (i.e., inside debt as a percentage of total incentive compensation) is associated with lower firm leverage and faster (slower) leverage adjustments toward the shareholders’ desired level for overlevered (underlevered) firms. The CEO’s inside debt ratio …


Fss 2020 Financial Markets Programme: Progress So Far, Charles Ohamara Sep 2017

Fss 2020 Financial Markets Programme: Progress So Far, Charles Ohamara

Bullion

The Financial System Strategy (FSS) 2020 is a national reform program aimed at developing and transforming Nigeria's financial sector into a growth catalyst to fast track the achievement of the Vision 20:2020 and engineer Nigeria's evolution into on International Financial Centre. The strategic objectives of FSS2020 are to strengthen and deepen the domestic financial markets, enhance the integration of domestic financial markets with the external financial markets and supporting the reals sector. To attain these objectives, the key regulators of the Nigerian financial system come together under the leadership of the Central Bank of Nigeria and crafted the vision to …


Essays On Capital Structure And Institutional Ownership, Yuan Feng Sep 2017

Essays On Capital Structure And Institutional Ownership, Yuan Feng

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters about how institutional ownership and trading affect capital structure.

Chapter 1

The literature documents that firms issue equity following periods of high stock return and such behavior only occurs in concert with high returns that coincide with large amounts of buying by new institutions. My findings suggest this is also associated with strong institutional selling, the opposite of what one would expect. This positive relationship is not driven by outflow-motivated selling, but rather by informed selling by short-term institutions.

Chapter 2

I document a strong negative relationship between institutional ownership and leverage. I find …


Gender And Connections Among Wall Street Analysts, Lily Hua Fang, Sterling Huang Sep 2017

Gender And Connections Among Wall Street Analysts, Lily Hua Fang, Sterling Huang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We examine how alumni ties with corporate boards differentially affect male and female analysts’ job performance and career outcomes. Connection improves men’s job performance — forecasting accuracy and recommendation impact — significantly more than women’s. Controlling for performance, connection further contributes to men’s, but not women’s, likelihood of being voted by institutional investors as “star” analysts, a marker of career success. These asymmetric effects are stronger in more opaque firms and among younger analysts, but is absent from a placebo test. Our evidence indicates that men reap higher benefits from social networks than women in both job performance and subjective …


The Effects Of Risk Management On Management Forecast Behavior, John L. Campbell, Sean Cao, Hye Sun Chang, Raluca Chiorean Sep 2017

The Effects Of Risk Management On Management Forecast Behavior, John L. Campbell, Sean Cao, Hye Sun Chang, Raluca Chiorean

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Prior research examines several reasons why managers voluntarily disclose information, but provides relatively little evidence as to whether day-to-day operational decisions influence a manager’s disclosure choice. In this study, we examine whether a particular operational activity – risk management through the use of derivatives – affects whether a manager decides to issue earnings forecasts. Using a large hand-collected sample of derivatives users and non-users, we find that derivatives users are more likely to issue earnings forecasts relative to non-users. We then find that this result is stronger when the use of derivatives makes it less costly for managers to issue …


Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min Aug 2017

Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min

All Faculty Scholarship

Recently, courts have embraced the contractarian theory that corporate charters and bylaws constitute a “contract” between the shareholders and the corporation and have been more willing to uphold bylaws unilaterally adopted by the directors. This paper examines the contractarian theory by drawing a parallel between amending charters and bylaws, on the one hand, and amending contracts, on the other. In particular, the paper compares the right to unilaterally amend corporate bylaws with the right to unilaterally modify contract terms, and highlights how contract law imposes various limitations on the modifying party’s discretion. More generally, when the relationship of contracting parties …


Funding Science With Science (And, Admittedly, A Lot Of Math), John R. Ziegler, Dylan Hunzeker, Edward Lehner Aug 2017

Funding Science With Science (And, Admittedly, A Lot Of Math), John R. Ziegler, Dylan Hunzeker, Edward Lehner

Publications and Research

Scientific funding within the academy is an often complicated affair involving disparate and competing interests. Private universities, for instance, are vastly outpacing public institutions in garnering large, prestigious grants. Inequities also extend to the kinds of research funded, with government, corporate, and even military interests privileging certain types of inquiry.This work proposes an innovative type of research fund using cryptocurrencies, a fast growing asset class. Although not a total funding solution, staking coins, specifically, can be strategically invested in to yield compound interest. These coins use central hub technology to collateralise the network and speed transaction pace. Additionally. These staking …


Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza Aug 2017

Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza

Theses and Dissertations

Is the executive’s compensation structure influenced by the credit rating assigned to his company? I analyze a panel of U.S. public firms using the random-effects and fixed-effects estimations. Compared to firms with lower credit risk, I find that firms facing higher probability of default provide more incentives for their CEOs.