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2010

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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Down, But Not Out: An Ethnographic Study Of Women Who Struggled With And Overcame Methamphetamine Addiction, Jodi Nettleton Dec 2010

Down, But Not Out: An Ethnographic Study Of Women Who Struggled With And Overcame Methamphetamine Addiction, Jodi Nettleton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women suffer methamphetamine (meth) addiction at a rate much higher than rates for addiction to other drugs. Female meth users are susceptible and predisposed to gender-related risks: high rates of unprotected vaginal and anal sex, sex-work, and sexual coercion. Precursors for addiction (e.g., abuse, body dysphasia) put females in a difficult position for recovery and highlight the need for gender-specific research and treatment.

Methamphetamine (a synthetically derived stimulant) creates psychological and physical dependency that affects every neuron of the brain and damages the body immediately. Women ingest meth for initial effects that allay social pressures: feeling euphoric, connecting with ...


Epidemiological Study Of Contributing Factors In The Development Of Peptic Ulcer And Gastric Cancer Initiated By Helicobacter Pylori Infection In India, Rahul Suresh Mhaskar Dec 2010

Epidemiological Study Of Contributing Factors In The Development Of Peptic Ulcer And Gastric Cancer Initiated By Helicobacter Pylori Infection In India, Rahul Suresh Mhaskar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a significant risk factor for peptic ulcer (PU) and gastric cancer (GC). Apart from the virulent CagA genotype of H. pylori environmental and dietary factors influence disease outcomes. There have been no studies addressing these factors in Western India. Hence, we conducted a case control study enrolling PU, GC patients and controls at Pune, India.

Methods: Risk factors for PU and H. pylori infection were assessed in participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. To understand treatment effect, we followed 100 H. pylori positive patients.

Results: We ...


African American Athletes And The Negotiation Of Public Spaces: An Examination Of Athletic Capital And African American Perceptions Of Success, Keona Lewis Dec 2010

African American Athletes And The Negotiation Of Public Spaces: An Examination Of Athletic Capital And African American Perceptions Of Success, Keona Lewis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the culture of sport among African American male football players as well as African American perspectives on sport and success. A case study of six African American, Division 1 FBS (Football Bowl Subdivision) collegiate student athletes was conducted along with seventeen supplemental interviews with community members, parents, coaches and former athletes and fans. The participants answered questions that explored education, success, identity construction, ethnicity and sport. Archival data was also reviewed framing the discussion on football in Florida, links between education and sport participation and African American male academic achievement. While many perspectives varied, there were collective ...


A Multi-Level Study Investigating The Impact Of Workplace Civility Climate On Incivility And Employee Well-Being, Raymond Charles Ottinot Dec 2010

A Multi-Level Study Investigating The Impact Of Workplace Civility Climate On Incivility And Employee Well-Being, Raymond Charles Ottinot

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used Zohar‟s (2000) multi-level model of climate to examine the extent to which shared perceptions of workplace civility climate relate to teacher job satisfaction, affective commitment, and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB-abuse) towards other teachers. Workplace civility climate is defined as employee perceptions of how management uses policies, procedures, and practices to maintain a civil workplace. An online-survey was used to assess a cross-sectional sample of K-12 teachers (N = 2222) nested in 207 schools in a large US school district. There was adequate agreement among teacher perceptions of school civility climate for aggregation and between-group variance of civility ...


Gender Violence In India Prajnya Report 2010, Professor Vibhuti Patel Dec 2010

Gender Violence In India Prajnya Report 2010, Professor Vibhuti Patel

Professor Vibhuti Patel

Gender violence in personal lives as well as the systems and structures perpetuating it need serious examination. Indian women experience all kinds of gendered violence at different stages of their lives, from womb to tomb, as a result of modernisation and commercialisation of subsistence economies, family ties becoming less supportive, increasing migration, demanding work, inhuman labour processes in informal economies, sectarian vested interests manifesting through identity politics, trafficking of women and girls as cheap labour, forced marriage and various forms of misogyny in print and electronic media. Honour killing of young lovers and married couples by their relatives brings to ...


The Surprise Exam Paradox: Disentangling Two Reductios, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Surprise Exam Paradox: Disentangling Two Reductios, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

One tradition of solving the surprise exam paradox, started by Robert Binkley and continued by Doris Olin, Roy Sorensen and Jelle Gerbrandy, construes surprise epistemically and relies upon the oddity of propositions akin to G. E. Moore's paradoxical 'p and I don't believe that p.' Here I argue for an analysis that evolves from Olin's. My analysis is different from hers or indeed any of those in the tradition because it explicitly recognizes that there are two distinct reductios at work in the student's paradoxical argument against the teacher. The weak reductio is easy to fault ...


Belief-In And Belief In God, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Belief-In And Belief In God, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Of all the examples of ‘belief-in’, belief in God is both the most mysterious and the most challenging. Indeed whether and how an apologist can make a case for the intellectual respectability of theistic belief, depends upon the nature of this ‘belief-in’. I shall attempt to elucidate this matter by an analysis of the relation of ‘belief-in’ to ‘belief-that’ and by treating belief in God as a special case of ‘belief-in’.


Moorean Absurdity And The Intentional 'Structure' Of Assertion, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity And The Intentional 'Structure' Of Assertion, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Justifying Circumstances And Moore-Paradoxical Beliefs: A Response To Brueckner, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Justifying Circumstances And Moore-Paradoxical Beliefs: A Response To Brueckner, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

In 2004, I explained the absurdity of Moore-paradoxical belief via the syllogism (Williams 2004): (1) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that tend to make me believe that p. (2) All circumstances that tend to make me believe that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p. (3) All circumstances that justify me in believing that p are circumstances that justify me in believing that I believe that p.


Wittgensteinian Accounts Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Wittgensteinian Accounts Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Moorean Absurdity And Conscious Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity And Conscious Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Moorean Absurdities And Higher Order Beliefs, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdities And Higher Order Beliefs, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Externalism And Knowledge Of Comparative Content, Yoo Guan Tan Dec 2010

Externalism And Knowledge Of Comparative Content, Yoo Guan Tan

John N. WILLIAMS

Concepts are the constituents of thoughts, which in turn, are the contents of propositional attitudes. They are also what the predicates of our language express. According to a tradition going back to Plato, questions about comparative content – questions of the form Is concept F the same as concept G? – are purely about relations of ideas, and so are answerable a priori. This does not mean that no experience at all is necessary to answer such questions, for experience may be needed to grasp their content. Call a piece of information about Fs extraneous if it is not required to obtain ...


Moore's Paradoxes And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moore's Paradoxes And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

I give an account of the absurdity of Moorean beliefs of the omissive form (om) p and I don’t believe that p, and the commissive form (com) p and I believe that not-p, from which I extract a definition of Moorean absurdity. I then argue for an account of the absurdity of Moorean assertion. After neutralizing two objections to my whole account, I show that Roy Sorensen’s own account of the absurdity of his ‘iterated cases’ (om1) p and I don’t believe that I believe that p, and (com1) p and I believe that I believe that ...


Confucius, Mencius And The Notion Of True Succession, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Confucius, Mencius And The Notion Of True Succession, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

G. E. Moore famously observed that to say, "I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did" would be "absurd." Why should it be absurd of me to say something about myself that might be true of me? Moore suggested an answer to this, but as I will show, one that fails. Wittgenstein was greatly impressed by Moore's discovery of a class of absurd but possibly true assertions because he saw that it illuminates "the logic of assertion". Wittgenstein suggests a promising relation of assertion to belief in terms of the idea that ...


The Absurdities Of Moore's Paradoxes, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Absurdities Of Moore's Paradoxes, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Moorean Absurdity And Expressing Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity And Expressing Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Wittgenstein, Moorean Absurdity And Its Disappearance From Speech, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

G. E. Moore famously observed that to say, I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did would be absurd. Why should it be absurd of me to say something about myself that might be true of me? Moore suggested an answer to this, but as I will show, one that fails. Wittgenstein was greatly impressed by Moore's discovery of a class of absurd but possibly true assertions because he saw that it illuminates the logic of assertion. Wittgenstein suggests a promising relation of assertion to belief in terms of the idea that ...


Dialogic Cosmopolitanism And Global Justice, Eduard Christiaan Jordaan Dec 2010

Dialogic Cosmopolitanism And Global Justice, Eduard Christiaan Jordaan

John N. WILLIAMS

Although the term “cosmopolitan-communitarian debate” never really caught on, a national-global fault line remains prominent in debates about global justice. “Dialogic cosmopolitanism” holds the promise of bridging this alleged fault line by accepting many of the communitarian criticisms against cosmopolitanism and following what can be described as a communitarian path to cosmopolitanism. This article identifies and describes four key elements that distinguish dialogic cosmopolitanism: a respect for difference; a commitment to genuine dialogue; an open, hesitant and self-problematising attitude on the part of the moral subject; and an undertaking to expand the boundaries of moral concern to the point of ...


Inconsistency And Contradiction, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Inconsistency And Contradiction, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Inconsistency and contradiction are important concepts. Unfortunately, they are easily confused. A proposition or belief which is inconsistent is one which is self- contradictory and vice-versa. Moreover two propositions or beliefs which are contradictories are inconsistent with each other. Nonetheless it is a mistake to suppose that inconsistency is the same as contradiction.


Superman, Wittgenstein And The Disappearance Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Superman, Wittgenstein And The Disappearance Of Moorean Absurdity, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

'You have known me for years, Lois' explains Superman, as I lay aside my copy of Crimmins’s example (1992). 'But there is something you have not yet discovered. You also know me under a disguise. You have not yet realized that this person is I in disguise. On that way of thinking about me, you have different opinions of me. In fact you think me an idiot.' I've just informed Superman that I accept his testimony on the strength of his intelligence. But I confess I don’t quite know how to acknowledge my acceptance of his final ...


Moorean Absurdities And The Nature Of Assertion, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdities And The Nature Of Assertion, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

I argue that Moore's propositions, for example, 'I went to the pictures last Tuesday but I don't believe that I did' cannot be rationally believed. Their assertors either cannot be rationally believed or cannot be believed to be rational. This analysis is extended to Moorean propositions such as God knows that I am an atheist and I believe that this proposition is false. I then defend the following definition of assertion: anyone asserts that p iff that person expresses a belief that p with the intention of causing relevant epistemic change in the cognition of an actual or ...


The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Ethics Of Placebo-Controlled Trials In Developing Countries To Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission Of Hiv, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Placebo-trials on HIV-infected pregnant women in developing countries like Thailand and Uganda have provoked recent controversy. Such experiments aim to find a treatment that will cut the rate of vertical transmission more efficiently than existing treatments like zidovudine. This scenario is first stated as generally as possible, before three ethical principles found in the Belmont Report, itself a sharpening of the Helsinki Declaration, are stated. These three principles are the Principle of Utility, the Principle of Autonomy and the Principle of Justice. These are taken as voices of moral imperative. But although each has intuitive appeal, it can be shown ...


Orwell And Huxley: Making Dissent Unthinkable, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Orwell And Huxley: Making Dissent Unthinkable, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

In this paper I compare the fictional world depicted by Orwell’s 1984 with that of Huxley’s Brave New World from the point of view of an analytic philosopher. Neither novel should be read as predictions, the accuracy of which can be used to judge them. Rather, both attempt to portray what humanity could conceivably become. The authenticity of this conceivability is a necessary condition of the power of both works to raise central philosophical questions about the human condition. What is ethically wrong with control? How far can Man go in recreating himself? In what sense are these ...


Ontological Disproof Of God's Existence, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Ontological Disproof Of God's Existence, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

An initial reading of Hume's Principle is that no necessary truth can be denied without contradiction, whereas all existential propositions can. Therefore it is self-contradictory to say,that any existential claim is necessarily true, since it follows that this claim both can and cannot be denied without self-contradiction. Thus any claim of the form 'X necessarily exists' is a self-contradiction, even if X is God.


Moore's Paradox: One Or Two?, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moore's Paradox: One Or Two?, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

Discussions of what is sometimes called 'Moore's paradox' are often vitiated by a failure to notice that there are two paradoxes; not merely one in two sets of linguistic clothing. The two paradoxes are absurd, but in different ways, and accordingly require different explanations.


Moore’S Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief And Conscious Belief: A Reply To Vahid, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moore’S Paradox, Defective Interpretation, Justified Belief And Conscious Belief: A Reply To Vahid, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.


The Preface Paradox Dissolved, John N. Williams Dec 2010

The Preface Paradox Dissolved, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

The preface paradox strikes us as puzzling because we feel that if a person holds a set of inconsistent beliefs, i.e. beliefs such that at least one of them must be correct, then he should give at least one of them up. Equally, if a person's belief is rational, then he has a right to hold it. Yet the preface example is prima facie a case in which a person holds an inconsistent set of beliefs each of which is rational, and thus a case in which that person has a duty to relinquish what he has a ...


Moorean Absurdity, Knowledge And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams Dec 2010

Moorean Absurdity, Knowledge And Iterated Belief, John N. Williams

John N. WILLIAMS

No abstract provided.