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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Body Image And The Causes Of Dissatisfactions: Re-Shaping Negative Thinking Through Symbolic Powers Of Collage, Susie Thom May 2021

Body Image And The Causes Of Dissatisfactions: Re-Shaping Negative Thinking Through Symbolic Powers Of Collage, Susie Thom

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Understanding why so many individuals struggle with their body image becomes easier by analyzing how society promotes a “thin ideal” through the media, the way women talk to one another about their bodies (a term known as fat talk), social comparisons, and how families advocate for a slender build. Body image refers to our perception, feelings, and actions in regard to our body (Kaslow & Eicher, 1988; Seijo, 2016). Negative thoughts and feelings about one’s body as a result of viewing the media’s unattainable thin ideals, engaging in harmful and negative dialogue about one’s body, comparing one’s body or ...


How Risk-Related Statistics, As Reported In News And Social Media, Are Linked To The Use Of The Public Transit System, Prashiddhi Pokhrel Apr 2021

How Risk-Related Statistics, As Reported In News And Social Media, Are Linked To The Use Of The Public Transit System, Prashiddhi Pokhrel

Thinking Matters Symposium

Due to the pandemic, people have started relying more on televisions, news, social media, and other news outlets for guidance. Moreover, with the increasing amount of news, data, and information there is also an increase in the amount of misleading statistics. People’s opinions and decisions significantly depend on the data, statistics, and information that they are exposed to, as well as their sources. For this project, we want to look at how information and its sources are affecting the decision made by the general public for the usage of the Portland Transit System. It is very important to know ...


Dominant Narratives In The Migratory Discourse Of Colombia; An Analysis Of The Content Of Speech In Local Television News And The Opinions Of Colombian Citizens, Jennifer Andrea Moya Castano Aug 2020

Dominant Narratives In The Migratory Discourse Of Colombia; An Analysis Of The Content Of Speech In Local Television News And The Opinions Of Colombian Citizens, Jennifer Andrea Moya Castano

Graduate Masters Theses

Colombia is an underdeveloped country that has little experience as a host country of migrants. The massive arrival of Venezuelans has sparked a number of social concerns. Currently, Colombia is the largest recipient of Venezuelans in the world, with 1.5 million Venezuelans. The lack of regulatory migration policies and programs or institutions that support migration processes makes this phenomenon more difficult at a large scale. However, the Colombian government has made efforts to support the Venezuelan population, which have been contested by some Colombian citizens. State actors, non-state actors, and Colombian citizens have all been forming and developing a ...


Popular Television’S Health And Safety Message: What Has Changed In The Past Generation?, Heather Ann Leon Apr 2020

Popular Television’S Health And Safety Message: What Has Changed In The Past Generation?, Heather Ann Leon

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The assertion that television has an impact on viewers is well-supported in theory and empirical research. Hundreds of researchers have conducted hundreds of studies focused on limited, specific programming content or specific effects to contribute to this evidence. However, far fewer researchers have conducted broad, comprehensive programming content analysis. One exception is a 2005 study from Will et al. examining multiple health and safety behaviors including sexual activity, driving behaviors, intoxicating and unhealthy substance use, and violence depicted in the 1997/1998 primetime television season. Results of their research showed overall that primetime television promoted the perception that the observed ...


The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles Jan 2020

The Relationship Between Nature, Media Use And Psychosocial Well Being In A College Population, Eve Gilles

Honors Theses

Time in nature is associated with a variety of mental, physical and emotional health benefits while the effects of media use on psychosocial well being are unclear. Although our society is increasingly urbanized and technology-focused, there is a lack of research examining the relationship between nature, media and psychosocial well-being. The aim of this research was to explore these variables in a college-age population. Method: 82 participants participated in a survey using measures of Psychosocial Well Being, Media Use and Nature Connection and Exposure. Results: Media use partially mediates the relationship between nature relatedness and social anxiety. Conclusions: There is ...


The Association Of Romance Movies, Gender, And Relational Identity Among Emerging Adults, Sara Hare Jan 2020

The Association Of Romance Movies, Gender, And Relational Identity Among Emerging Adults, Sara Hare

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Emerging adults are motivated to form intimate relationships and explore their relational identity. Little is known, however, about the development of relational identity in emerging adults. Given that external influences such as movies can impact how people view relationships, and that emerging adults are more likely to watch movies than other forms of media, it is essential to explore the relationship between movies and relational identity in emerging adults. The purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to examine the relationship between relational identity, gender, and the preference for romance movies among emerging adults. The theoretical foundations for the study ...


Adolescent Perspectives On Media Use: A Qualitative Study, April Fiacco Jan 2020

Adolescent Perspectives On Media Use: A Qualitative Study, April Fiacco

Dissertations & Theses

This qualitative study looks at adolescents’ engagement with media and explores their perceptions of how media plays a role in their lives. For the purpose of this study, media includes watching television shows, watching and reading the news, and involvement in various types of social media. The influence of parents and peers is also explored to examine adolescents’ views of whether parent and peer opinions affect the types of media with which the adolescent participants choose to engage. The study used a semi structured interview to collect data with participants from a Massachusetts public high school. The data were analyzed ...


A Multidimensional Analysis Of Stigma: Findings From A Qualitative Study Of Fukushima Residents Following Japan’S 2011 Nuclear Disaster, Allison Kwesell, Joo-Young Jung Oct 2019

A Multidimensional Analysis Of Stigma: Findings From A Qualitative Study Of Fukushima Residents Following Japan’S 2011 Nuclear Disaster, Allison Kwesell, Joo-Young Jung

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This study examines stigma from the perspective of residents of Fukushima prefecture following the 2011 nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, to better understand effective crisis communication strategies that can mitigate the negative effects of self-stigma and promote sustainable psychosocial recovery. Social cognitive theory was employed to explore cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes faced by Fukushima residents in response to the stigma imposed upon them after the disaster. The study result based on in-depth interviews with residents of Shinchimachi, Fukushima, indicates that affectively, participants experienced a remarkable amount of fear and sadness. Cognitively, they focused on concerns about outsiders’ negative images ...


An Integrated Model Of Eating Disorder Risk And Protective Factors: Implications For Research And Treatment, Leslie Alison Davis-Waddle Aug 2019

An Integrated Model Of Eating Disorder Risk And Protective Factors: Implications For Research And Treatment, Leslie Alison Davis-Waddle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors are significant public health concerns, especially among college-age women. Despite extensive research, the complex nature of disordered eating and its etiology has prevented a satisfactory predictive model from being developed and validated and has therefore hindered the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. This study aimed to integrate four of the most common etiological theories into a model to predict disordered eating behaviors. Bivariate correlations and moderation analyses were conducted to determine the strength of relationships between variables and to determine whether a protective factor (i.e., self-compassion) moderates the effects of risk ...


Empowering The Plus Size Body Using Dance As Therapy, Ashley Sampson May 2019

Empowering The Plus Size Body Using Dance As Therapy, Ashley Sampson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

In Western society, having the “ideal” body image and size is a societal issue. It is advertised throughout media outlets that the “ideal” body is what should be desired, and any other body type is “abnormal”. This capstone thesis focused on the effectiveness of dance as therapy and changing the perspectives of all body types, to support and empower all bodies including plus-sized bodies. The use of individual interviews, in an open dialogue model, with a select few members (3) of Soul thru Sole, including the CEO of the dance company; which focuses on empowering women no matter their age ...


Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield May 2019

Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield

MSU Graduate Theses

The media ecosystem has grown, and political opinions have diverged such that there are competing conceptions of objective truth. Commentators often point to political biases in news coverage as a catalyst for this political divide. The Moral Foundations Dictionary (MFD) facilitates identification of ideological leanings in text through frequency of the occurrence of certain words. Through web scraping, the researcher extracted articles from popular news sources’ websites, calculated MFD word frequencies, and identified words’ respective valences. This process attempts to uncover news outlets’ positive or negative endorsements of certain moral dimensions concomitant with a particular ideology. In Experiment 1, the ...


Using Positive Psychology To Grow Through Grief, Courtney Daly, Elizabeth Blaum, Laryssa Kundanmal, Jessica Massa May 2019

Using Positive Psychology To Grow Through Grief, Courtney Daly, Elizabeth Blaum, Laryssa Kundanmal, Jessica Massa

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Grief does not discriminate; most individuals in this world, regardless of background or life circumstance, will eventually experience the loss of someone close to them. Children’s Bereavement Center, based in Miami, Florida, offers no-cost peer-support groups to grieving children, adolescents, and adults. The following paper presents an overview of the organization as well as a customized application plan for how positive psychology can be further integrated into Children’s Bereavement Center’s services. We include a situation analysis of the grief sector, looking specifically at Children’s Bereavement Center’s influence in southern Florida, a literature review of positive ...


Evolutionary And Social Manifestations Of Misled Fear: How Fear Motivates And Manipulates, Meghan Sink Apr 2019

Evolutionary And Social Manifestations Of Misled Fear: How Fear Motivates And Manipulates, Meghan Sink

Honor Scholar Theses

This thesis emphasizes the negative outcomes associated with misled fear. It begins by examining the evolutionary basis of human and animal fear, and then applies the fear learning process as well as evolutionarily innate fears to maladaptive cognitive and behavioral outcomes that manifest today. One example of such a maladaptive manifestation is a behavior based in racial prejudice, occurring from an act based in the evolutionary fear of an out-group. Finally, this paper presents how human fear is further misled and manipulated by the media--intentionally and unintentionally. Overall, the present argument is that humans must increase their conscious awareness of ...


How Media Impact Race Relations: Positive And Negative Historical Examples And Applied Psychological Principles, Sophia Nocera Mar 2019

How Media Impact Race Relations: Positive And Negative Historical Examples And Applied Psychological Principles, Sophia Nocera

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This thesis sought to examine how media influenced interracial relations in the 1920s and 1930s. It starts by defining necessary terms like media, race, racism, and stereotypes. Afterwards, studies which demonstrate that media reflect society are analyzed as well as studies which determine the extent of media influence on society. Media are the most influential on people who agree with the content provided and those who have no specific opinion on the issue at hand.

Next, psychological studies which determine the circumstances in which racist ideology is accepted the most are analyzed. This analysis determined that in-group versus out-group sentiments ...


Screen Time And The Effects On Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cassandra Starks Jan 2019

Screen Time And The Effects On Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cassandra Starks

DNP Projects

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project is to determine if an educational intervention with families decreased overall screen time use in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

METHODS: This study was a single group pre-test, post-test interventional study design. The sample population consisted of the parents/guardians of 30 school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD (5-12 years) recruited from the University of Kentucky Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic between November 2019 and February 2020. Parents completed a survey about their child’s daily screen time exposure (tablets/cell phones, laptops/computers, video games, and television) and were educated how screen ...


Sexually Objectifying Microaggressions In Film: Using Entertainment For Clinical And Educational Purposes, Jackie M. Nelson Jan 2019

Sexually Objectifying Microaggressions In Film: Using Entertainment For Clinical And Educational Purposes, Jackie M. Nelson

Dissertations & Theses

Our culture is steadily becoming more aware, and less tolerant, of sexual harassment and misconduct. This is particularly evident in the wake of the viral Me Too movement beginning in 2017 which highlighted the breadth of personal experiences of sexual harassment on various social media platforms. Often the focus of these experiences is on overt sexual harassment and assault, but less attention is paid to the buildup that can lead to these terrible events. What is more, is that often these events are attributed to character flaws of the perpetrator without taking covert social norms into perspective. This dissertation takes ...


Partner-Objectification And Relationship Satisfaction In Gay Male Relationships, Kerry Sue Donaldson Jan 2019

Partner-Objectification And Relationship Satisfaction In Gay Male Relationships, Kerry Sue Donaldson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Objectification theory explains how media-driven ideals can be internalized and lead to the development of eating disorders, poor body image, depression, anxiety, a desire to achieve a thin ideal, and lowered rates of relationship satisfaction. Research on objectification theory, until recently, has focused primarily on a female population and heterosexual couples. As nontraditional sexual identities have become more accepted in society, media influences have begun to impact other populations, including the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender community. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of these media-driven ideals on a gay male population and determine how objectification may ...


Real World Vs. Media Representations Of Relationships, Cassandra Thomasson Jan 2019

Real World Vs. Media Representations Of Relationships, Cassandra Thomasson

Honors College Theses

In this study, we investigated the correlations between media representation and real world views towards minority groups, specifically towards those who identify as LGBT+. To this end, participants completed questionnaires related to their personal views on real life issues, such as sexism and openness to diversity, as well as their feelings toward films featuring minority characters. Participants (N = 119) also watched trailers featuring, separately, LGBT+ characters, disabled characters, or characters who were neither, and rated how relatable they found the characters and how interested they were in seeing the film in its entirety. Correlations were conducted, and participants who rated ...


The Tragedy Zone: Ableism In Entertainment, Linnea Sumner Jul 2018

The Tragedy Zone: Ableism In Entertainment, Linnea Sumner

Honors College Theses

Ableism, or discrimination towards individuals with disabilities, is pervasive in our society. The entertainment world and the media are largely responsible for shaping the way the general public views minority groups. The topic of disability is incredibly popular on screen and stage, but very few actors and writers with disabilities are being hired in comparison to the amount of work that is being produced on the topic. A startling percentage of best actor/actress Oscar winners have won for portraying a character with a disability of some kind, but only two actors with the same disabilities as their characters have ...


The Effects Of Media Exposure On Perceptions Of Residence Restrictions, Stephanie Simeone May 2018

The Effects Of Media Exposure On Perceptions Of Residence Restrictions, Stephanie Simeone

Student Theses

Public perceptions impact the formation of sex offender policy, yet much of what the public knows about sex crimes is based in stereotypical narratives provided by the media. The present study investigated the effects of media exposure on perceptions of sexual offending and the efficacy of residence restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three media exposure groups and then asked about their opinions about sexual offending and residence restrictions. Results indicated that participants who viewed sensationalized media reports were more likely than individuals who viewed informed media and no media to endorse more stereotypical views of individuals convicted ...


The Role Of Language In The Media In Influencing Public Perceptions Of Refugees, Alison M. Pulliam May 2018

The Role Of Language In The Media In Influencing Public Perceptions Of Refugees, Alison M. Pulliam

Senior Honors Theses

The refugee crisis has become a worldwide epidemic in recent years. As refugee entrance into host countries is debated, media outlets are covering the issue regularly. These media outlets use various types of language when portraying refugees. Many publications have been found to convey hostile and divisive themes as well as use specific linguistic tools, which contribute to negative portrayals of refugees. Media outlets have the potential to influence public perceptions of refugees because the general public in a host country receives its information primarily from the media. Overt and subtle language used to describe refugees has been previously found ...


How To Be The Perfect Asian Wife!, Sophia Hill Apr 2018

How To Be The Perfect Asian Wife!, Sophia Hill

Art and Art History Honors Projects

“How to be the Perfect Asian Wife” critiques exploitative power systems that assault female bodies of color in intersectional ways. This work explores strategies of healing and resistance through inserting one’s own narrative of flourishing rather than surviving, while reflecting violent realities. Three large drawings mimic pervasive advertisement language and presentation reflecting the oppressive strategies used to contain women of color. Created with charcoal, watercolor, and ink, these 'advertisements' contrast with an interactive rice bag filled with comics of my everyday experiences. These documentations compel viewers to reflect on their own participation in systems of power.


Investigating Sexual Violence In College-Aged Dating Couples: Does The Medium Affect The Message?, Emily F. Plackowski Apr 2018

Investigating Sexual Violence In College-Aged Dating Couples: Does The Medium Affect The Message?, Emily F. Plackowski

All NMU Master's Theses

This paper explores the reactions of college students to sexual violence scenarios. Scenarios depicted long-term, same-sex and opposite-sex dating couples. Eight scenarios were created, varying along the factors of: presentation medium (video, written) and sex(es) of assailant and victim (Male/Female (M/F), Male/Male (M/M), Female/Female (F/F), and Female/Male (F/M)). Each participant was presented with one of the eight scenarios, in a between-groups fashion. Participants’ conceptualizations of the scenarios were gathered via comprehension and interpretation questions. Participants were also asked questions to gather demographic information. Demographic analyses showed that over one-third of respondents ...


Sexualized Music's Effect On Adolescent And Emerging Adult Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, Brittany M. Scholl Jan 2018

Sexualized Music's Effect On Adolescent And Emerging Adult Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, Brittany M. Scholl

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Reports on sexual activity among U.S. adolescents have shown a rise in their seriousness (Martino, Collins, Elliott, Strachman, Kanouse, & Berry, 2006). Such young sexual initiation is seen as a predictor of overall riskier sexual behavior such as having a multitude of sexual partners, not using any protective birth control and taking part in unwanted sex (Brown, L'Engle, Pardun, Guo, Kenneavy, & Jackson, 2006; Martino et at., 2006; Parkes, Wight, Hunt, Henderson, & Sargent, 2013; Price & Hyde, 2009; Primack, Douglas, Fine, & Dalton, 2009; Steinberg & Monahan, 2010). It is apparent that such riskier sexual behaviors result in higher rates of STI's and unwanted pregnancies (Brown et al., 2006; Parkes et al., 2013; Price & Hyde, 2009; Primack et al., 2009; Martino et al., 2006; Steinberg & Monahan, 2010). In September 2007, the United States Congress held a hearing on the gravity of sexual music content and their relationship to risky sexual behavior (Kistler & Lee, 2009). Recognition has also been found through studies, including some self-reported, concluding that young populations seek out entertainment media to facilitate as a tool of insight into personal development in the areas of sexual norms, and as a means of reference in establishing their own identities (Brown et al., 2006; Coyne et al., 2013; Coyne & Padilla-Walker, 2015; Primack et al., 2009). Music has been suggested to have the largest personality developing influence when compared to other media forms (Primack et al., 2009). Being that adolescence is the time of accepting or rejecting normalizations, including those distorted, (Turner, 2011) it remains a subject group that provides ...


Anti-Muslim Prejudice When Exposed To News About Terrorism: The Roles Of Negative Affect And Psychological Inflexibility, Arthur T. Hatton Sr. Jan 2018

Anti-Muslim Prejudice When Exposed To News About Terrorism: The Roles Of Negative Affect And Psychological Inflexibility, Arthur T. Hatton Sr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, some proposed law enforcement policies intended to prevent terrorism may violate the civil rights of American minorities. These policies include random searches by law enforcement, banning Muslims from entering the country, and refusing to grant asylum to Syrian refugees. Additionally, the rise of ISIS has heightened the salience of terrorism across the world and in the United States. The goal of the high-production videos produced by ISIS may be partially intended to create inter-religious conflict in the West. My study examines the effect of news about ISIS propaganda videos on Americans’ opinions about policies that limit ...


The Influence Of Early Media Exposure On Children’S Development And Learning, Katherine Hanson Jul 2017

The Influence Of Early Media Exposure On Children’S Development And Learning, Katherine Hanson

Doctoral Dissertations

A number of studies suggest that the amount of early screen media exposure is related to negative developmental outcomes, namely poorer executive functioning and language skills (Anderson & Pempek, 2005). Television’s constant presence in the home could lead to potentially serious consequences for infants and toddlers. However, hypotheses attributing long-term negative outcomes to the direct effects of television on children are limited. There are no definitive mechanisms to explain how these effects are instantiated within children over time. Furthermore, the indirect influences of television on children remain entirely unexplored. Television’s impact can have a potentially greater indirect effect on young children by directly influencing parents’ behaviors, which in turn, disrupt the quality of their interactions with their children. As a result, the current longitudinal study investigated the impact of infant television exposure on later cognitive and learning outcomes at age 6 to 9 years of age to assess whether parent-child interactions mediate this association. Results indicated that parent engagement and parent language during infancy did not mediate this relationship between early television exposure and children’s later cognitive skills. Rather, the amount of coviewing television during infancy directly and negatively predicted later school-age children’s working memory skills, academic abilities, and language outcomes. These results seemingly contradict the current recommendation to coview television because of its known educational benefits for preschool-aged children and older; findings, therefore, are discussed in terms of what these data mean for future recommendations and guidelines for children’s media use.


The Influence Of Social Media On Teens' Self-Esteem, Shannon Murphy Gallagher Jun 2017

The Influence Of Social Media On Teens' Self-Esteem, Shannon Murphy Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations

Social media has made it incredibly easy to connect the world. One can check Twitter and see what their favorite celebrity is up to, log onto Facebook to find out when a friend's birthday is, or use Instagram to advertise a new business. However, is social media doing more harm than good? The purpose of this study was to conclude if there is a relationship between social media and self-esteem, especially among teenagers. 130 participants from two high schools completed two different surveys: one to assess their social media use and the second to measure their self-esteem. Each social ...


Post-9/11 Media Coverage Of Terrorism, Zachary S. Mitnik Jun 2017

Post-9/11 Media Coverage Of Terrorism, Zachary S. Mitnik

Student Theses

Media coverage of terrorist attacks plays an important role in shaping the public understanding of terrorism. While there have been several studies analyzing coverage of terrorist incidents prior to 9/11, there has been little research examining post-9/11 coverage. This study fills this gap by examining the media’s coverage of terrorism in the United States between the dates of September 12, 2001 and December 31, 2015. The analysis is based on a list of terrorist-related incidents and New York Times articles written on each incident. This study documents the amount of coverage received by these incidents and identifies ...


Physical, Verbal, Relational And Cyber-Bullying And Victimization: Examining The Social And Emotional Adjustment Of Participants, Melanie Mcvean Apr 2017

Physical, Verbal, Relational And Cyber-Bullying And Victimization: Examining The Social And Emotional Adjustment Of Participants, Melanie Mcvean

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cyber-bullying has been gaining in popularity as online technology use has greatly expanded in the past decade. There has been quite a bit of research on traditional forms of bullying, which has demonstrated links to various demographic and psychosocial factors. Participation in cyber-bullying and victimization has been linked to some characteristics that are different from other types of bullying. There has been some discussion in the literature regarding whether cyber-bullying is significantly different from other forms of bullying. The literature has also noted the need for more studies utilizing peer-report data. This study utilized peer-report bullying data to examine self-reported ...


Female Power Portrayals In Ads: Dimensions And Consequences, Melika Kordrostami Jan 2017

Female Power Portrayals In Ads: Dimensions And Consequences, Melika Kordrostami

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stereotypical female portrayals are still common in advertisements while the role of women in society has progressed. In recent years, it appears there has been a move toward portraying women in power positions in ads. The first part of this research focuses on this new trend of female portrayals in ads. Power is defined as the capability to change others’/self behavior. Building on theories of social power and feminine power, a new typology for different types of female power in ads is proposed. This typology includes five types of female power in ads including sexual power, athletic power, expert ...