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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Predictors Of Repeat Chlamydia Trachomatis And/Or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections Among African-American Adolescent Females, Teaniese P. Latham Davis, Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. Diclemente, Eve Rose Dec 2012

Predictors Of Repeat Chlamydia Trachomatis And/Or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections Among African-American Adolescent Females, Teaniese P. Latham Davis, Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. Diclemente, Eve Rose

Morehouse Faculty Publications

Background

Young African-American women have the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The objective was to identify baseline predictors of repeat Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infections among African-American adolescent females.

Methods

Sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural data were collected at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years from 701 African-American females (14–20 years) enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Vaginal swabs were self-collected at each visit and assayed for Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using DNA amplification. Among participants testing positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea at baseline, logistic regression analyses assessed baseline predictors of ...


Transforming The Healthcare Response To Intimate Partner Violence And Taking Best Practices To Scale, Michele R. Decker, Shannon Frattaroli, Brigid Mccaw, Ann L. Coker, Elizabeth Miller, Phyllis Sharps, Wendy G. Lane, Mahua Mandal, Kelli Hirsch, Donna M. Strobino, Wendy L. Bennett, Jacquelyn Campbell, Andrea Gielen Dec 2012

Transforming The Healthcare Response To Intimate Partner Violence And Taking Best Practices To Scale, Michele R. Decker, Shannon Frattaroli, Brigid Mccaw, Ann L. Coker, Elizabeth Miller, Phyllis Sharps, Wendy G. Lane, Mahua Mandal, Kelli Hirsch, Donna M. Strobino, Wendy L. Bennett, Jacquelyn Campbell, Andrea Gielen

CRVAW Faculty Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among adolescent and adult women, with significant physical, sexual, and mental health consequences. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine's Clinical Preventive Services for Women consensus report recommended universal screening for violence as a component of women's preventive services; this policy has been adopted by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). These policy developments require that effective clinic-based interventions be identified, easily implemented, and taken to scale.

METHODS: To foster dialogue about implementing effective interventions, we convened a symposium entitled "Responding to Violence Against Women: Emerging Evidence, Implementation Science, and Innovative ...


Social Support And Youth Psychotherapy Outcomes: Examining Change Processes In Usual Care Settings, Robert Virgil Dindinger Jul 2012

Social Support And Youth Psychotherapy Outcomes: Examining Change Processes In Usual Care Settings, Robert Virgil Dindinger

All Theses and Dissertations

A prominent need in youth psychotherapy literature includes the examination of factors related to improved psychotherapeutic outcomes within the context of "real world" clinical settings, where the practice of psychotherapy differs significantly from that in controlled clinical trials. In examining those factors related to improved outcomes in youth psychotherapy, variables related to social support are important to consider. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate youth perceptions of social support as a potential predictor of successful treatment outcomes in a traditional community outpatient treatment setting for youth. In addition, this study examined whether perceptions of social support predicted ...


Explainer: Anorexia And Bulimia, Peta Stapleton Jul 2012

Explainer: Anorexia And Bulimia, Peta Stapleton

Peta B. Stapleton

Eating disorders are an increasing problem in children and adolescents. Recent Australian studies have indicated eating disorder behaviour has increased twofold in Australia in the last five years and 9% (men and women) will suffer from one at some point in their lives.

An analysis by the American Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality shows that hospitalisations for eating disorders increased most sharply (119%) for children aged 12 and younger between 1999 to 2006.


Self-Reported Adolescent Health Status Of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children Born 1992–1995, Grayson Holmbeck Jun 2012

Self-Reported Adolescent Health Status Of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children Born 1992–1995, Grayson Holmbeck

Grayson Holmbeck

OBJECTIVES: To compare the self-reported health of extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1 kg) adolescents with that of normal birth weight (NBW) controls and the children’s assessments of their general health at ages 8 versus 14 years.

METHODS: One hundred sixty-eight ELBW children and 115 NBW controls of similar gender and sociodemographic status completed the Child Health and Illness Profile–Adolescent Edition at age 14 years. It includes 6 domains: Satisfaction, Comfort, Resilience, Risk Avoidance, Achievement, and Disorders. At age 8 years, the children had completed the Child Health and Illness Profile–Child Edition. Results were compared between ELBW and NBW subjects adjusting for gender and sociodemographic status.

RESULTS: ELBW adolescents rated their health similar to that of NBW adolescents in the domains of Satisfaction ...


Supporting Utah's Parents In Preventing Adolescent Suicide: A Literature Review And Handouts For Utah's Youth Suicide Prevention Manual, Jennifer L. Whicker Jun 2012

Supporting Utah's Parents In Preventing Adolescent Suicide: A Literature Review And Handouts For Utah's Youth Suicide Prevention Manual, Jennifer L. Whicker

All Theses and Dissertations

Suicide, a public health problem on a global scale, has become the focus in many domains across the United States. With the recent push to provide solutions to the adolescent suicide rate in the U.S., the school setting has become an important venue for prevention and intervention efforts. While there are many risk and protective factors, the majority of suicide completions are concurrent with psychiatric disorders among adolescents; as such, this is an area that warrants further investigation. Additionally, school resources are often overwhelmed by the magnitude of need among the student population; therefore, effective interventions must be identified ...


Parental And Family Predictors Of Adolescent Weight Loss And Health Change In A Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention, Jacqueline Woods May 2012

Parental And Family Predictors Of Adolescent Weight Loss And Health Change In A Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention, Jacqueline Woods

Theses and Dissertations

The home environment, parental health attitudes, and parental diet and exercise behaviors have been associated with childhood obesity. The current study utilized a family systems framework to examine the effect of these variables on weight and health changes in a primarily Black sample of 530 parent-adolescent dyads enrolled in a multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Parent-reported psychosocial variables and demographic information were used to test models predicting changes in adolescents’ body mass index, cholesterol, and percentage body fat over the first six months of the intervention. The effect of parent participation in a psycho-education parent group on adolescent health outcomes was ...


Brains, Beads And Boulders: Trauma-Informed Sensory Interventions For Adolescents, Gini Christine Trotter May 2012

Brains, Beads And Boulders: Trauma-Informed Sensory Interventions For Adolescents, Gini Christine Trotter

Educational Specialist

For beginning counselors there was minimal training in academic programs to address client experiences with trauma and the value of sensory interventions in treatment. The purpose of this literature review and compilation of adventure-based and creative arts interventions was to provide an understanding of trauma for adolescents from a neurobiological perspective, to provide assessment tools, a selection of sensory-based interventions for use within counseling sessions, and resources relevant to the beginning counselor. Steele and Kuban (2011) describe the experience of trauma as feeling completely unsafe and powerless. Interventions, then, should focus on repairing a sense of safety and power. To ...


Multiple Peer Group Self-Identification And Adolescent Tobacco Use, C. Anderson Johnson, Juliana L. Fuqua, Peggy E. Gallaher, Jennifer B. Unger, Dennis R. Trinidad, Steve Sussman, Enrique Ortega May 2012

Multiple Peer Group Self-Identification And Adolescent Tobacco Use, C. Anderson Johnson, Juliana L. Fuqua, Peggy E. Gallaher, Jennifer B. Unger, Dennis R. Trinidad, Steve Sussman, Enrique Ortega

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Associations between peer group self-identification and smoking were examined among 2,698 ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles who self-identified with groups such as Rockers, Skaters, and Gamers. The sample was 47.1% male, 54.7% Latino, 25.4% Asian, 10.8% White, 9.1% Other ethnicity, and 59.3% children of immigrant parents. Multiple group self identification was common: 84% identified with two or more groups and 65% identified with three or more groups. Logistic regression analyses indicated that as students endorsed more high risk groups, the greater their risk of tobacco use. A classification tree analysis ...


Latent Classes Of Self-Reported Adolescent Depression In A Clinical In-Patient Population, Jonathan F. Doti May 2012

Latent Classes Of Self-Reported Adolescent Depression In A Clinical In-Patient Population, Jonathan F. Doti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The depressive disorders are among the most common mental health problems with substantial financial and quality-of-life costs. Depression has generated considerable debate as to the underlying structure and the taxonomy continues to be frequently debated. Adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder often experience anxiety (and vice versa). Emerging statistical approaches such as latent class analysis (LCA) have utility for understanding the underlying structure of depression as well as the co-occurrence of depression and anxiety. An LCA of adolescents with depression would add to our conceptual understanding of the disorder(s) and facilitate treatments of adolescents with depression ...


Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices In Trust Games With Or Without Information About Past Behavior, Constantin Rezlescu, Brad Duchaine, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater Mar 2012

Unfakeable Facial Configurations Affect Strategic Choices In Trust Games With Or Without Information About Past Behavior, Constantin Rezlescu, Brad Duchaine, Christopher Y. Olivola, Nick Chater

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background:

Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1), and ...


General Motivation Domains & Behavioral Specificity Across Motivations, Justin B. Christensen, David C. Dollahite, Sam A. Hardy Mar 2012

General Motivation Domains & Behavioral Specificity Across Motivations, Justin B. Christensen, David C. Dollahite, Sam A. Hardy

FHSS Mentored Research Conference

The present study used Self-Determination Theory to explore adolescents' motivations to engage in prosocial behaviors (donating and volunteering) and abstain from health-risk behaviors (marijuana use and sexual intercourse). Pearson's r correlations evidenced general motivation schemes (prosocial and abstinence), suggesting that general prosocial motivation will prompt many prosocial behaviors while a general abstinence motivation will discourage many health risk behaviors. Multiple regression analysis, however, indicated that motivation is also behavior specific, meaning that specific behaviors are prompted by specific motivation. These findings help to broaden our understanding of adolescents by revealing two levels of motivation; behavioral and domain.


Changes In Adolescents’ Risk Factors Following Peer Sexual Coercion: Evidence For A Feedback Loop, Brennan J. Young, Wyndol Furman, Meredith C. Jones Jan 2012

Changes In Adolescents’ Risk Factors Following Peer Sexual Coercion: Evidence For A Feedback Loop, Brennan J. Young, Wyndol Furman, Meredith C. Jones

Title IX Research and Resources

Abstract: Investigators have identified a number of factors that increase the risk for experiencing sexual coercion, but as yet little is known about how sexual coercion in turn affects these risk factors. Using a sample of 110 adolescents, the current study examined the hypothesis that, after an incident of sexual coercion, adolescents would exhibit increases in several behaviors known to increase risk for victimization. As predicted, after experiencing sexual coercion, adolescents reported increased externalizing symptoms, more frequent sexual intercourse and a greater total number of intercourse partners. Finally, alcohol use, drug use, and problems related to substance use increased. These ...


Problems In Using Diagnosis In Child And Adolescent Mental Health Services Research, Leonard Bickman, Lynne G. Wighton, E. Warren Lambert, Marc Karver, Lindsey Steding Jan 2012

Problems In Using Diagnosis In Child And Adolescent Mental Health Services Research, Leonard Bickman, Lynne G. Wighton, E. Warren Lambert, Marc Karver, Lindsey Steding

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents results from a three-part study on diagnosis of children with affective and behavior disorders. We examined the reliability, discriminant, and predictive validity of common diagnoses used in mental health services research using a research diagnostic interview. Results suggest four problems: a) some diagnoses demonstrate internal consistency only slightly better than symptoms chosen at random; b) diagnosis did not add appreciably to a brief global functioning screen in predicting service use; c) low inter-rater reliability among informants and clinicians for six of the most common diagnoses; and d) clinician diagnoses differed between sites in ways that reflect different ...


A Longitudinal Examination Of High School Students' Group Membership In A Dual-Factor Model Of Mental Health: Stability Of Mental Health Status And Predictors Of Change, Melanie M. Mcmahan Jan 2012

A Longitudinal Examination Of High School Students' Group Membership In A Dual-Factor Model Of Mental Health: Stability Of Mental Health Status And Predictors Of Change, Melanie M. Mcmahan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A dual-factor model of mental health includes indicators of wellness (i.e., subjective well-being; SWB) and psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) in defining youth mental health. In this model, four categories of psychological functioning with distinct levels of SWB and psychopathology emerge, including two that are overlooked (i.e., Vulnerable and Symptomatic but Content) in traditional assessments that assume SWB and psychopathology are opposite ends of the same continuum. The present study investigated the 1-year stability of adolescent mental health as classified by a dual-factor model, and identified predictors of stability and change, in a sample of ...


A Dual-Factor Model Of Mental Health In High School Students: Group Characteristics And Social Functioning, Amanda Lynn Thalji Jan 2012

A Dual-Factor Model Of Mental Health In High School Students: Group Characteristics And Social Functioning, Amanda Lynn Thalji

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A dual-factor model of psychological functioning examines the presence of wellness (i.e., subjective well-being; SWB) and psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) in explaining youth mental health functioning. Using a dual-factor model, previous research has yielded four unique groups of elementary and middle school youth as well as college-age adults with distinct levels of wellness and psychopathology. The present empirical investigation included valid data from 500 adolescents from two high schools (grades 9 to 11). This exploratory study produced four groups of students with unique mental health profiles aligned with previous studies investigating the dual-factor model. Tukey-Kramer ...


Self-Regulation: The Link Between Academic Motivation And Executive Function In Urban Youth, Sara Ferry Walker Jan 2012

Self-Regulation: The Link Between Academic Motivation And Executive Function In Urban Youth, Sara Ferry Walker

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

The present study investigated the relationship between academic motivation and executive function skills through teacher reports of prototypical students, perceived to lack motivation. Second, the study examined the effect of grade level (i.e., elementary, middle, high) on both teacher-perceived academic motivation and executive function skills for these prototypical students. It was hypothesized that there were significant relationships between executive function processes and academic motivation. It was also hypothesized that due to the decline in academic engagement during adolescence, middle school and high school teachers would perceive higher levels of executive dysfunction and deficits in academic motivation than would elementary ...


Evaluating The Mindfulness-Based And Cognitive-Behavior Therapy For Anger Management Program, Brett Pellegrino Jan 2012

Evaluating The Mindfulness-Based And Cognitive-Behavior Therapy For Anger Management Program, Brett Pellegrino

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Problems related to adolescents who present with extreme anger, disruptive behavior, and aggression is an ever increasing concern for school officials (Christner, Friedberg & Sharp, 2006). There continues to be a need for effective interventions that can be utilized within the school setting to assist adolescents with anger management difficulties. This study examined changes in anger management difficulties and mindfulness for four high school students who participated in the Mindfulness-Based and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Anger Management Program (Kelly, 2006). The data were generated through pre and post assessments with the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Second Edition Child and Adolescent (STAXI-2 ...


Examining Gender And Socio-Economic Status On The Emotional Intelligence Of Early Adolescents, Alicea J. Davis Jan 2012

Examining Gender And Socio-Economic Status On The Emotional Intelligence Of Early Adolescents, Alicea J. Davis

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine emotional intelligence and its impact on the maturational process of male and female early-adolescent youth. Demographic variables, such gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity, and educational status were, valued against emotionality factors such as intrapersonal stress, interpersonal stress, adaptability, general mood, and overall emotional intelligence (EQ). The study utilized a non-experimental, correlational design examining archival data. The participants consisted of approximately, early adolescent fifth-grade students aged 10-13 years. The participants were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (BarOn EQ-I:YV) and a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population sample. A ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive Distortions And Risk To Sexually Re-Offend In Adolescents: Comparing Three Levels Of Treatment, Christina D. Haldaman Jan 2012

The Relationship Between Cognitive Distortions And Risk To Sexually Re-Offend In Adolescents: Comparing Three Levels Of Treatment, Christina D. Haldaman

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between cognitive distortions, risk to sexually re-offend, and length of time in treatment, and psychopathy. This study investigated differential treatment effects across three different treatment modalities to gain a better understanding of cognitive distortions in the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders. Literature has theorized that a fundamental aspect of sex offender treatment is addressing these cognitive distortions. Archival data from an existing database were collected from 99 adolescent males between the ages of 12 and 18. Of these adolescents, 51.5% were Caucasian; 28.3% were Latino; 10% were African American; 8.1% were Bi-racial ...


The Family Influence On Obesity And Self-Esteem And How Obesity And Self-Esteem Influences The Family Interactions Later In Life, Allison Eileen Flittner Jan 2012

The Family Influence On Obesity And Self-Esteem And How Obesity And Self-Esteem Influences The Family Interactions Later In Life, Allison Eileen Flittner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently there is little research on the effects of obesity and self-esteem on family functioning over time, or more specifically, across two generations. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the connections between supportive parenting, self-esteem, and obesity over time. This dissertation includes two related studies that both utilize a Family Systems Theory to guide the research. Utilizing the Family Transitions Project (FTP), a longitudinal study that examines adolescents and their families over 23 years, this study extends the current literature by examining how maternal supportive parenting during early adolescence influences obesity in late adolescence and ultimately how both ...


The Influence Of The Family On Adolescent Academic Achievement, Krystyna Pauline Abbott Jan 2012

The Influence Of The Family On Adolescent Academic Achievement, Krystyna Pauline Abbott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the relationship between specific family factors and adolescent academic achievement. Secondary data was used from the Iowa Youth and Family Project data set, a longitudinal project which at inception in 1989 consisted of White families from rural counties of Iowa with married parents, one target 7th grader, and a sibling within four years of the target's age (Family Transitions Project, 2011). Data for this thesis are from 1991, 1992, and 1994. A logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between parental alcohol use, selected family characteristics, and adolescent academic achievement. Multiple regression analyses were ...


Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern Jan 2012

Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern

Faculty Journal Articles

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck ...