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2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2097

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Haven Of Last Resort: The Consequences Of Evacuating Florida Nursing Home Residents To Nonclinical Buildings, Janelle Christensen Sep 2014

A Haven Of Last Resort: The Consequences Of Evacuating Florida Nursing Home Residents To Nonclinical Buildings, Janelle Christensen

Janelle J. Christensen

Nursing home administrators (n = 15) and directors of nursing (n = 15) who worked in nursing homes during the 2004–2005 Florida hurricane season participated in a series of 6 focus groups. The purpose of the focus groups was to explore issues faced by nursing home administrators, nurses, and residents during hurricane evacuations. A primary finding was that evacuating nursing home residents to buildings that are not designed to support nursing activities (e.g., a school gymnasium or church) adversely affected resident feeding, sleeping, movement, and security. These nonclinical buildings also presented serious occupational health concerns for nursing staff members who ...


Ethnic And Gender Differences In Psychosocial Factors In Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islanders, And Asian American Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Jillian Inouye, Dongmei Li, James Davis, Richard Arakaki Dec 2012

Ethnic And Gender Differences In Psychosocial Factors In Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islanders, And Asian American Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Jillian Inouye, Dongmei Li, James Davis, Richard Arakaki

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

This study examined the differences between 207 Asians and Native Hawaiian, other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with type 2 diabetes among various psychosocial measures. Responses to five multivariable regression models including the Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire (DQOL) and Short Form -36® Health Survey (SF-36) were analyzed. Differences were determined by linear contrasts in the multivariate linear regression models after adjusted for multiple demographic and socioeconomic variables. Compared to Asians, NHOPIs perceived a lower impact of diabetes on their quality of life; highlighting differences in perceptions of self-efficacy and self-care activities. Females did better on their diet while males perceived better ...


Housing, The Neighborhood Environment, And Physical Activity Among Older African Americans, Lonnie Hannon Iii, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M. Allman Dec 2012

Housing, The Neighborhood Environment, And Physical Activity Among Older African Americans, Lonnie Hannon Iii, Patricia Sawyer, Richard M. Allman

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Abstract

This study examines the association of neighborhood environment, as measured by housing factors, with physical activity among older African Americans. Context is provided on the effects of structural inequality as an inhibitor of health enhancing neighborhood environments. The study population included African Americans participating in the UAB Study of Aging (n=433). Participants demonstrated the ability to walk during a baseline in-home assessment. The strength and independence of housing factors were assessed using neighborhood walking for exercise as the outcome variable. Sociodemographic data, co-morbid medical conditions, and rural/urban residence were included as independent control factors. Homeownership, occupancy, and ...


Racial Disparities In Pain Management In Primary Care, Miriam Ezenwa Dec 2012

Racial Disparities In Pain Management In Primary Care, Miriam Ezenwa

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

This descriptive, cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was conducted to examine racial disparities in pain management of primary care patients with chronic nonmalignant pain using chronic opioid therapy. Data from 891 patients, including 201 African Americans and 691 Caucasians were used to test an explanatory model for these disparities. We predicted that: (1) African American patients would report worse pain management and poor quality of life (QOL) than Caucasians; (2) the association between race and pain management would be mediated by perceived discrimination relating to hopelessness; and (3) poor pain management would negatively affect QOL. Results revealed significant differences between African ...


Earth Is (Mostly) Flat: Apportionment Of The Flux Of Continental Sediment Over Millennial Time Scales, Jane K. Willenbring, Alexandru T. Codilean, Brandon Mcelroy Dec 2012

Earth Is (Mostly) Flat: Apportionment Of The Flux Of Continental Sediment Over Millennial Time Scales, Jane K. Willenbring, Alexandru T. Codilean, Brandon Mcelroy

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We use a new compilation of global denudation estimates from cosmogenic nuclides to calculate the apportionment and the sum of all sediment produced on Earth by extrapolation of a statistically significant correlation between denudation rates and basin slopes to watersheds without denudation rate data. This robust relationship can explain approximately half of the variance in denudation from quartz-bearing topography drained by rivers using only mean slopes as the predictive tool and matches a similar fit for large river basins. At slopes >200 m/km, topography controls denudation rates. Controls on denudation in landscapes where average slopes are 10 mm/k ...


Successfully Climbing The "Stairs": Surmounting Failed Translation Of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments, Michael Kahle, Gregory J. Bix Dec 2012

Successfully Climbing The "Stairs": Surmounting Failed Translation Of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Treatments, Michael Kahle, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) provided initial (in 1999) and updated (in 2009) recommendations with the goal of improving preclinical stroke therapy assessment and to increase the translational potential of experimental stroke treatments. It is important for preclinical stroke researchers to frequently consider and revisit these concepts, especially since promising experimental stroke treatments continue to fail in human clinical trials. Therefore, this paper will focus on considerations for several key aspects of preclinical stroke studies including the selection and execution of the animal stroke model, drug/experimental treatment administration, and outcome measures to improve experimental validity and translation ...


Medicine In The Americas, Kristine A. Petre Mls, Cm, Ahip Dec 2012

Medicine In The Americas, Kristine A. Petre Mls, Cm, Ahip

Kristine A Petre, MLS, CM, AHIP

Medicine in the Americas is a freely available, searchable collection of historical medical Americana. The collection is part of the Digital Collections repository at the National Library of Medicine’s online digital archives. This review discusses the contents, searching functions, and additional features available in the collection.


National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Comparative Report Of 2012 Results, Glen Mays Dec 2012

National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Comparative Report Of 2012 Results, Glen Mays

Glen Mays

The third wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems was fielded in 2012 in a nationally-representative cohort of local communities. The survey measures the availability of 20 recommended public health activities in the community, the range of organizations that participate in performing each activity, and the perceived effectiveness of each activity. Prior waves of the survey were fielded in 1998 and 2006. Local health officials report data for this survey and receive a customized report of results that compare data for their community with national norms and with "peer groups" of similar communities. This document provides an ...


The 'Art' Of Medicine: Building A Caring Relationship With Clients, Lisa Barkley Dec 2012

The 'Art' Of Medicine: Building A Caring Relationship With Clients, Lisa Barkley

UCF Forum

On the first day of school each year at the UCF College of Medicine, Dean Deborah German asks our incoming class of students what they think makes a “good doctor.”


An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd Dec 2012

An Assessment Of The Effects Of Desertification In Yobe State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic problems of our time. Desertification describes circumstances of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from the climatic variation and human activities. The fundamental goal of this thesis was to assess the effects of desertification in Yobe State, Nigeria. The present threat of desertification in the sahel has reached an alarming stage where crops cultivation and animal rearing/grazing are no more productive, soil has lost its nutrient/fertility, various infrastructure had given way because of windstorm from the neighbouring Niger Republic and sand dunes had taken ...


Provision Of Pandemic Disease Information By Health Sciences Librarians: A Multisite Comparative Case Series., Robin Featherstone, Gabriel Boldt, Nazi Torabi, Shauna-Lee Konrad Dec 2012

Provision Of Pandemic Disease Information By Health Sciences Librarians: A Multisite Comparative Case Series., Robin Featherstone, Gabriel Boldt, Nazi Torabi, Shauna-Lee Konrad

Nazi Torabi

Objective: The research provides an understanding of pandemic information needs and informs professional development initiatives for librarians in disaster medicine. Methods: Utilizing a multisite, comparative case series design, the researchers conducted semi-structured interviews and examined supplementary materials in the form of organizational documents, correspondence, and websites to create a complete picture of each case. The rigor of the case series was ensured through data and investigator triangulation. Interview transcripts were coded using NVivo to identify common themes and points of comparison. Results: Comparison of the four cases revealed a distinct difference between “client-initiated” and “librarian-initiated” provision of pandemic information. Librarian-initiated ...


Students Attend Prestigious Professional Leadership Conference, Nathan Pilling Dec 2012

Students Attend Prestigious Professional Leadership Conference, Nathan Pilling

News Releases

Three students from Cedarville University’s inaugural Doctor of Pharmacy class recently participated in a distinguished, statewide leadership training conference. Jenna Lawhead, from Saint Petersburg, Fla., Jayson Brewin, from Shamong, N.J., and Allison Henry, from Roseville, Minn., were invited to attend the Ohio Pharmacists Association’s (OPA) Young Pharmacy Leadership Conference held on Sep. 29, 2012 in Columbus, OH.


Nursing Student Receives Tylenol Future Care Scholarship, Bethany Brock Dec 2012

Nursing Student Receives Tylenol Future Care Scholarship, Bethany Brock

News Releases

Ashley Short, a junior nursing student minoring in cross-cultural nursing, is one of 40 recipients of the Tylenol Future Care Scholarship out of over 25,000 students who applied.


Self-Reported Racism, Transphobia, Their Intersection And Impact On Past-Year Hiv Related Sexual Risk Behaviour, Roxanne M. Longman Marcellin Dec 2012

Self-Reported Racism, Transphobia, Their Intersection And Impact On Past-Year Hiv Related Sexual Risk Behaviour, Roxanne M. Longman Marcellin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Studies examining HIV prevalence and risk behaviors within trans subgroups have identified them as high risk. Yet few studies have addressed how discrimination impacts this prevalence. Minority stress theory suggests that there is a relationship between minority stress and HIV-related risk behaviour. We hypothesize that multiple minority statuses may result in discriminatory experiences, specifically self-reported transphobia and racism in synchrony with other attributes, that interact to alter past-year HIV-related risk behaviour.

Methods: Data came from the Trans PULSE project, a mixed-methods, community-based research study that used respondent-driven sampling to access 433 trans Ontarians, between May 2009 and May 2010 ...


Detecting Structure In Glass Patterns: An Interocular Transfer Study, Dawn Vreven, Jarrod Berge Dec 2012

Detecting Structure In Glass Patterns: An Interocular Transfer Study, Dawn Vreven, Jarrod Berge

Dawn L Vreven

Glass patterns are visual stimuli used here to study how local orientation signals are spatially integrated into global pattern perception. We measured a form aftereffect from adaptation to both static and dynamic Glass patterns and calculated the amount of interocular transfer to determine the binocularity of the detectors responsible for the perception of global structure. Both static and dynamic adaptation produced significant form aftereffects and showed a very high degree of interocular transfer, suggesting that Glass-pattern perception involves cortical processing beyond primary visual cortex. Surprisingly, dynamic adaptation produced significantly greater interocular transfer than static adaptation. Our results suggest a functional ...


Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa Dec 2012

Using Remote Sensing Data To Improve Rice Production In Kutigi, Niger State, Nigeria, Jibril Musa Phd, M B. Yunusa

Confluence Journal Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

This research work looked in the used of Remote Sensing to improve Agricultural production in Kutigi, Niger State. The aim of the study is to use remote sensing to improve rice farming activities in Kutigi, Niger State. It is very important to identify such methods to improve Agricultural production because experts are always interested in new researches and findings to better the standard of living in any environment. In view of this, Remotely-sensed data could be used or employed to elevate most of these agricultural problems in Kutigi through the following objectives: Using Landsat imagery to assess the present landuse ...


Pharmacy Professor Collaborates In Valuable Drug Research, Nathan Pilling Dec 2012

Pharmacy Professor Collaborates In Valuable Drug Research, Nathan Pilling

News Releases

Natural products make up a sizable portion of the drugs Americans use every day. What makes these products effective? Are there other plants we haven’t discovered yet that could help us control diseases such as cancer and malaria? These are the questions Denise Simpson, Ph.D., is focused on answering through her research.


Autonomic And Behavioral Reactivity To An Acute Laboratory Stressor, Jeremy C. Peres Dec 2012

Autonomic And Behavioral Reactivity To An Acute Laboratory Stressor, Jeremy C. Peres

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Stress has been widely shown to directly influence people’s emotional and behavioral processing as well as their underlying biological systems. This project examined physiological and behavioral responses as indicators of stress and coping in the context of a psychosocial stressor in a controlled laboratory setting. We examined the association between indicators of behavioral coping and underlying physiological reactivity within participants while experiencing stress. Participants included 68 emerging adults. Physiological measures include autonomic biomarkers (e.g., heart-rate, skin conductance) at rest and during the stressor while behavioral indicators that were coded include acute verbal and non-verbal actions exhibited by participants ...


A Practical Scale For Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment, Zandra M. Zweber Dec 2012

A Practical Scale For Multi-Faceted Organizational Health Climate Assessment, Zandra M. Zweber

Master's Theses

The current study sought to develop a practical scale to measure workplace health climate in a way that has not previously been conceptualized – as a three-faceted approach from the employee perspective serving as an indicator of a healthy organization. The goal was to create a short, useable yet comprehensive scale that could translate into practical use by organizations and occupational health professionals planning workplace interventions. To accomplish this, the proposed multi-faceted organizational health climate scale (MOHCA) assesses three-facets which match up with three organizational levels: 1) organization 2) supervisor and 3) workgroup. Ten items were developed and tested on two ...


High Muscle Mitochondrial Volume And Aerobic Capacity In A Small Marsupial (Sminthopsis Crassicaudata) Reveals Flexible Links Between Energy-Use Levels In Mammals, Terence Dawson, Koa Webster, Enhua Lee, William A. Buttemer Dec 2012

High Muscle Mitochondrial Volume And Aerobic Capacity In A Small Marsupial (Sminthopsis Crassicaudata) Reveals Flexible Links Between Energy-Use Levels In Mammals, Terence Dawson, Koa Webster, Enhua Lee, William A. Buttemer

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We investigated the muscle structure–function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacity of an insectivorous, small (~15 g) marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Family: Dasyuridae), to obtain further insight into energy use patterns in marsupials relative to those in placentals, their sister clade within the Theria (advanced mammals). Disparate hopping marsupials (Suborder Macropodiformes), a kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata), show aerobic capabilities as high as those of ‘athletic’ placentals. Equivalent muscle mitochondrial volumes and cardiovascular features support these capabilities. We examined S. crassicaudata to determine whether highly developed aerobic capabilities occur elsewhere in marsupials, rather than being restricted to ...


Predictors Of Repeat Chlamydia Trachomatis And/Or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections Among African-American Adolescent Females, Teaniese P. Latham Davis, Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. Diclemente, Eve Rose Dec 2012

Predictors Of Repeat Chlamydia Trachomatis And/Or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections Among African-American Adolescent Females, Teaniese P. Latham Davis, Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. Diclemente, Eve Rose

Morehouse Faculty Publications

Background

Young African-American women have the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The objective was to identify baseline predictors of repeat Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infections among African-American adolescent females.

Methods

Sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural data were collected at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years from 701 African-American females (14–20 years) enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Vaginal swabs were self-collected at each visit and assayed for Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using DNA amplification. Among participants testing positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea at baseline, logistic regression analyses assessed baseline predictors of ...


Public Health Return On Investment: Making The Case, Glen P. Mays Dec 2012

Public Health Return On Investment: Making The Case, Glen P. Mays

Health Management and Policy Presentations

Fiscal pressures and policy imperatives have created a need for rigorous economic analyses of public health programs and policies. ROI analyses can reveal whether the benefits of public health strategies justify their costs, who realizes these benefits and costs, and under what circumstances.


Public Health Return On Investment: Making The Case, Glen Mays Dec 2012

Public Health Return On Investment: Making The Case, Glen Mays

Glen Mays

Fiscal pressures and policy imperatives have created a need for rigorous economic analyses of public health programs and policies. ROI analyses can reveal whether the benefits of public health strategies justify their costs, who realizes these benefits and costs, and under what circumstances.


Geant4 Physics Processes For Microdosimetry Simulation: Design Foundation And Implementation Of The First Set Of Models, S. Chauvie, Z. Francis, S. Guatelli, S. Incerti, B. Mascialino, P. Moretto, P. Nieminen, Maria Pia Dec 2012

Geant4 Physics Processes For Microdosimetry Simulation: Design Foundation And Implementation Of The First Set Of Models, S. Chauvie, Z. Francis, S. Guatelli, S. Incerti, B. Mascialino, P. Moretto, P. Nieminen, Maria Pia

Susanna Guatelli

New physical processes specific for microdosimetry simulation are under development in the Geant4 Low Energy Electromagnetic package. The first set of models implemented for this purpose cover the interactions of electrons, protons and light ions in liquid water; they address a physics domain relevant to the simulation of radiation effects in biological systems, where water represents an important component. The design developed for effectively handling particle interactions down to a low energy scale and the physics models implemented in the first public release of the software are described.


Nutrition Status Of Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety, Adrienne K. Forsyth, Peter G. Williams, Frank P. Deane Dec 2012

Nutrition Status Of Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety, Adrienne K. Forsyth, Peter G. Williams, Frank P. Deane

Frank Deane

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition status of people referred to a nutrition and physical activity program for the management of mental health in a general practice.


Predicting Dropout In The First 3 Months Of 12-Step Residential Drug And Alcohol Treatment In An Australian Sample, Frank P. Deane, David J. Wootton, Ching-I Hsu, Peter J. Kelly Dec 2012

Predicting Dropout In The First 3 Months Of 12-Step Residential Drug And Alcohol Treatment In An Australian Sample, Frank P. Deane, David J. Wootton, Ching-I Hsu, Peter J. Kelly

Frank Deane

Objective: Premature termination from treatment is a major factor associated with poorer drug and alcohol treatment outcomes. The present study investigated client-related baseline predictors of dropout at 3 months from a faith-based 12-step residential drug treatment program. Method: Data were collected over a period of 14 months from eight residential drug and alcohol treatment programs run by The Australian Salvation Army. The final sample consisted of 618 participants, including 524 men (84.8%) and 94 women (15.2%). Predictor variables of interest were age, gender, primary drug of concern, criminal involvement, psychological distress, drug cravings, self-efficacy to abstain, spirituality, forgiveness ...


Prevalence Of Smoking And Other Health Risk Factors In People Attending Residential Substance Abuse Treatment, Peter J. Kelly, Amanda L. Baker, Frank P. Deane, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Billie Bonevski, Jenna Tregarthen Dec 2012

Prevalence Of Smoking And Other Health Risk Factors In People Attending Residential Substance Abuse Treatment, Peter J. Kelly, Amanda L. Baker, Frank P. Deane, Frances Kay-Lambkin, Billie Bonevski, Jenna Tregarthen

Frank Deane

Introduction and Aims. People attending substance abuse treatment have an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for substance abuse treatment services to address smoking.The current study examined smoking behaviours of people attending residential substance abuse treatment. Additionally, the study examined rates of other potentially modifiable health risk factors for the development of CVD and cancer. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional survey was completed by participants attending Australian Salvation Army residential substance abuse treatment services (n = 228). Rates of smoking, exercise, dietary fat intake, body mass index and depression were identified ...


A Comparison Of Treatment Outcomes For Individuals With Substance Use Disorder Alone And Individuals With Probable Dual Diagnosis, Elizabeth K. Cridland, Frank P. Deane, Ching-I Hsu, Peter J. Kelly Dec 2012

A Comparison Of Treatment Outcomes For Individuals With Substance Use Disorder Alone And Individuals With Probable Dual Diagnosis, Elizabeth K. Cridland, Frank P. Deane, Ching-I Hsu, Peter J. Kelly

Frank Deane

The co-occurrence of substance use and mental health problems, often referred to as dual diagnosis (DD), is increasingly recognised as commonplace within substance abuse treatment programs. Two-hundred and thirty-four individuals from 9 Australian Salvation Army drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs completed a 3-month post-discharge telephone follow-up. Using a cut-off score from the Psychiatric Subscale of the Addiction Severity Index (5th ed.), 66.7% were classified as likely to have DD and 33.3% as substance use disorder only (SUD). Both groups reported comparable and decreased substance use levels at follow-up, yet DD individuals perceived less improvement in substance use problems ...


2-Cyanoethyl N,N,N',N'-Tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite, Jichao Zhang Dec 2012

2-Cyanoethyl N,N,N',N'-Tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite, Jichao Zhang

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

2-Cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite is a colorless viscous liquid, which is soluble in most organic solvents. It is a widely used phosphitylating reagent for the preparation of various phosphorylated biomolecules, such as nucleoside carbohydrate conjugates, phospholipids and glycopeptides. In particular, this reagent is highly effective for automated solid-phase DNA/RNA oligonucleotide synthesis. 2-Cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite has shown great utility in the coupling of nucleobases or carbohydrates via their phosphotriesters in the presence of activators such as 1H-tetrazole, in moderate yields under mild conditions. Additionally, 2-cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite is cheaper and more stable ...


Comparative Effectiveness Research And Patient Centered Outcomes Research In Public Health Settings: Design, Analysis, And Funding Considerations, Glen P. Mays Dec 2012

Comparative Effectiveness Research And Patient Centered Outcomes Research In Public Health Settings: Design, Analysis, And Funding Considerations, Glen P. Mays

Health Management and Policy Presentations

The principles and methods of CER and PCOR have developed primarily with therapeutics in mind, but they must also be applied to the study of public health programs, policies, and delivery systems. This session surveys the emerging field, and provides examples of CER/PCOR methods applied in public health settings using practice-based research networks (PBRNs).