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The Affiliative Social Relations Of Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques In The Context Of Instability, Sam Larson Jan 2019

The Affiliative Social Relations Of Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques In The Context Of Instability, Sam Larson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Across primates, socially integrated individuals exhibit improved genetic fitness compared to their peripheral conspecifics. However, the mechanisms through which this disparity operates is unclear. One hypothesis is that social bonds mitigate the stressors imparted by environmental instability. To date, this relationship has gone critically unexamined, owing to the inability to anticipate and account for instability in prospective research design. In this dissertation, I evaluate this hypothesis within a population of free-ranging rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). I employ a long-term behavioral data set comprised of 691 unique individuals across 6 groups, followed from 1 to 8 years. I employ the tool-kit ...


Effects Of Diet And Parasites On The Gut Microbiota Of Diverse Sub-Saharan Africans, Meagan Rubel Jan 2019

Effects Of Diet And Parasites On The Gut Microbiota Of Diverse Sub-Saharan Africans, Meagan Rubel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

EFFECTS OF DIET AND PARASITES ON THE GUT MICROBIOTA OF DIVERSE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICANS

Meagan A. Rubel

Sarah A. Tishkoff

Contemporary African populations possess myriad genetic and phenotypic adaptations to diverse diets, varying climates, and infectious diseases. Most microbiome studies to date have focused on primarily European and Asian populations in urban, industrialized settings. By comparison, relatively little is known about traditional African gut microbiomes, and the range of variation they contain. Many African populations are undergoing substantial changes because of rapid globalization, easier access to hygienic resources and medications, shifts away from traditional lifestyle, and increased exposure to processed ...


From ‘Disengaged’ To Digital: Latino Boys As Emergent Technology Experts, Carlos Ricardo Martínez Jan 2019

From ‘Disengaged’ To Digital: Latino Boys As Emergent Technology Experts, Carlos Ricardo Martínez

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Anthropological research suggests that young Latino men face a complex set of cultural norms that can make it difficult to identify as experts in technology. In education research Latino boys have historically been framed in relation to deficit-perspectives. This dissertation provides an account of Latino boys as self-efficacious learners. I ask, a) how did a group of Latino boys integrate their cultural values and extant technology-related learning practices into self-directed digital literacy learning?; b) What pertinent social processes shaped their emerging sense of themselves as members of a group of digital literacy learners?; and, c) How did these emergent technology ...


Soweto, The “Storybook Place”: Tourism And Feeling In A South African Township, Sarah Marie Kgagudi Jan 2019

Soweto, The “Storybook Place”: Tourism And Feeling In A South African Township, Sarah Marie Kgagudi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation deals with the role of tour guides in creating and telling the story of Soweto – a township southwest of Johannesburg, South Africa. The story speaks of a place afflicted by poverty because of its history of segregation during apartheid but emerging out of these struggles to lead its nation in a post-apartheid culture. I argue that Soweto’s story was created out of a governmental mandate for the township to become one of Gauteng’s tourism locations, and out of a knowledge that the transformation story from apartheid to a ‘rainbow nation’ would not sell in this context ...


Wives, Witches, And Warriors: Women In Arabic Popular Epic, Amanda Steinberg Jan 2018

Wives, Witches, And Warriors: Women In Arabic Popular Epic, Amanda Steinberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation consolidates the known corpus of the medieval Arabic popular epic (sīrah shaʿbīyah) in order to examine the roles of its female characters and how they relate to power. Borrowing from feminist theory, the study takes as its organizing principle the categories of “power-over,” “power-to,” and “power-with,” showing that how a woman is judged for expressing power depends upon how her actions fit into one of these three categories. Moreover, each expression of power tends to be connected to a woman’s familial relationships: sexually available women are usually classified as expressing “power-over,” while the nonsexual relationships of sisters ...


Anyone Anywhere: Narrating African Innovation In A Global Community Of Practice, Eleanor Rosalind Marchant Jan 2018

Anyone Anywhere: Narrating African Innovation In A Global Community Of Practice, Eleanor Rosalind Marchant

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The last eight years have seen rapid growth in the number of technology startups emerging in urban centers around Africa, from Lagos to Nairobi to Bamako. The growth of annual investments in African startups – rising from $12 million to $560 million between 2013 and 2017 (Kazeem, 2018) – is an indication that many, including investors abroad, believe the trend in African involvement in international technology innovation practices is just beginning. Yet while these changes are promising, this dissertation encourages critical reflection on them and asks: To what extent are Africans really able to fully participate in the production of the new ...


Healing At The Borderland Of Medicine And Religion: A Folklore Study Of Health Care In Taiwan, Chia-Hui Lu Jan 2017

Healing At The Borderland Of Medicine And Religion: A Folklore Study Of Health Care In Taiwan, Chia-Hui Lu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study is about popular healing and its relation to culture. It is based on my field research in Taiwan from 2014 to 2016. In addition to modern medicine and scientific Chinese medicine, my field research focused on the connections between different systems of popular healing and the role of lay people in their own healthcare. The correlations between them are ambiguous, inexplicit, superimposed upon or intermeshed with one another. In Taiwan, health care and the healing process is part of popular culture. I make evident the vital role of lay people, which often has been overlooked. Lay people includes ...


Coloureds Performing Queer, Or Queer Coloureds Performing?: Asserting Belonging Through Queer Behavior In Cape Town, South Africa, Glenn Holtzman Jan 2017

Coloureds Performing Queer, Or Queer Coloureds Performing?: Asserting Belonging Through Queer Behavior In Cape Town, South Africa, Glenn Holtzman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The mixed-race community of Cape Town is known locally as the “coloured” people of South Africa: neither black nor white according to nuances of strict racial criteria and classification systems rooted in colonialism and apartheid legislature. South Africa’s “coloured” people have historically been regarded as the “bastard children” of the nation. From their very beginnings, their classification as “off-white” rather than as black created a crisis in their identity. Coloured people dealt with this crisis in diverse ways. Some chose to reject the notion of colonialism and white privilege by embracing black or Afro-centric consciousness movements, but many adopted ...


In The Pines: A Visual Ethnography Of American, Mexican And Canadian Reforestation Workers, Noam Osband Jan 2017

In The Pines: A Visual Ethnography Of American, Mexican And Canadian Reforestation Workers, Noam Osband

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

An ethnographic film with supplementary written materials, this dissertation examines the lived experiences of reforestation workers in the United States and Canada. The dissertation is based on fieldwork conducted from November 2012 – February 2015, including time spent with three different reforestation crews, one comprised of Mexicans, one of Americans, and one of Canadians. It also relies on oral histories of former and company owners and other individuals who formed and grew the earliest interstate reforestation contracting companies, as well as archival research in the records of the South Eastern Forestry Contractors Alliance

My work uses liminality as a framework for ...


"A Necessary Sin": An Ethnographic Study Of Sex Selection In Western India, Utpal Niranjan Sandesara Jan 2017

"A Necessary Sin": An Ethnographic Study Of Sex Selection In Western India, Utpal Niranjan Sandesara

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes sex-selective abortion in western India as a lived process with profound cultural, ethical, and demographic implications. Over the past three decades, selective elimination of female fetuses has emerged as a disturbing form of family planning across parts of Europe and Asia. In India, the practice remains widespread despite extensive efforts to combat it, with drastically skewed girl-to-boy ratios resulting in many locales. Drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork with families and clinicians practicing sex selection, as well as with government officials and activists attempting to regulate it, this dissertation examines how prenatal sex determination marks fetuses ...


Recalling Democracy: Electoral Politics, Minority Representation, And Dalit Assertion In Modern India, Michael Adrian Collins Jan 2017

Recalling Democracy: Electoral Politics, Minority Representation, And Dalit Assertion In Modern India, Michael Adrian Collins

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the entanglements of Dalit (formerly “untouchable”) activists in southern India with the ideas and practices of democracy. The research seeks to understand how democracy is understood, experienced, and put to use by marginalized groups to communicate political demands, represent their interests, and participate in deliberative processes from which they have been excluded. This project chronicles the political transformation of the Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi, VCK or Liberation Panthers Party, from an outwardly militant social movement into electoral politics, charting its transition from boycotts to ballots. Through an ethnography of democratic integration and minority representation, the dissertation analyzes a ...


Progressive Dystopia: Multiracial Coalition And The Carceral State, Savannah Shange Jan 2017

Progressive Dystopia: Multiracial Coalition And The Carceral State, Savannah Shange

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Policing and prisons have been the focus of recent community mobilizations in the US, particularly because of their disproportionate impact on Black communities. Along with the excesses of law enforcement officers, vigilante attacks have brought the fatal costs of Islamophobia, anti-immigrant sentiment, and anti-Black racism to the fore of the American consciousness. As a strategy to combat both carceral violence and socioeconomic inequity, scholars in African American Studies and the social sciences have advocated for multiracial alliances between racialized groups and more privileged communities. What, though, are the limits of multiracial coalition building as a tactic for democratic social change ...


Leaving Home: Demographic, Endocrine, And Behavioral Correlates Of Dispersal In Monogamous Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae) Of Argentina, Margaret Kimberly Corley Jan 2017

Leaving Home: Demographic, Endocrine, And Behavioral Correlates Of Dispersal In Monogamous Owl Monkeys (Aotus Azarae) Of Argentina, Margaret Kimberly Corley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natal dispersal, the movement of individuals from their birthplace to new areas in which they may breed, is an important aspect of life history that influences a variety of processes. Understanding dispersal not only increases our theoretical knowledge of the evolution of mating systems and social dynamics, but also provides insights essential for effective population management and for predicting the consequences that environmental changes may have on species’ distributions. This dissertation takes a holistic approach to explore natal dispersal at the level of the population, group, and individual in Azara’s owl monkey (Aotus azarae), a social monogamous primate native ...


Pwofite Tèt Ou”(Avail Yoourself): The Minoritarian Politics Of Haitian Music In Paris, Laura Donnelly Jan 2016

Pwofite Tèt Ou”(Avail Yoourself): The Minoritarian Politics Of Haitian Music In Paris, Laura Donnelly

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Paris functions as a diverse site in which Haitians and French Antilleans come together most significantly in relation to musical interaction. Haitian music in Paris, especially konpa, is frequently paired with Antillean music, specifically zouk, whether it be on the radio, as Antillean stations frequently co-opt konpa or in dance clubs for deejayed events. Thus, konpa and zouk share modes of dissemination and consumption, and are frequently grouped together. These mutually shared spaces of musical consumption enable and promote the formation of connections between Antillean and Haitian communities, enabled by a minoritarian politics rooted in shared colonial histories and coupled ...


A Study On Mobility: Pakistani-Origin Muslim Youth In Higher Education, Mariam Durrani Jan 2016

A Study On Mobility: Pakistani-Origin Muslim Youth In Higher Education, Mariam Durrani

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

My dissertation is a multi-sited ethnography that investigates the gendered lifeworlds of transnational Pakistani-origin, Muslim college students in New York City and in Lahore, Pakistan. My ethnographic approach follows the multiple and overlapping mobility trajectories of transnational youth as marked by particular, semiotic practices and narratives. During the 16 months of fieldwork, my focal fieldsites—the hallways, dorms, student club- rooms, cafeterias, and libraries at two comparable college campuses—provided the interactional spaces where I could observe students developing their social and cultural selves. In my research, I found that the rural to urban migration pattern and concomitant imaginaries remained ...


Wards Of The State: Care And Custody In A Pennsylvania Prison, Nicholas Iacobelli Jan 2016

Wards Of The State: Care And Custody In A Pennsylvania Prison, Nicholas Iacobelli

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In this dissertation, I examine the challenges and contradictions as well as the expectations and aspirations involved in the provision of healthcare to inmates in a maximum-security prison in Pennsylvania. In 1976, the Supreme Court granted inmates a constitutional right to healthcare based on the notion that a failure to do so would constitute “cruel and unusual punishment.” Drawing on two years of ethnographic fieldwork from 2014-2016 in the prison’s medical unit with inmates, healthcare providers, and correctional staff, I demonstrate how the legal infrastructure built around this right to healthcare operates in practice and the myriad effects it ...


Intimate Differences: Cultivating Recognition And Multiracial Solidarity In A Philadelphia School, Roseann Liu Jan 2016

Intimate Differences: Cultivating Recognition And Multiracial Solidarity In A Philadelphia School, Roseann Liu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In a post-civil rights era, it is clear that the abolition of Jim Crow laws was limited in what it could achieve. Inequalities persist, race relations remain tense, and people of color still struggle to live out their full humanity. Promoting “minority recognition” and “diversity” represent our current attempt to move beyond Jim Crow and have become two of America’s most vaunted liberal values. These appear writ large in K-12 and higher education settings where scholars, practitioners, and administrators attempt to put these values into practice by instituting new policies and programs. Yet institutions remain incredibly resistant to change ...


The Influence Of Culture On Senior Leaders As They Seek To Resolve Ethical Dilemmas At Work, Thomas Christopher Mclaverty Jan 2016

The Influence Of Culture On Senior Leaders As They Seek To Resolve Ethical Dilemmas At Work, Thomas Christopher Mclaverty

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores some of the difficulties that arise when using the cognitive development model to explain ethical behaviour in the world of work. An alternative theoretical position is explored, one that was originally developed in anthropology by Richard Shweder and Jonathan Haidt. This position asserts that ethical behaviour is not universal, it is instead highly contextual and may be influenced by both organisational and ethnic/national culture. The influence of culture on ethical behaviour is explored using narrative research techniques. The research is based on thirty in depth interviews with senior executives who frequently faced ethical dilemmas at work ...


Imagining Convivial Multilingualism: Practices, Ideologies And Strategies In Diidxazá/ Isthmus Zapotec Indigenous Language Education, Haley De Korne Jan 2016

Imagining Convivial Multilingualism: Practices, Ideologies And Strategies In Diidxazá/ Isthmus Zapotec Indigenous Language Education, Haley De Korne

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study documents practices relating to the use of Isthmus Zapotec or Diidxaza, an Indigenous language of Oaxaca, Mexico, in formal and non-formal education. Drawing on ethnographic monitoring and ethnography of language policy methodologies, I document, interpret, and ultimately engage in Isthmus Zapotec education with the aim of countering social inequalities produced through language hierarchies.

Within the historical and socio-political context of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec where Isthmus Zapotec is spoken, I describe and categorize the actors, practices, and socio-political processes that currently constitute the educational language ecology. I draw on participant observation, interviews, photographs and documents collected during 17 ...


Diasporic Belonging: The Life-Worlds And Language Practices Of Muslim Youth From Marseille, Cécile Anne Marguerite Evers Jan 2016

Diasporic Belonging: The Life-Worlds And Language Practices Of Muslim Youth From Marseille, Cécile Anne Marguerite Evers

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Since the 1980s, when it became clear that immigrants from France’s ex-colonies were likely to settle with their families in France, the French have repeatedly questioned the cultural compatibility of Muslim immigrants and their descendants with French Republican values. Recent security concerns about Islamic terrorism in Western countries have reinflamed this debate about French Muslims’ “assimilability,” albeit with a novel focus on the cultural affiliations of French Muslim youth, in particular. The French State and politicians are concerned about survey data showing that, even as such youth have acceded to legal citizenship, they nevertheless exhibit a greater adherence to ...


Genetic Diversity In Svaneti And Highland Western Georgia, Aram Yardumian Jan 2015

Genetic Diversity In Svaneti And Highland Western Georgia, Aram Yardumian

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study investigates the genetic diversity and ethnohistory of Svaneti and its neighboring highland Georgian and breakaway regions in order to better understand the complex population history of the South Caucasus. The objectives of this project are to (1) document the biological diversity in contemporary settlements in the region of Svaneti; (2) compare patterns of gene diversity with Svaneti’s western and eastern neighbors, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, respectively; and (3) determine whether gene frequencies in Svaneti are evently distributed across geographic space by characterizing any village-level structuring. We will contextualize the findings within broader studies that address major regional ...


Tiocfaidh Ár Lá (Our Day Will Come): Negotiating The Cultural Politics Of Citizenship, Heritage, And Identity In Northern Ireland, Doris Ellen Panzer Jan 2015

Tiocfaidh Ár Lá (Our Day Will Come): Negotiating The Cultural Politics Of Citizenship, Heritage, And Identity In Northern Ireland, Doris Ellen Panzer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Fifteen years after the Good Friday Agreement ended thirty years of violence in Northern Ireland, people still grapple with peace process implementation. Many within the Catholic minority continue their hopes for a united Ireland, free from British hegemony, refusing to accept they are citizens of the United Kingdom. In the border town of Strabane, County Tyrone, the remembered past plays a dynamic role in how people live in the present, envision their future, and pass it on to younger generations. During the Troubles, members of this republican community were either volunteers in the Irish Republican Army (IRA) or active supporters ...


Aesthetic Citizenship: Popular Culture, Migrant Youth, And The Making Of 'World Class' Delhi, Ethiraj Gabriel Dattatreyan Jan 2015

Aesthetic Citizenship: Popular Culture, Migrant Youth, And The Making Of 'World Class' Delhi, Ethiraj Gabriel Dattatreyan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Delhi has nearly doubled in population since the early 1990s due to in-migration (censusindia.gov, 2011). These migrants, like migrants around the world, strive to adapt to their new surroundings by producing themselves in ways which make them socially, economically, and politically viable. My project examines how recent international and intranational immigrant youth who have come to Delhi to partake in its economic possibilities and, in some cases, to escape political uncertainty, are utilizing globally circulating popular cultural forms to make themselves visible in a moment when the city strives to recast its image as a world class destination for ...


Development, Value, And Education In India's Digital Age, Arjun Shankar Jan 2015

Development, Value, And Education In India's Digital Age, Arjun Shankar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This ethnography is an attempt to show the particular relationships between globalization, development, digitality, and urban-rural change as they are re-articulated in the actions and interactions between several groups – NGO personnel, teachers, students – living, working, and studying within educational spaces in South Karnataka, in regions in and around Bangalore city. My intervention, to put it simply, is to show how the condition of development in India, and specifically education-as-development, has changed in the contemporary global digital moment, and I identify the new concerns of each of these groups – how they sought to develop themselves and Others – in the wake of ...


Imperial Enterprise: The United States International Volunteer Program, Neoliberal Empire, And Northern Youth, Caitlin Anderson Jan 2015

Imperial Enterprise: The United States International Volunteer Program, Neoliberal Empire, And Northern Youth, Caitlin Anderson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In recent years, the phenomenon of Northern international volunteering has been conceived as an instance of post-collegiate “continuing education” and, as such, has been attributed to a neoliberal logic of self-enterprise. However, such accounts have neglected to interrogate how an entrenched logic of empire also animates the practice of recruiting and deploying Northern citizens to volunteer in the “developing” world. Also overlooked have been the particular intersections of these logics in the discourses of international volunteer programs, the related subject formations of Northern volunteers who come under their tutelage, and the ways in which these intersections engage broader geopolitical objectives ...


From Thick To Thin: The Remaking Of Homeopathy In France, Michael Joiner Jan 2015

From Thick To Thin: The Remaking Of Homeopathy In France, Michael Joiner

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Homeopathy is an alternative healing method originated by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in the 18th century. Since its advent, it has undergone many transformations, as a clinical method as well as a philosophy, as it has confronted the changing climates of scientific knowledge and politics. Today, it faces challenges to its existence from industry and “official” science and medicine and is riven with internal discord on matters of homeopathic ideology and orthodoxy. This dissertation seeks to illuminate the nature of these challenges by studying the homeopathic community in France, where homeopathic treatment is widely sought by patient-consumers and is partially ...


Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity And Black Heterogeneity, Krystal A. Smalls Jan 2015

Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity And Black Heterogeneity, Krystal A. Smalls

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the colonization of the “Dark Continent,” to the global industry that turned black bodies into chattel, to the total absence of modern Africa from most American public school curricula, to superfluous representations of African primitivity in mainstream media, to the unflinching state-sanctioned murders of unarmed black people in the Americas, antiblackness and anti-black racism have been part and parcel to modernity, swathing centuries and continents, and seeping into the tiny spaces and moments that constitute social reality for most black-identified human beings. The daily living and theorizing of a small group of twenty-something young people from Liberia provide the ...


Fighting With Wine: Ruin, Resistance And Renewal In A Qom Community Of Northern Argentina, Christopher A. Golias Jan 2015

Fighting With Wine: Ruin, Resistance And Renewal In A Qom Community Of Northern Argentina, Christopher A. Golias

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study examines public binge drinking among the Qom (Toba) ex-foragers of Formosa, northern Argentina. Based upon 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a peri-urban Qom barrio (Lot 84), this analysis relates binge drinking to Qom ethnohistory, community life, and interactions with the Argentine state. The public, performative nature of Qom binge drinking is explored; intoxication is shown to convey in sometimes violent public spectacle the pathos of their socioeconomic marginality, reinforce non-indigenous Argentines’ entrenched perceptions of violent “Indians”, and paradoxically provide the Qom with vehicle for continued colonial resistance. Many Qom view drinking problems as rooted in Lot 84 ...


State-Making, Evidence-Making, And Claim-Making: The Cases Of Torture And Enforced Disappearances In Post-1980 Turkey, Basak Can Jan 2014

State-Making, Evidence-Making, And Claim-Making: The Cases Of Torture And Enforced Disappearances In Post-1980 Turkey, Basak Can

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This thesis concerns the struggles over the production of the truth of state violence in Turkey in the three decades following the infamous 1980 military coup. Specifically, it focuses on cases of torture and enforced disappearance, two forms of violence which the state not only used extensively but also around which it built a specific regime of denial in collaboration and complicity with the official forensic institution. The latter is the ultimate authority that produces medical documents and reports that can be used in making legal claims.

Based on two years of fieldwork in human rights NGOs, forensic medicine institutions ...


The Anxiety Of Recognition: The Search For Legibility Of Mayan Identities In Yucatã¡N, Mexico And San Francisco, California, Christa D. Cesario Jan 2014

The Anxiety Of Recognition: The Search For Legibility Of Mayan Identities In Yucatã¡N, Mexico And San Francisco, California, Christa D. Cesario

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation tracks the mobilization of Yucatec Maya culture and identity across Yucatán, Mexico and San Francisco, California. Moving within a circulating discourse pertaining to a crisis of culture loss, I pause at three distinct sites to explore how "culture" is deployed for recognition in national and transnational spaces. I focus on Tuch Mukuy, a 17-member community theater troupe in Oxkutzcab, Yucatán; U Najil Xook, a one-member NGO dedicated to Mayan language preservation; and Alianza del Pueblo Maya, an NGO formed by the members of the Yucatec Maya migrant community in San Francisco to represent their interests and ...