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Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

2016

Physical

Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Improving Physical Task Performance With Counterfactual And Prefactual Thinking, Cecilia Hammell, Amy Yc Chan Jan 2016

Improving Physical Task Performance With Counterfactual And Prefactual Thinking, Cecilia Hammell, Amy Yc Chan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on ªwhat might have beenº) has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining ªwhat might be if. . .º) may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined. In Experiment 1 (n = 42), participants performed trials of a computer-simulated physical task, in between ...


Increasing Physical Activity Among Young Children From Disadvantaged Communities: Study Protocol Of A Group Randomised Controlled Effectiveness Trial, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J. Reilly, Ngiare J. Brown, Karen J. Mickle, Steven J. Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul A. Chandler, Penny L. Cross, Fay L. Gowers, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2016

Increasing Physical Activity Among Young Children From Disadvantaged Communities: Study Protocol Of A Group Randomised Controlled Effectiveness Trial, Rebecca M. Stanley, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J. Reilly, Ngiare J. Brown, Karen J. Mickle, Steven J. Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul A. Chandler, Penny L. Cross, Fay L. Gowers, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority. Methods Jump Start is a multi-component, multi-setting PA and gross motor skill intervention for young children aged 3-5 years in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. The intervention will be evaluated using ...


Augmenting Instructional Animations With A Body Analogy To Help Children Learn About Physical Systems, Wim T. J. L Pouw, Tamara Van Gog, Rolf A. Zwaan, Fred Paas Jan 2016

Augmenting Instructional Animations With A Body Analogy To Help Children Learn About Physical Systems, Wim T. J. L Pouw, Tamara Van Gog, Rolf A. Zwaan, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

We investigated whether augmenting instructional animations with a body analogy (BA) would improve 10- to 13-year-old children's learning about class-1 levers. Children with a lower level of general math skill who learned with an instructional animation that provided a BA of the physical system, showed higher accuracy on a lever problemsolving reaction time task than children studying the instructional animation without this BA. Additionally, learning with a BA led to a higher speed-accuracy trade-off during the transfer task for children with a lower math skill, which provided additional evidence that especially this group is likely to be affected by ...


Energy Cost Of Physical Activities And Sedentary Behaviors In Young Children, Anja Grobek, Christiana Van Loo, Gregory E. Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff Jan 2016

Energy Cost Of Physical Activities And Sedentary Behaviors In Young Children, Anja Grobek, Christiana Van Loo, Gregory E. Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel A. Jones, Dylan P. Cliff

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: This study reports energy expenditure (EE) data for lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children. Methods: Eleven children aged 3 to 6 years (mean age = 4.8 ± 0.9; 55% boys) completed 12 semistructured activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) over 2 laboratory visits while wearing a portable metabolic system to measure EE. Results: Mean EE values for SB (TV, reading, tablet and toy play) were between 0.9 to 1.1 kcal/min. Standing art had an energy cost that was 1.5 times that of SB (mean = 1.4 kcal/min ...


Correlates Of Children's Objectively Measured Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In Early Childhood Education And Care Services: A Systematic Review, Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2016

Correlates Of Children's Objectively Measured Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In Early Childhood Education And Care Services: A Systematic Review, Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective: To systematically review the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior among children in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) services. Appropriate levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior are important to promote in ECEC services. Methods: A systematic search of 8 databases identified 27 studies published between 1992 and 2015 that met the inclusion criteria. The data were collected and analyzed in 2014 and 2015, and variables were categorized using a Social Ecological Framework. Results: Sixty-six variables were identified. The domains of child characteristics (18 studies) and physical environmental factors (17 studies) were most consistently studied, and, for ...


Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams Jan 2016

Physical Activity And Fitness Outcomes Of A Lifestyle Intervention For Primary Care Patients With Depression And Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Adrienne Forsyth, Frank P. Deane, Peter G. Williams

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Patients currently being treated for depression and/or anxiety were referred by their GP and randomised to a 12-week individually tailored diet and exercise lifestyle intervention or an attention control group. Assessments at baseline and 12 weeks included the Active Australia Survey for self-reported physical activity, chair stands, arm curls and a 3-min step test to measure physical fitness. Intent-to-treat analyses using linear mixed modelling showed both groups significantly improved participation in physical activity and muscular endurance. There were no significant differences in improvement between groups. The only group by time interaction was found for body mass index and indicated ...


An Internet-Supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered In Secondary Schools Located In Low Socio-Economic Status Communities: Study Protocol For The Activity And Motivation In Physical Education (Amped) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, Chris Lonsdale, Aidan Lester, Katherine B. Owen, Rhiannon L. White, Ian Moyes, Louisa Peralta, Morwenna Kirwan, Anthony Maeder, Andrew Bennie, Freya Macmillan, Gregory Kolt, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer M. Gore, Ester Cerin, Thierno M.O Diallo, Dylan P. Cliff, David R. Lubans Jan 2016

An Internet-Supported Physical Activity Intervention Delivered In Secondary Schools Located In Low Socio-Economic Status Communities: Study Protocol For The Activity And Motivation In Physical Education (Amped) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, Chris Lonsdale, Aidan Lester, Katherine B. Owen, Rhiannon L. White, Ian Moyes, Louisa Peralta, Morwenna Kirwan, Anthony Maeder, Andrew Bennie, Freya Macmillan, Gregory Kolt, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer M. Gore, Ester Cerin, Thierno M.O Diallo, Dylan P. Cliff, David R. Lubans

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: School-based physical education is an important public health initiative as it has the potential to provide students with regular opportunities to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Unfortunately, in many physical education lessons students do not engage in sufficient MVPA to achieve health benefits. In this trial we will test the efficacy of a teacher professional development intervention, delivered partially via the Internet, on secondary school students' MVPA during physical education lessons. Teaching strategies covered in this training are designed to (i) maximize opportunities for students to be physically active during lessons and (ii) enhance students' autonomous motivation towards ...


Large-Scale Investment In Green Space As An Intervention For Physical Activity, Mental And Cardiometabolic Health: Study Protocol For A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Of A Natural Experiment, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory Kolt Jan 2016

Large-Scale Investment In Green Space As An Intervention For Physical Activity, Mental And Cardiometabolic Health: Study Protocol For A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation Of A Natural Experiment, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory Kolt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Introduction 'Green spaces' such as public parks are regarded as determinants of health, but evidence from tends to be based on cross-sectional designs. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a large-scale investment in approximately 5280 hectares of green space stretching 27 km north to south in Western Sydney, Australia. Methods and analysis A Geographic Information System was used to identify 7272 participants in the 45 and Up Study baseline data (2006-2008) living within 5 km of the Western Sydney Parklands and some of the features that have been constructed since 2009, such as public access points, advertising billboards ...


Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines For Children And Youth: An Integration Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, And Sleep, Mark S. Tremblay, Valerie Carson, Jean-Phillipe Chaput, Sarah Connor Gorber, Thy Dinh, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Casey E. Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Peter Katzmarzyk, Michelle E. Kho, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Claire Leblanc, Anthony D. Okely, Timothy Olds, Russell R. Pate, Andrea Phillips, Veronica Poitras, Sophie Rodenburg, Margaret Sampson, Travis J. Saunders, James A. Stone, Gareth Stratton, Shelly K. Weiss, Lori Zehr Jan 2016

Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines For Children And Youth: An Integration Of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, And Sleep, Mark S. Tremblay, Valerie Carson, Jean-Phillipe Chaput, Sarah Connor Gorber, Thy Dinh, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Casey E. Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Peter Katzmarzyk, Michelle E. Kho, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Claire Leblanc, Anthony D. Okely, Timothy Olds, Russell R. Pate, Andrea Phillips, Veronica Poitras, Sophie Rodenburg, Margaret Sampson, Travis J. Saunders, James A. Stone, Gareth Stratton, Shelly K. Weiss, Lori Zehr

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the ...


The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper Jan 2016

The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: An area of growth in physical activity research has involved investigating effects of physical activity on children's executive functions. Many of these efforts seek to increase the energy expenditure of young children as a healthy and low-cost way to affect physical, health, and cognitive outcomes. Methods: We review theory and research from neuroscience and evolutionary biology, which suggest that interventions seeking to increase the energy expenditure of young children must also consider the energetic trade-offs that occur to accommodate changing metabolic costs of brain development. Results: According to Life History Theory, and supported by recent evidence, the high ...


Does Retirement Mean More Physical Activity? A Longitudinal Study, Xiaoqi Feng, Karen Croteau, Gregory Kolt, Thomas E. Astell-Burt Jan 2016

Does Retirement Mean More Physical Activity? A Longitudinal Study, Xiaoqi Feng, Karen Croteau, Gregory Kolt, Thomas E. Astell-Burt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Evidence on physical activity (PA) and transitions out of full-time employment in middle-to-older age is mainly cross-sectional and focused upon retirement. The purpose was to examine trajectories in PA before and after transitions out of full-time employment. Methods Data were obtained for 5,754 people in full-time employment aged 50-75 from the US Health and Retirement Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine trajectories in twice-weekly participation in light, moderate and vigorous PA among those transitioning to part-time work, semi-retirement, full retirement, or economic inactivity due to disability, in comparison to those remaining in full-time employment. Results Twice weekly ...


“Just Because You’Re Pregnant, Doesn’T Mean You’Re Sick!” A Qualitative Study Of Beliefs Regarding Physical Activity In Black South African Women, Estelle D. Watson, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper, Rachel A. Jones, Mireille N. M Van Poppel, Lisa K. Micklesfield Jan 2016

“Just Because You’Re Pregnant, Doesn’T Mean You’Re Sick!” A Qualitative Study Of Beliefs Regarding Physical Activity In Black South African Women, Estelle D. Watson, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper, Rachel A. Jones, Mireille N. M Van Poppel, Lisa K. Micklesfield

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background Despite the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy, the physiological and psychological changes that occur during this unique period may put women at greater risk of being sedentary. Lifestyle and environmental transitions have left black South African women at increased risk of physical inactivity and associated health risks. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the beliefs regarding physical activity during pregnancy in an urban African population. Methods Semi-structured interviews (n = 13) were conducted with pregnant black African women during their third trimester. Deductive thematic analysis was completed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Coding ...


Sedentary Time, Physical Activity And Compliance With Iom Recommendations In Young Children At Childcare, Yvonne Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Xanne Janssen, Rachel A. Jones, John J. Reilly, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2016

Sedentary Time, Physical Activity And Compliance With Iom Recommendations In Young Children At Childcare, Yvonne Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Xanne Janssen, Rachel A. Jones, John J. Reilly, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The aim of this study was to report patterns of sitting, standing and physical activity (PA) and compliance with Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for sedentary behavior (SB) and PA among children aged 1 to 5 years at childcare, and examine sociodemographic variations. Sitting, standing and PA time was assessed using an activPAL inclinometer over a period of 1 to 5 days in 301 children (49% boys; mean age = 3.7 ± 1.0 years) across 11 childcare services in Illawarra, NSW, Australia. Breaks and bouts of sitting and standing were calculated and categorized. Height and weight were assessed and parents ...


Identifying Correlates And Determinants Of Physical Activity In Youth: How Can We Advance The Field?, Andrew J. Atkin, Esther M. F Van Sluijs, James Dollman, Wendell C. Taylor, Rebecca M. Stanley Jan 2016

Identifying Correlates And Determinants Of Physical Activity In Youth: How Can We Advance The Field?, Andrew J. Atkin, Esther M. F Van Sluijs, James Dollman, Wendell C. Taylor, Rebecca M. Stanley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This commentary provides a critical discussion of current research investigating the correlates and determinants of physical activity in young people, with specific focus on conceptual, theoretical and methodological issues. We draw on current child and adolescent literature and our own collective expertise to illustrate our discussion. We conclude with recommendations that will strengthen future research and help to advance the field.


Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting And Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory S. Kolt, Bin Jalaludin Jan 2016

Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting And Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians, Thomas E. Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory S. Kolt, Bin Jalaludin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved (“fixed”)-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006–2008) and follow-up (2009–2010). Possible sources of time-varying confounding included age, income, economic status, relationship (couple) status, and physical functioning. In adjusted models, an increase in all ...


Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy In A Sample Of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study, Paula Clara-Santos, Sandra Abreu, Carla Moreira, Rute Santos, Margarida Ferreira, Odete Alves, Pedro Moreira, Jorge Mota Jan 2016

Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy In A Sample Of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study, Paula Clara-Santos, Sandra Abreu, Carla Moreira, Rute Santos, Margarida Ferreira, Odete Alves, Pedro Moreira, Jorge Mota

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives: This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women's perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods: A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data ...


Association Between Serum Adiponectin Levels And Muscular Fitness In Portuguese Adolescents: Labmed Physical Activity Study, C Agostinis-Sobrinho, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luis Lopes, J Oliveira-Santos, R Rosario, Susana Povoas, Jorge Mota Jan 2016

Association Between Serum Adiponectin Levels And Muscular Fitness In Portuguese Adolescents: Labmed Physical Activity Study, C Agostinis-Sobrinho, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luis Lopes, J Oliveira-Santos, R Rosario, Susana Povoas, Jorge Mota

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background and aim: Paradoxically, recent investigations have showed that adiponectin levels are inversely associated with muscle strength. However, to date, there is a lack of knowledge on the relationship between muscular fitness (MF) and adiponectin levels in adolescents. We aimed to examine the independent associations between MF and adiponectin levels in adolescents, controlling for several potential confounders. Methods and results: This is a cross-sectional analysis with 529 Portuguese adolescents aged 12-18 years. A MF score was computed as the mean of the handgrip strength and standing long jump standardized values by age and gender. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, HDL-cholesterol ...


Infusing Physical Activities Into The Classroom: Effects On Preschool Children's Geography Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Fred Paas Jan 2016

Infusing Physical Activities Into The Classroom: Effects On Preschool Children's Geography Learning, Myrto-Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul A. Chandler, Fred Paas

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In this intervention study, we investigated the effects of physical activities that were integrated into a geography task on preschool children's learning performance and enjoyment. Eight childcare centers with 87 four-to-five-year-old children were randomly assigned across an integrated physical activity condition, an unintegrated physical activity condition, and a control condition without physical activity. Children learned the names and a typical animal from each of the six continents using a floor-mounted world map with soft toy animals. Both learning conditions with physical activities showed higher performance than the learning condition without physical activities on an immediate retention test, and on ...


'Physical Activity 4 Everyone' School-Based Intervention To Prevent Decline In Adolescent Physical Activity Levels: 12 Month (Mid-Intervention) Report On A Cluster Randomised Trial, Rachel Sutherland, Elizabeth Campbell, David R. Lubans, Philip J. Morgan, Anthony D. Okely, Nicole Nathan, Luke Wolfenden, Jarrod Wiese, Karen Gillham, Jenna Hollis, John Wiggers Jan 2016

'Physical Activity 4 Everyone' School-Based Intervention To Prevent Decline In Adolescent Physical Activity Levels: 12 Month (Mid-Intervention) Report On A Cluster Randomised Trial, Rachel Sutherland, Elizabeth Campbell, David R. Lubans, Philip J. Morgan, Anthony D. Okely, Nicole Nathan, Luke Wolfenden, Jarrod Wiese, Karen Gillham, Jenna Hollis, John Wiggers

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods: A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome ...