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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Confusing Conversations: Assessing Traumatic Stress In Young Children, Jennifer Lela Moniz Jan 2020

Confusing Conversations: Assessing Traumatic Stress In Young Children, Jennifer Lela Moniz

Dissertations & Theses

Early detection and interventions are important for the prevention of negative long-term effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current evaluations of PTSD in young children rely heavily on caregiver reports, and there are few self-report measures for children under 8 years old (Mash & Barkley, 2007). This study examined the construct validity of the Post Traumatic Symptom Inventory for Children (PT-SIC), a self-report measure of PTSD symptomatology for young children, through a comparison of results with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC), an empirically supported caregiver measure of child PTSD symptomatology. Results of the Spearman correlation indicated that there ...


Police Officer Trauma In Rural Minnesota: A Narrative Study, John J. Littlewolf Jan 2020

Police Officer Trauma In Rural Minnesota: A Narrative Study, John J. Littlewolf

Dissertations & Theses

We call on police officers to respond to all of society’s tragedies. Whether in our metropolitan areas or our rural communities, law enforcement will respond when called upon. The culture of law enforcement is laden with traits of masculinity. These cultural traits can inhibit the processing of traumatic experiences in the individual. While the nature of law enforcement has remained the same, our scientific knowledge regarding trauma has grown. Trauma has a biological impact which can manifest as stress symptomology or PTSD. Our systematic response to trauma in law enforcement has not kept pace with the body of knowledge ...


Childhood Witnessing Of Domestic Violence And Its Impact On Character Development Across Time And Adulthood Relationships, Zena Ouzounian Dec 2019

Childhood Witnessing Of Domestic Violence And Its Impact On Character Development Across Time And Adulthood Relationships, Zena Ouzounian

Dissertations & Theses

This phenomenological research study explored the experiences of five adult participants who reported witnessing domestic violence between their parents during childhood. Through the process of open-ended interviews, this work added further support to the existing understanding of the impact that childhood witnessing of parental violence can have on one’s adult behavior and relationships. Thus far, child witnesses to parental violence receive little attention, perhaps due to the lack of tangible evidence that they have been harmed. Existing studies in the field primarily make use of quantitative methods to examine negative outcomes of such experiences. This study identified similar themes ...


Introducing Shame Resilience To Women Who Struggle With Complex Trauma And Substance Abuse, Kirsten R. Robertson Jan 2019

Introducing Shame Resilience To Women Who Struggle With Complex Trauma And Substance Abuse, Kirsten R. Robertson

Dissertations & Theses

The relationship between shame and trauma has been documented in research beginning as early as the 19th century. Not until the second half of the 20th century did extensive research clearly define both trauma and shame, with the addition of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as an official diagnosis in the field of mental health. Many researchers and clinicians believe an additional diagnosis should be added to the list of trauma-related mental health diagnoses—one that includes repeated traumatic experiences during childhood. Despite the known relationship between shame and various traumatic experiences, direct shame interventions have yet to find a place ...


Growth After Developmental Trauma: A Co-Constructed Story, Naydine Johney Jan 2019

Growth After Developmental Trauma: A Co-Constructed Story, Naydine Johney

Dissertations & Theses

In this study, I explored post-traumatic growth as embedded in a co-constructed healing relationship between a trauma survivor and a “mentor” who has been instrumental to their recovery. It is widely known that people who are resilient in overcoming early adverse childhood experiences have had someone in their corner who believed in them. In a separate, but related body of literature, there are similarly well-documented benefits for those who have the chance to make a difference in a survivor’s life, including for example: relatives, educators, and therapists. To date, we still don’t know if survivors and their mentors ...


The Experience Of Relapse After Long-Term Sobriety And Subsequent Return To Sobriety, Bahram Edward Kaikhosrow Shahrokh Jan 2019

The Experience Of Relapse After Long-Term Sobriety And Subsequent Return To Sobriety, Bahram Edward Kaikhosrow Shahrokh

Dissertations & Theses

While psychiatric medications have been categorized as the same as substances of abuse in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), medications for common medical disorders were not affected by this disapproval of medication. It may be time for a new dialogue (Woody, 2015). According to Gjersing and Bretteville (2018), there has been a concerning increase in overdose deaths in the last decade. This includes a threefold increase in overdose deaths from prescription narcotics and six-fold increase in overdose deaths from heroin in the United States. When prescription opioid users find difficulty in obtaining pills, they may move on to heroin, which is much ...


Aces Wild: Making Meaning Out Of Trauma Through Altruism Born Of Suffering, Jessica Gibson Jan 2019

Aces Wild: Making Meaning Out Of Trauma Through Altruism Born Of Suffering, Jessica Gibson

Dissertations & Theses

Childhood exposure to early adverse experiences is prevalent—affecting almost one-half of children from birth to 17 years old—and brings with it the potential for the long-lasting detrimental effects of traumatization. At the same time, a growing body of compelling evidence also suggests that many survivors of trauma exhibit more resilience and prosocial behaviors than individuals who have never experienced a traumatic event. This phenomenon has been coined altruism born of suffering (ABS); it is a relatively new concept in trauma research that seeks to better understand the possible positive outcomes of trauma. Building further beyond the concepts of ...


From The Perspectives Of School Staff: The Helpful And Hindering Factors Of Recovery From A School Crisis, Andria Weiser Jan 2018

From The Perspectives Of School Staff: The Helpful And Hindering Factors Of Recovery From A School Crisis, Andria Weiser

Dissertations & Theses

The impact of a violent event at a high school has an effect that ripples throughout the entire community. The present study sought to review what led teachers and school staff to recover after an unexpected violent event killed two students. The study sought to understand the process of recovery, including the post crisis intervention, response, and factors of personal resiliency, from the perspective of the staff and teachers involved. Enhanced Critical Incident Technique (ECIT), a robust qualitative research methodology used to study phenomenological constructs in a systematic way, was employed to give voice to the participants and understand the ...


Early Psychosis And Trauma-Related Disorders: Clinical Practice Guidelines And Future Directions, Casey A. Cragin Jan 2017

Early Psychosis And Trauma-Related Disorders: Clinical Practice Guidelines And Future Directions, Casey A. Cragin

Dissertations & Theses

Despite very high rates of trauma-related disorders among individuals with early psychosis, no clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of comorbid early psychosis and trauma-related disorders exist to date. Indeed, the routine exclusion of individuals with past and current psychosis from participation in trauma research and practice has limited the accumulation of research evidence that could inform such clinical practice guidelines. While preliminary research evidence suggests that traditional, empirically supported treatments for trauma-related disorders can be safely and effectively employed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress and chronic psychosis, it remains unclear whether such treatments are appropriate for individuals in ...


The Process Of Resolving Spiritual Struggle Following Adulthood Trauma, Aimee L. Keith Jan 2017

The Process Of Resolving Spiritual Struggle Following Adulthood Trauma, Aimee L. Keith

Dissertations & Theses

Spiritual struggle has been described as a disruption in religious practice and spirituality resulting in questioning beliefs, experiencing discord within religious communities, decreasing spiritual practices, and experiencing painful cognitions such as the belief that one is being punished by God. This study used constructivist grounded theory to explore how women identifying as Protestant Christians at the time of the traumatic event resolve their spiritual struggles. Eleven conceptual categories, which are presented in a stage model, emerged from the data. The stages were Experiencing an Event Discordant with Beliefs, Emotional Reaction (following the traumatic event), Questioning (of beliefs, suffering and identity ...


How Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) Trained Therapists Stabilize Clients Prior To Reprocessing With Emdr Therapy, Edward H. Brendler Jan 2017

How Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) Trained Therapists Stabilize Clients Prior To Reprocessing With Emdr Therapy, Edward H. Brendler

Dissertations & Theses

Helping clients develop resources and stability required to tolerate reprocessing memories can be a considerable part of psychotherapy, particularly with clients who are suffering symptoms related to complex developmental trauma or cumulative multiple-event trauma. There is a paucity of research regarding how experienced EMDR Therapy practitioners experience helping their clients to develop resources required to tolerate reprocessing of trauma memories. This dissertation is an in-depth study of five participants, each a licensed mental health practitioner in the State of Washington, who are trained in EMDR and experienced working with clients who are suffering symptoms of trauma. Each participant was interviewed ...


Demographic Characteristics And Trauma Symptomology In Juvenile Justice Residents At Echo Glen Children's Center, Britta L. Bergan Jan 2016

Demographic Characteristics And Trauma Symptomology In Juvenile Justice Residents At Echo Glen Children's Center, Britta L. Bergan

Dissertations & Theses

Exposure to traumatic and stressful events has become increasingly commonplace and the impact of such experiences has been well documented. Trauma events in childhood have been associated with a number of factors, including maladaptive emotional and behavioral responses, increased vulnerability for exposure to additional traumatic events, and adverse experiences later in life. Juvenile justice youth have been found to have higher rates of trauma exposure, when compared to community samples of same-aged peers. The population of youth residing at Echo Glen Children’s Center, in Snoqualmie, Washington, exhibit unique characteristics for a juvenile justice population, including age (the youngest juvenile ...


Experiencing The Death Of A Formerly Abusive Parent, Heather Spence Jan 2016

Experiencing The Death Of A Formerly Abusive Parent, Heather Spence

Dissertations & Theses

It is well documented that approximately 25–33% of children experience abuse, many of those at the hands of a primary caretaker. Within the literature on child maltreatment, there exists a paucity of research about the long-term effects of early maltreatment on adult attachments with the previous abuser, including the experiences of adults who experience the death of their previous caretakers. Additionally, most of the research on grief and bereavement assumes positive affect for the deceased by survivors. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of five adults, aged 50–70 years old, who experienced the recent death of a parent ...


Bind, Tether, And Transcend: Achieving Integration Through Extra-Therapeutic Dance, Megan M. Kain Jan 2016

Bind, Tether, And Transcend: Achieving Integration Through Extra-Therapeutic Dance, Megan M. Kain

Dissertations & Theses

The purpose of this study is to examine the lived experience of achieving integration through the fine art form of dance, using a phenomenological method coupled with narrative and arts-based research. Research material illustrating the various manifestations of integration will be derived from interviews of ten professional dancers representing the non-dominant cultural discourse. Through the application of theoretical underpinnings of somatic psychology, interpersonal neurobiology, psychoneuroimmunology, and relational psychotherapy, this qualitative research seeks to articulate the esoteric healing forces derived from creative movement that fortifies self and fosters resilience within individuals. While dance might constitute an effective processing and coping mechanism ...


Secondary Traumatic Stress, Compassion Fatigue, And Burnout: How Working In Correctional Settings Affects Mental Health Providers, Nykia S. Johnson Jan 2016

Secondary Traumatic Stress, Compassion Fatigue, And Burnout: How Working In Correctional Settings Affects Mental Health Providers, Nykia S. Johnson

Dissertations & Theses

Over the last three decades, there has been a sharp increase in the number of people incarcerated within the United States. A significant number of those incarcerated have been diagnosed with a mental health disorder. Subsequently, as the incarceration rate rises, so does the need for qualified mental health professionals who are able to treat mentally ill prisoners. Correctional mental health providers work in very dangerous, oppressive, and often-chaotic settings, with very little control over their environment. They must address daily episodes of violence and threats from inmates with histories of murder, rape, and assault, while still maintaining their ability ...


Haitian Children's House-Tree-Person Drawings: Global Similarities And Cultural Differences, Abimbola Afolayan Jan 2015

Haitian Children's House-Tree-Person Drawings: Global Similarities And Cultural Differences, Abimbola Afolayan

Dissertations & Theses

The issues of rising terrorism, violence, and scarcity of basic needs will increase in the coming decades, and children that need psychological services in disaster areas around the world will also increase (Alim, 2008). The study utilized the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective test to examine the adaptation and maladaptation of Haitian children who lived in extreme urban poverty, broken infrastructure, and relocation camps in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake. The 43 participants of the original archived data set provided 129 protocols of house, tree, and person drawings (Roysircar & Colvin, 2015). Out of that dataset, the present study used 39 HTP protocols from 13 Haitian child participants, ages 7 to 9 years old. The 39 HTP drawings protocols were coded using a Jungian Interpretative Design (Furth, 2002). These coded results were analyzed with a modified qualitative methodology of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The Jungian Interpretative Design revealed adaptive (“tree has some fruits”) and maladaptive presentations (“the man is holding a machete in his left hand”), and an overall impression (“this person portrays a sense of agency and action”) of the drawings. Seven superordinate and subordinate clustered themes emerged from the IPA: Vulnerability and Powerlessness; Resiliency; Aggression; Well-Being; Sublimated idealization and Fantasy; Self-Efficacy and Agency; and Trauma ...


Understanding Peritraumatic Dissociation: Evolution-Prepared Dissociation, Tonic Immobility, And Clinical Dissociation, Laura A. Halvorsen Jan 2014

Understanding Peritraumatic Dissociation: Evolution-Prepared Dissociation, Tonic Immobility, And Clinical Dissociation, Laura A. Halvorsen

Dissertations & Theses

Current literature on the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and dissociation that occurs during the time of a trauma, or peritraumatic dissociation, appears to be contradictory and inconclusive. Conflicting findings in the empirical literature that disagree on the nature of this association (whether peritraumatic dissociation is a risk factor for PTSD or a neutral or even protective evolutionarily-derived phenomenon) may originate from the lack of conceptual clarity regarding the construct of dissociation, and lack of differentiation between peritraumatic dissociation and dissociation that persists after a traumatic event. This dissertation details a theory for differentiating clusters of peritraumatic dissociation based on distinct ...


Ways Of Being In Trauma-Based Society: Discovering The Politics And Moral Culture Of The Trauma Industry Through Hermeneutic Interpretation Of Evidence-Supported Ptsd Treatment Manuals, Sarah Peregrine Lord Jan 2014

Ways Of Being In Trauma-Based Society: Discovering The Politics And Moral Culture Of The Trauma Industry Through Hermeneutic Interpretation Of Evidence-Supported Ptsd Treatment Manuals, Sarah Peregrine Lord

Dissertations & Theses

One hundred percent of evidence-supported psychotherapy treatments for trauma related disorders involve the therapist learning from and retaining fidelity to a treatment manual. Through a hermeneutic qualitative textual interpretation of three widely utilized evidence-supported trauma treatment manuals, I identified themes that suggested a particular constitution of the contemporary way of being—a traumatized self—and how this traumatized self comes to light through psychotherapeutic practice as described by the manuals. The manuals included: 1) a trauma focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for children; 2) an eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy for adults; and, 3) an early intervention and debriefing therapy series for ...


The Self Of The Field And The Work Of Donnel Stern, Daniel Masler Jan 2014

The Self Of The Field And The Work Of Donnel Stern, Daniel Masler

Dissertations & Theses

No study has taken an updated and comprehensive review of Donnel Stern’s writings. An investigation of his philosophical assumptions, locating Stern’s work socioculturally and historically, along with an elucidation of Stern’s background in traditional psychoanalytic literature and clinical practice, brings out the meanings and enigmas present in his theories of dissociation, enactment, unformulated experience, multiple self-states, and reflection. Stern has offered one of the best-integrated theoretical models in relational psychoanalytic theory. An examination of his theories within the theoretical traditions to which he makes claim (psychoanalytic, interpersonal, hermeneutic, postmodern, and democratic) helps elucidate the challenge posed by ...


Feasibility And Perceived Efficacy Of The Neurosequential Model Of Therapeutics, Catherine F. Caplis Jan 2014

Feasibility And Perceived Efficacy Of The Neurosequential Model Of Therapeutics, Catherine F. Caplis

Dissertations & Theses

Child abuse and neglect can have serious negative physiological and psychological effects on the developing brain. Children who suffer from early and ongoing abuse and neglect often develop further problems as they mature, even if they are subsequently in safe environments. Many trauma-based therapies have been created in order to help these children develop increased emotional and social regulation, and decrease their behavioral problems. The Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics (NMT) is a newer approach to working with traumatized children that has garnered great enthusiasm despite very limited outcome data. In this dissertation, I explore the promise of NMT and describe ...


Trauma, Deviant Sexual Arousal, And Sexual Aggression In Adolescent Male Sexual Offenders, Kerry Elizabeth Nelligan Jan 2013

Trauma, Deviant Sexual Arousal, And Sexual Aggression In Adolescent Male Sexual Offenders, Kerry Elizabeth Nelligan

Dissertations & Theses

Juvenile sexual abusers commit a significant proportion of the sexual offenses perpetrated in the United States each year. Researchers have identified several variables related to the etiology of sexual offending behavior in adolescent males. For example, there is evidence that both trauma and deviant sexual arousal have been independently linked to sexual aggression committed by adolescent sexual abusers. However, an etiological model that accounts for all of the variance with regard to sexual offending behavior or sexual recidivism in Juvenile Sex Offenders (JSOs) has not yet been developed. In the current study, a pre-existing data set of adjudicated JSOs who ...


Utilizing The Standard Trauma-Focused Emdr Protocol In Treatment Of Fibromyalgia, Tricia L. Teneycke Jan 2012

Utilizing The Standard Trauma-Focused Emdr Protocol In Treatment Of Fibromyalgia, Tricia L. Teneycke

Dissertations & Theses

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain and fatigue. It notably impacts individuals and their families, creates notable opportunity costs for society, and places heavy demands on the medical system. Fibromyalgia has no cure. Its etiology is uncertain but likely biopsychosocial. In a subset of individuals experiencing Fibromyalgia, the experience of one or more traumatic experiences precipitates the onset of symptoms. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an evidence-based treatment for traumatic stress injuries. None of the handful of published accounts of EMDR treatment of Fibromyalgia have utilized the standard evidenced-based, trauma-focused EMDR (TF-EMDR) protocol, opting instead for ...