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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recovery From Bushfires: The Experience Of The 2003 Canberra Bushfires Three Years After, Peter J. Camilleri, Christine Healy, Elspeth M. Macdonald, Susan Nicholls, Jolyon Sykes, Gail Winkworth, Merrilyn Woodward Jan 2010

Recovery From Bushfires: The Experience Of The 2003 Canberra Bushfires Three Years After, Peter J. Camilleri, Christine Healy, Elspeth M. Macdonald, Susan Nicholls, Jolyon Sykes, Gail Winkworth, Merrilyn Woodward

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background and Aim The Canberra Bushfires were one of the largest single day natural disasters in Australian history. A group of researchers from across disciplines and sectors (Universities and Government) undertook a major project to study the experiences of people directly affected by the fires in the recovery process. The research team was interested in the longer term recovery experience (approximately three years following the event). The paper briefly outlines the research process, provides an overview of the findings on people's bushfire experiences, health and wellbeing, and views on what helped in individual and community recovery. Methods Sixteen hundred ...


Hiv-Positive Kidney Transplants For Hiv-Positive Individuals: Attitudes And Concerns Of South African Patients And Health Care Workers, Suzanne Gokool, June Fabian, W Venter, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Saraladevi Naicker Jan 2010

Hiv-Positive Kidney Transplants For Hiv-Positive Individuals: Attitudes And Concerns Of South African Patients And Health Care Workers, Suzanne Gokool, June Fabian, W Venter, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Saraladevi Naicker

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In South Africa, an estimated 30% of the cadaveric donor pool is HIV-infected; in consequence, these organs are discarded. An undersupply of donor organs combined with limited resources, tends to exclude HIV-positive patients from renal replacement programmes. We evaluated the acceptance of using HIV-positive donor kidneys for transplantation into HIV-infected recipients, and found that the vast majority (90% of health care workers and 80% of patients, N=20 and 80, respectively) found this approach acceptable for expanding the organ donor pool, which indicates broad patient and health care worker support for using HIV-infected donor kidneys.Participants: 80 patients were recruited ...


Investigating Cultural Diversity For Extrafoveal Information Use In Visual Scenes, Sebastien R. Miellet, Xinyue Zhou, Lingnan He, Helen Rodger, Roberto Caldara Jan 2010

Investigating Cultural Diversity For Extrafoveal Information Use In Visual Scenes, Sebastien R. Miellet, Xinyue Zhou, Lingnan He, Helen Rodger, Roberto Caldara

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Culture shapes how people gather information from the visual world. We recently showed that Western observers focus on the eyes region during face recognition, whereas Eastern observers fixate predominantly the center of faces, suggesting a more effective use of extrafoveal information for Easterners compared to Westerners. However, the cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception is a highly debated topic. Additionally, the extent to which those perceptual differences across observers from different cultures rely on modulations of extrafoveal information use remains to be clarified. We used a gaze-contingent technique designed to dynamically mask central vision, the Blindspot, during a ...


Evaluating Sure Start In England, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky Jan 2010

Evaluating Sure Start In England, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) was commissioned to study Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs), addressing the nature of SSLP communities, programme implementation and impact on children, families and communities, as well as costeffectiveness.


Young Worker Injury Experience In South Australia 1998-2007, Nasreeb Jahan, Dino Pisaniello, Sasha Stewart, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Helen Winefield Jan 2010

Young Worker Injury Experience In South Australia 1998-2007, Nasreeb Jahan, Dino Pisaniello, Sasha Stewart, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Helen Winefield

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This special report has been compiled by The University of Adelaide and provides an overview of young worker injury claims experience for a 10-year period. It aims to highlight occupational injury epidemiology and time trends, and will be of interest to public health practitioners dealing with adolescents and young adults.


Characteristics Of The Closest Relationships Between Children With Developmental Disabilities And Peers In Inclusive Settings, Amanda A. Webster, Mark Carter Jan 2010

Characteristics Of The Closest Relationships Between Children With Developmental Disabilities And Peers In Inclusive Settings, Amanda A. Webster, Mark Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Inclusive education has become more common in schools, and children with developmental disabilities have had greater opportunities to interact, and hopefully establish relationships with their typically developing peers. While the quality of friendships between typically developing children has been examined in detail, relatively little comparable data is available on children with developmental disabilities. The current study provided an examination of the characteristics of the closest relationships between children with developmental disabilities and peers in inclusive school settings. Twenty-five children with developmental disabilities aged between approximately 5 and 12 years participated. Using an interview instrument, the relationships of these children with ...


Contract Research, Universities And The 'Knowledge Society': Back To The Future, Noel Castree Jan 2010

Contract Research, Universities And The 'Knowledge Society': Back To The Future, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Many chapters in this book focus on contract research (hereafter CR), but mine differs from these in three respects. First, rather than focus on CR in its own right I want to situate it in a much wider landscape of knowledge production, circulation and consumption. My reason for doing so is simple: we cannot possibly form a view on the why and wherefore of CR unless we understand the broader epistemic context in which it currently exists. As we'll see, in this context CR appears as just one instance of a widespread shift to seeing knowledge as a means ...


Do Health Beliefs And Behaviors Differ According To Severity Of Obesity? A Qualitative Study Of Australian Adults, Sophie Lewis, Samantha L. Thomas, R. Warwick Blood, Jim Hyde, David J. Castle, Paul A. Komesaroff Jan 2010

Do Health Beliefs And Behaviors Differ According To Severity Of Obesity? A Qualitative Study Of Australian Adults, Sophie Lewis, Samantha L. Thomas, R. Warwick Blood, Jim Hyde, David J. Castle, Paul A. Komesaroff

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Public responses to obesity have focused on providing standardized messages and supports to all obese individuals, but there is limited understanding of the impact of these messages on obese adults. This descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interviews and a thematic method of analysis, compares the health beliefs and behaviors of 141 Australian adults with mild to moderate (BMI 30−39.9) and severe (BMI ≥ 40) obesity. Mildly obese individuals felt little need to change their health behaviors or to lose weight for health reasons. Most believed they could “lose weight” if they needed to, distanced themselves from the word obesity ...


England: Sure Start, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky Jan 2010

England: Sure Start, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP) initiative was launched in 1999, resulting in over 500 SSLPs by 2004, with further expansion thereafter to cover almost all deprived areas in England.


Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention: Outcomes Associated With A Differential Response Program In California, Amy Conley Wright, Jill Duerr Berrick Jan 2010

Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention: Outcomes Associated With A Differential Response Program In California, Amy Conley Wright, Jill Duerr Berrick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Traditionally, the American child welfare system intervenes in cases of evident and severe maltreatment. Families in need of help, but who have not reached a crisis, are excluded from typical services. Some suggest that if these families were served, few would be rereferred to the child welfare system. California's Differential Response (DR) has three tracks, of which ''Track 1'' targets families screened out of child protective services (CPS) and refers them to agencies that provide voluntary, home-based services and referrals. This study examined child-welfare trajectories for families receiving Track 1 DR services in one California county. Using survival analysis ...


How We Make Knowledge About Climate Change, Noel Castree Jan 2010

How We Make Knowledge About Climate Change, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Book review - A VAST MACHINE: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. Paul N. Edwards. xxviii + 518 pp. The MIT Press, 2010. $32.95.


[Book Review] Stop Plagiarism: A Guide To Understanding And Prevention, Margaret Wallace Jan 2010

[Book Review] Stop Plagiarism: A Guide To Understanding And Prevention, Margaret Wallace

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Who would not be attracted by a book title such as Stop Plagiarism: A Guide to Understanding and Prevention? If you are a teacher, learning advisor or librarian, any clues you can find to help prevent plagiarism would be welcome. If you do judge a book by its cover (or by those details that can be gleaned in the first few pages) you might be attracted or repelled by the fact that that it has such an assertive title and by the fact that it originates in the United States. Are your concerns well-founded?


The 2007-09 Financial Crisis: Narrating And Politicising A Calamity, Noel Castree Jan 2010

The 2007-09 Financial Crisis: Narrating And Politicising A Calamity, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The events triggered by defaults on 'sub-prime' mortgages have been widely described as constituting a 'crisis'. But a crisis of what exactly? Several different explanations of the 20 month drama that unfolded from summer 2007 have been proposed by a wide range of commentators. These include journalists, academics, politicians, business-people, pundits and public administrators, among others. This essay parses this superfluity of crisis talk into five principal accounts. It focuses on the Anglo-American scene. The interpretations presented range from the simplistic and populist to the complex and specialised. They are compared and contrasted, and in each case their diverse normative ...


Reduce The Olanzapine-Induced Body Weight Gain With Histamine H1 Receptor Agonist Betahistine In Rats, Jiamei Lian, Xu-Feng Huang, Nagesh B. Pai, Chao Deng Jan 2010

Reduce The Olanzapine-Induced Body Weight Gain With Histamine H1 Receptor Agonist Betahistine In Rats, Jiamei Lian, Xu-Feng Huang, Nagesh B. Pai, Chao Deng

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract from the XXVII CINP Congress, 6-10 June 2010, Hong Kong


Beyond Rhetoric In Debates About The Ethics Of Marketing Prescription Medicines To Consumers: The Importance Of Vulnerability In People, Situations And Relationships, Stacy M. Carter, Gabrielle N. Samuel, Ian Kerridge, Richard Day, Rachel A. Ankeny, Christopher F. Jordens, Paul Komesaroff Jan 2010

Beyond Rhetoric In Debates About The Ethics Of Marketing Prescription Medicines To Consumers: The Importance Of Vulnerability In People, Situations And Relationships, Stacy M. Carter, Gabrielle N. Samuel, Ian Kerridge, Richard Day, Rachel A. Ankeny, Christopher F. Jordens, Paul Komesaroff

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This article examines community responses to the marketing of prescription medicines. Historically, debates about such marketing have focused on alleged unscrupulousness of pharmaceutical companies and on the quality of information provided. Six focus groups were conducted in Sydney, Australia, three with older and three with younger community members. Analysis examined interactions between group members, the positions participants took up, conflicting arguments, and explanations for variation. Participants argued specifically rather than generally about consumer marketing of medicines. Neither the moral purpose of corporations nor the quality of information in advertisements was particularly important. Instead, pharmaceutical marketing was assessed in relation to ...


Putting Culture Under The 'Spotlight' Reveals Universal Information Use For Face Recognition, Roberto Caldara, Xinyue Zhou, Sebastien R. Miellet Jan 2010

Putting Culture Under The 'Spotlight' Reveals Universal Information Use For Face Recognition, Roberto Caldara, Xinyue Zhou, Sebastien R. Miellet

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Eye movement strategies employed by humans to identify conspecifics are not universal. Westerners predominantly fixate the eyes during face recognition, whereas Easterners more the nose region, yet recognition accuracy is comparable. However, natural fixations do not unequivocally represent information extraction. So the question of whether humans universally use identical facial information to recognize faces remains unresolved. Methodology/Principal Findings: We monitored eye movements during face recognition of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers with a novel technique in face recognition that parametrically restricts information outside central vision. We used 'Spotlights' with Gaussian apertures of 2°, 5° or ...


Future Hiv Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults In South Africa, Jennifer Sayles, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Peter Newman, William Cunningham Jan 2010

Future Hiv Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults In South Africa, Jennifer Sayles, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Peter Newman, William Cunningham

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa- where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in 2007 with South Africans aged 18 to 24 years. A deductive framework approach is used to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identify HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine ...


The Role Of The Media And Communication In Recovery From Natural Disasters: A Case Study Of The Canberra 'Firestorm' And Its Aftermath 2003-2007, Susan Nicholls, Jolyon Sykes, Peter J. Camilleri Jan 2010

The Role Of The Media And Communication In Recovery From Natural Disasters: A Case Study Of The Canberra 'Firestorm' And Its Aftermath 2003-2007, Susan Nicholls, Jolyon Sykes, Peter J. Camilleri

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The enormous tragedy of bushfires with significant loss of life, destruction of property, and differential recovery resulting in community division-that is, 'cleavage planes'-has become an all too common feature of the Australian experience. Research on the communication aspects of emergencies has tended to focus on preparedness and response with little in-depth analysis of the role of the media and communication strategies relating to the recovery process. In this paper, focusing on the Canberra 'firestorm' of 2003 and the aftermath recovery process, we report on a study seeking survivors' views on the functions of communication in the recovery process. The ...


Effects Of Lateral Lesions On Medial Activation During Autobiographical Remembering, Steven J. Howard, Jennifer S. Rabin, Donald T. Stuss, R S. Rosenbaum Jan 2010

Effects Of Lateral Lesions On Medial Activation During Autobiographical Remembering, Steven J. Howard, Jennifer S. Rabin, Donald T. Stuss, R S. Rosenbaum

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The 20th Annual Rotman Research Institute Conference, 22-26 March 2010, Toronto, Canada


Observations Of Relationships Between Children With Developmental Disabilities And Peers In Inclusive Settings, Amanda A. Webster, Mark Carter Jan 2010

Observations Of Relationships Between Children With Developmental Disabilities And Peers In Inclusive Settings, Amanda A. Webster, Mark Carter

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The importance of social versus functional integration for children with developmental disabilities has been widely discussed in the literature. Although a great deal of research has been conducted to describe the features of relationships and friendships between typical preschool and primary school children, very little research has attempted to apply the same quantitative process to defining the relationships that children with developmental disabilities develop with their peers in inclusive settings. This article discusses the results of research conducted in Alice Springs, Australia, in which playground observations were used to systematically describe the social relationships of 25 children with developmental disabilities ...


Drought And The Future Of Rural Communities: Drought Impacts And Adaptation In Regional Victoria, Australia, Anthony S. Kiem, Louise E. Askew, Meg Sherval, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Craig Clifton, Emma Austin, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Helen L. Berry Jan 2010

Drought And The Future Of Rural Communities: Drought Impacts And Adaptation In Regional Victoria, Australia, Anthony S. Kiem, Louise E. Askew, Meg Sherval, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Craig Clifton, Emma Austin, Pauline M. Mcguirk, Helen L. Berry

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The National Climate Change Research Facility (NCCARF) is undertaking a program of Synthesis and Integrative Research to synthesise existing and emerging national and international research on climate change impacts and adaptation. The purpose of this program is to provide decision-makers with the information they need to manage the risks of climate change. This report on drought and the future of rural communities in regional Victoria forms part of a series of studies/reports commissioned by NCCARF that look at historical extreme weather events, their impacts and subsequent adaptations. These studies examine particular events - primarily extremes - and seek to explore prior ...


Historical Cosmologies: Epistemology And Axiology In Australian Secondary School History Discourse, James Martin, Karl A. Maton, Erika S. Matruglio Jan 2010

Historical Cosmologies: Epistemology And Axiology In Australian Secondary School History Discourse, James Martin, Karl A. Maton, Erika S. Matruglio

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper considers the discourse of modern history in Australian secondary schools from the perspectives of systemic functional linguistics and social realist sociology of education. In particular it develops work on genre and field in history discourse in relation to knowledge structure, and the role of technical concepts realised as '-isms'. These are interpreted in relation to recent social realist work on the axiological charging of terms, especially in humanities and social science discourse, so that how you feel turns out to be as important as what you know as far as an historian's gaze on the past is ...


Sitting Time And Body Mass Index, In A Portuguese Sample Of Men: Results From The Azorean Physical Activity And Health Study (Apahs), Rute Santos, Luisa Soares-Miranda, Susana Vale, Carla Moreira, Ana I. Marques, Jorge Mota Jan 2010

Sitting Time And Body Mass Index, In A Portuguese Sample Of Men: Results From The Azorean Physical Activity And Health Study (Apahs), Rute Santos, Luisa Soares-Miranda, Susana Vale, Carla Moreira, Ana I. Marques, Jorge Mota

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The aim of this study was to verify the relation between body mass index (BMI) and sitting time in a sample of 4,091 Azorean men. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Total physical activity (PA) time and total sitting time were assessed with the IPAQ (short version). Linear Regression analysis showed that total sitting time (hours/day) was positively associated with BMI (B = 0.078; p < 0.001) after adjustments for age, meal frequency, alcohol and tobacco consumptions, island of residence, education level and total PA time. Although the cross sectional design precludes us from establishing causality, our findings emphasize the importance of reducing sedentary behavior to decrease the risk of obesity.


The Relationship Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Birth Weight And Parental Bmi On Adolescents Obesity Status, Susana Vale, Rute Santos, Luisa Soares-Miranda, Jorge Mota Jan 2010

The Relationship Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Birth Weight And Parental Bmi On Adolescents Obesity Status, Susana Vale, Rute Santos, Luisa Soares-Miranda, Jorge Mota

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background/Objectives:

The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to analyze differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), parents’ body mass index (BMI) and birth weight (BW) between non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OV/OB) adolescents, and (2) to investigate the association of those variables with the risk of their biological offspring being OV/OB.

Subjects/Methods:

This study comprised 788 adolescents (477 girls and 311 boys), aged between 12 and 18 years. CRF was predicted by maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test according to the procedures described in FITNESSGRAM. Children's BMI was classified according to the International Obesity Task ...


'That's Not Reality For Me': Australian Audiences Respond To The Biggest Loser, Kate Holland, Richard Warwick Blood, Samantha Thomas, Asuntha Karunaratne, Sophie Lewis Jan 2010

'That's Not Reality For Me': Australian Audiences Respond To The Biggest Loser, Kate Holland, Richard Warwick Blood, Samantha Thomas, Asuntha Karunaratne, Sophie Lewis

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper focuses on how Australian audiences who meet the BMI criteria of being obese or morbidly obese read the television program The Biggest Loser. The study consisted of 152 semi-structured interviews in which people were asked about media representations of obesity in general and The Biggest Loser in particular. Four central themes emerged from our analysis of the interview data: Showing the struggle; Watching the transformation; Creating unrealistic expectations; Reinforcing misconceptions and exploiting people. Many people were reflexive about their complicity as viewers in a process in which obese people, like themselves, are ridiculed and humiliated and, while many ...


Pre-School Experience And Key Stage 2 Performance In English And Mathematics, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart Jan 2010

Pre-School Experience And Key Stage 2 Performance In English And Mathematics, Edward Melhuish, Louise Quinn, Kathy Sylva, Pam Sammons, Iram Siraj-Blatchford, Brenda Taggart

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This report considers children's educational attainment in English and mathematics at the end of primary school (age 11). Children's educational attainment in English and mathematics was derived from their national Key Stage 2 assessments. The analyses have considered the child's level of Key Stage 2 attainment in terms of the effects of child, family, home environment and preschool experience variables as well as the child's ability at the start of primary school.


Parent Experience Of Implementing Home Programs: Semi-Structured Interviews, Iona Novak, Anne Cusick, Natasha Lannin Jan 2010

Parent Experience Of Implementing Home Programs: Semi-Structured Interviews, Iona Novak, Anne Cusick, Natasha Lannin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 5th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Academy of Cerebral Palsy & Developmental Medicine, 3-6 March 2010, Christchurch, New Zealand


Effectiveness Of Home Program Intervention For Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind Randomised Controlled Trial, Iona Novak, Anne Cusick, Natasha Lannin Jan 2010

Effectiveness Of Home Program Intervention For Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind Randomised Controlled Trial, Iona Novak, Anne Cusick, Natasha Lannin

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 5th Biennial Conference of the Australasian Academy of Cerebral Palsy & Developmental Medicine, 3-6 March 2010, Christchurch, New Zealand


Sure Start And Its Evaluation In England, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Jacqueline Barnes Jan 2010

Sure Start And Its Evaluation In England, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Jacqueline Barnes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

In 1998 a U.K. government review concluded that disadvantage among young children was increasing and early intervention could alleviate poor outcomes. It recommended a change in service design and delivery, integrating across all relevant agencies, to be area-based, with all children under five and their families as clients. Among the aims were avoiding the stigmatization often associated with targeted programs while fostering child, family and community functioning. From 1999 the first Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) focused on the 20% most deprived areas, including about half of children living below the official poverty line. Sure Start has evolved over ...


Le Programme Sure Start Et Son Evaluation En Angleterre, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Jacqueline Barnes Jan 2010

Le Programme Sure Start Et Son Evaluation En Angleterre, Edward Melhuish, Jay Belsky, Jacqueline Barnes

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

No abstract provided.