Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 23 of 23

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Influence Of A Suite Of Environmentally Relevant Conditions On Pbt Leaching From, And Sorption To, Marine Microplastic Debris, Robert C. Hale, Da Chen Dec 2016

Influence Of A Suite Of Environmentally Relevant Conditions On Pbt Leaching From, And Sorption To, Marine Microplastic Debris, Robert C. Hale, Da Chen

Reports

Synthetic polymers (plastics) enter marine environments from terrestrial and marine-based sources. The manner of release, the plastic’s composition/properties and ambient marine conditions determine debris fate and its impacts on living resources. It was long assumed that all plastics were persistent and inert, possessing negligible potential for chemical impacts. However, in reality, commercial polymers exhibit a range of potentials for interactions. Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are lipophilic and may concentrate from ambient waters by orders of magnitude on polymer surfaces (Teuten et al., 2007). The type of polymer affects the degree of PBT sorption. Indeed, plastics have ...


Prince George County Shoreline Management Plan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Marcia Berman, Tamia Rudnicky, Karinna Nunez, Sharon A. Killeen Nov 2016

Prince George County Shoreline Management Plan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Marcia Berman, Tamia Rudnicky, Karinna Nunez, Sharon A. Killeen

Reports

Much of Prince George County’s shoreline is suitable for a “Living Shoreline” approach to shoreline management. The Commonwealth of Virginia has adopted policy stating that Living Shorelines are the preferred alternative for erosion control along tidal waters in Virginia (http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi‐bin/legp504.exe?111+ful+CHAP0885+pdf). The policy defines a Living Shoreline as …”a shoreline management practice that provides erosion control and water quality benefits; protects, restores or enhances natural shoreline habitat; and maintains coastal processes through the strategic placement of plants, stone, sand fill, and other structural and organic materials.” The key ...


Ecological And Economic Effects Of Derelict Fishing Gear In The Chesapeake Bay 2015/2016 Final Assessment Report, Donna M. Bilkovic, H. Ward Slacum Jr., Kirk J. Havens, Danielle Zaveta, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Andrew M. Scheld, David Stanhope, Kory Angstadt, John D. Evans Oct 2016

Ecological And Economic Effects Of Derelict Fishing Gear In The Chesapeake Bay 2015/2016 Final Assessment Report, Donna M. Bilkovic, H. Ward Slacum Jr., Kirk J. Havens, Danielle Zaveta, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Andrew M. Scheld, David Stanhope, Kory Angstadt, John D. Evans

Reports

Derelict fishing gear represents a major challenge to marine resource management: whether through deliberate abandonment or through accidental loss, derelict traps in particular have significant negative effects both economic (e.g., reduced fishery harvest from ghost fishing and gear competition that leads to the reduced efficiency of active gear) and ecological (e.g., degraded habitats and marine food webs and crab and bycatch mortality). Throughout the Chesapeake Bay, commercial harvest of hard-shelled blue crabs is a major fishing activity: every year sees the deployment of several hundred thousand blue crab traps (known locally as crab “pots”) across the Bay, of ...


Assessing Ecological And Economic Effects Of Derelict Fishing Gear: A Guiding Framework, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Kirk J. Havens, H. Ward Slacum Jr., Donna Marie Bilkovic, Danielle Zaveta, Andrew M. Scheld, Sean Willard, John D. Evans Oct 2016

Assessing Ecological And Economic Effects Of Derelict Fishing Gear: A Guiding Framework, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Kirk J. Havens, H. Ward Slacum Jr., Donna Marie Bilkovic, Danielle Zaveta, Andrew M. Scheld, Sean Willard, John D. Evans

Reports

Developing standardized protocols to assess the ecological and socio-economic effects of marine debris – especially, derelict fishing gear – is critical for the protection of natural resources and for evaluating policies and programs designed to reduce and remove debris. This document outlines a Derelict Fishing Gear Assessment Framework to guide the development and implementation of derelict gear assessment, management and mitigation. The framework draws from techniques and protocols developed to assess derelict crab traps effects in the Chesapeake Bay and on past derelict gear assessments either conducted by or known to the framework authors. However, this framework is generalized and intended to ...


Evaluation Of The Potential Impact On Flow And Sediment Transport From Proposed James River Crossings, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen Oct 2016

Evaluation Of The Potential Impact On Flow And Sediment Transport From Proposed James River Crossings, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen

Reports

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impact on flow and sedimentation potential due to the proposed new crossings on the lower James River by VDOT. This project was built upon previous effort in the same area (Boon et al. 1999); the latter used VIMS’ 3D Hydrodynamic-Sedimentation Model (HYSED) to study the impact of the bridge-tunnel infrastructure on the physical characteristics (including tides, currents, circulation, salinity and sedimentation) under the existing and alternative scenarios. Due to various limitations at that time, smaller bridge pilings were not resolved but instead parameterized. In this update study, we used an ...


Gloucester County Shoreline Management Plan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Marcia Berman, Tamia Rudnicky, Karinna Nunez, Sharon A. Killeen Oct 2016

Gloucester County Shoreline Management Plan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Marcia Berman, Tamia Rudnicky, Karinna Nunez, Sharon A. Killeen

Reports

With approximately 85 percent of the Chesapeake Bay shoreline privately owned, a critical need existsto increase awareness of erosion potential and the choices available for shore stabilization that maintainsecosystem services at the land-water interface. The National Academy of Science published a report thatspotlights the need to develop a shoreline management framework (NRC, 2007). It suggests that improvingawareness of the choices available for erosion control, considering cumulative consequences of erosionmitigation approaches, and improving shoreline management planning are key elements to minimizingadverse environmental impacts associated with mitigating shore erosion.
Actions taken by waterfront property owners to stabilize the shoreline can affect the ...


Werowocomoco Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2016

Werowocomoco Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

Werowocomoco is located on the York River in Gloucester County, Virginia (Figure 1). Historical documents identified Werowocomoco as the headquarters of Powhatan, the Algonquian political and spiritual leader when the English founded Jamestown in 1607. For many years, the exact location of the site was unknown; however, in 2003, archeological digs at the site on the York River between Leigh and Bland Creeks confirmed the location. The site has been occupied by Native Americans since 8,000 before the common era (BCE) and is one of the most important Native American sites in the nation.

In 2016, subsequent to the ...


Prince George County And The City Of Hopewell, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, David Stanhope, Karen Duhring, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner Sep 2016

Prince George County And The City Of Hopewell, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, David Stanhope, Karen Duhring, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner

Reports

The 2016 Inventory for Prince George County and the City of Hopewell was generated using on-screen, digitizing techniques in ArcGIS® - ArcMap v10.2.2 while viewing conditions observed in Bing high resolution oblique imagery, Google Earth, and 2013 imagery from the Virginia Base Mapping Program (VBMP). Four GIS shapefiles are developed. The first describes land use and bank conditions (PrinceGeorge_Hopewell _lubc_2016). The second portrays the presence of beaches (PrinceGeorge_Hopewell_beaches_2016). The third reports shoreline structures that are described as arcs or lines (e.g riprap) (PrinceGeorge_Hopewell _sstru_2016). The final shapefile includes all structures that are represented as points (e.g. piers ...


Shoreline Evolution: City Of Norfolk, Virginia Chesapeake Bay, Elizabeth And Lafayette River Shorelines, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr. Sep 2016

Shoreline Evolution: City Of Norfolk, Virginia Chesapeake Bay, Elizabeth And Lafayette River Shorelines, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr.

Reports

City of Norfolk is situated along the Chesapeake Bay, Elizabeth and Lafayette Rivers (Figure 1). Because the City’s shoreline is continually changing, determining where the shoreline was in the past, how far and how fast it is moving, and what factors drive shoreline change will help define where the shoreline will be going in the future. These rates and patterns of shore change along Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine shores will differ through time as winds, waves, tides and currents shape and modify coastlines by eroding, transporting and depositing sediments. The purpose of this report is to document how the ...


Accomack County, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, Kory Angstadt, Christine Tombleson, Karen Duhring, Kallie Brown, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner, Comprehensive Coastal Inventory Program Sep 2016

Accomack County, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, Kory Angstadt, Christine Tombleson, Karen Duhring, Kallie Brown, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner, Comprehensive Coastal Inventory Program

Reports

In the 1970s, the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) received a grant through the National Science Foundation’s Research Applied to National Needs Program to develop a series of reports that would describe the condition of tidal shorelines in the Commonwealth of Virginia. These reports became known as the Shoreline Situation Reports. They were published on a locality by locality basis with additional resources provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Office of Coastal Zone Management (Hobbs et al., 1975).

The Shoreline Situation Reports quickly became a common desktop reference for nearly all shoreline managers, regulators, and ...


Shoreline Evolution: Prince George County, Virginia Upper Chippokes Creek, James And Appomattox River Shorelines, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr. Aug 2016

Shoreline Evolution: Prince George County, Virginia Upper Chippokes Creek, James And Appomattox River Shorelines, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr.

Reports

Prince George County is situated between on the James River between Upper Chippokes Creek and the Appomattox Rivers (Figure 1). Because the County’s shoreline is continually changing, determining where the shoreline was in the past, how far and how fast it is moving, and what factors drive shoreline change will help define where the shoreline will be going in the future. These rates and patterns of shore change along Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine shores will differ through time as winds, waves, tides and currents shape and modify coastlines by eroding, transporting and depositing sediments.

The purpose of this report ...


Shoreline Evolution: City Of Chesapeake, Virginia Elizabeth River Shorelines Data Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr. Aug 2016

Shoreline Evolution: City Of Chesapeake, Virginia Elizabeth River Shorelines Data Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, Christine Wilcox, C. Scott Hardaway Jr.

Reports

City of Chesapeake is situated between the Cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth along several branches of the Elizabeth River (Figure 1). Because the City's shoreline is continually changing, determining where the shoreline was in the past, how far and how fast it is moving, and what factors drive shoreline change will help define where the shoreline will be going in the future. These rates and patterns of shore change along Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine shores will differ through time as winds, waves, tides and currents shape and modify coastlines by eroding, transporting and depositing sediments.

The purpose of this ...


Sea-Level Rise & Virginia's Coastal Wetlands, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 2016

Sea-Level Rise & Virginia's Coastal Wetlands, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


Integrated Assessment Of Oyster Reef Ecosystem Services: Macrofauna Utilization Of Restored Oyster Reefs, M. Lisa Kellogg, Kennedy T. Paynter, Paige G. Ross, Jennifer C. Dreyer, Cate Turner, Manisha Pant, Alan Birch, Edward Smith May 2016

Integrated Assessment Of Oyster Reef Ecosystem Services: Macrofauna Utilization Of Restored Oyster Reefs, M. Lisa Kellogg, Kennedy T. Paynter, Paige G. Ross, Jennifer C. Dreyer, Cate Turner, Manisha Pant, Alan Birch, Edward Smith

Reports

Within the Harris Creek Oyster Sanctuary in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay, we evaluated relationships between basic oyster reef characteristics and the abundance and biomass of macrofauna. The eight sites selected for these studies included five restored oyster reef sites and three sites suitable for restoration that had not been restored. These sites encompassed a range of oyster biomass density and were spread throughout the sanctuary area. At each site one month prior to each of four sampling periods, divers filled four wire mesh baskets (0.1m2 surface area x 15 cm depth) with material from the site and ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2015, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2016

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2015, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2015, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program has maintained a 20-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia Rivers 2015 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2016

Monitoring Relative Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia Rivers 2015 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

Concern about the decline in landings of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) along the Atlantic coast prompted the development of an interstate fisheries management plan (FMP) under the auspices of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Management Program (ASMFC 1999). Legislation enables imposition of federal sanctions on fishing in those states that fail to comply with the FMP. To be in compliance, coastal states are required to implement and maintain fishery-dependent and fishery-independent monitoring programs as specified by the FMP. For Virginia, these requirements include spawning stock assessments, the collection of biological data on the spawning run (e.g., age-structure, sex ratio ...


Integrated Assessment Of Oyster Reef Ecosystem Services: Fish And Crustacean Utilization And Trophic Linkages, M. Lisa Kellogg, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach, Jennifer C. Dreyer, Manisha Pant, Alan Birch, Sean Fate, Edward Smith, Kennedy Paynter Mar 2016

Integrated Assessment Of Oyster Reef Ecosystem Services: Fish And Crustacean Utilization And Trophic Linkages, M. Lisa Kellogg, Paige G. Ross, Mark Luckenbach, Jennifer C. Dreyer, Manisha Pant, Alan Birch, Sean Fate, Edward Smith, Kennedy Paynter

Reports

Using a regression design that encompassed the continuum of oyster reef biomass density in Harris Creek, MD, from unrestored reefs to those restored reefs with the greatest oyster biomass, we examined finfish and crustacean utilization of these habitats. Of the eight sites studied, three had not been subject to any restoration activities and five had been planted in 2012 with juvenile oysters set on oyster shell. All sites were sampled in April, June, August, and October 2015. During each sampling period, we assessed abundance, total length and biomass of finfish and examined gut contents to assess the diets of selected ...


Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report : Results Of The 2015 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Thomas J. Murrary Mar 2016

Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report : Results Of The 2015 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Thomas J. Murrary

Reports

The hatchery-based shellfish aquaculture industry in Virginia continues to grow adding significant value to the Commonwealth’s seafood marketplace. Today, watermen harvest both hard clams and oysters from the Commonwealth’s public resources, albeit at rates diminished from historic levels. At the same time, Virginia’s watermen-farmers, utilizing production from a land-based hatchery, are providing additional quantities of quality shellfish to consumers. This survey, in its 10th year, is intended to continue annual assessments with which to gauge growth and inputs in Virginia’s hatchery-based shellfish aquaculture industry. This report is based upon an industry survey completed during the first ...


Captain Sinclair’S Recreational Area Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Feb 2016

Captain Sinclair’S Recreational Area Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

Captain Sinclair’s Recreation Area (CSRA) is located on the Severn River in Gloucester County, Virginia. It is a tract of land consisting of about 100 acres that was donated to the Middle Peninsula Chesapeake Bay Public Access Authority (Figure 1). Longterm goals for the property include active and passive recreational and research activities including several shoreline-based projects. The property has about 1.3 miles of tidal shoreline that extends from the canal on the northern end of the property, along Whittaker Creek, and to the Severn River down to small unnamed tidal creek adjacent to the old wood pier ...


Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2016), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2016

Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2016), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a valuable commercial species along the Atlantic coast of North America from New Brunswick to Florida. Landings from Chesapeake Bay typically represent 60% of the annual United States commercial harvest (ASMFC 2012). American Eel is also important to the recreational fishery as it is often used live as bait for Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum). In 2012, Chesapeake Bay commercial landings of American Eel (771,536 lbs) were 72% of the U.S. landings (personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division). Since the 1980s, harvest along the U ...


The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2015, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann Jan 2016

The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2015, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann

Reports

This report summarizes data collected during 2015 in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. The report is composed of two parts, part one, oyster recruitment (shell string) in Virginia and part two, dredge survey of selected oyster bars in Virginia.


2016 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: Virginia Institute Of Marine Science, Green Team, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science, Pamela Braff, Elisabeth Clyne, Andrew J. Johnson, Patricia S. Thibodeau, Kelley Uhlig Jan 2016

2016 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: Virginia Institute Of Marine Science, Green Team, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science, Pamela Braff, Elisabeth Clyne, Andrew J. Johnson, Patricia S. Thibodeau, Kelley Uhlig

Reports

During summer 2016 the VIMS Green Team completed an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) Gloucester Point campus during FY2015. GHG emissions were estimated using the Campus Carbon Calculator maintained by the Sustainability Institute at the University of New Hampshire, and compared to a previous GHG audit from FY2010.


City Of Chesapeake, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, David Stanhope, Karen Duhring, Kallie Brown, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner Jan 2016

City Of Chesapeake, Virginia Shoreline Inventory Report Methods And Guidelines, Marcia Berman, Karinna Nunez, Sharon Killeen, Tamia Rudnicky, Julie Bradshaw, David Stanhope, Karen Duhring, Kallie Brown, Jessica Hendricks, David Weiss, Carl Hershner

Reports

The 2016 Inventory for City of Chesapeake was generated using on-screen, digitizing techniques in ArcGIS® - ArcMap v10.2.2 while viewing conditions observed in Bing high resolution oblique imagery, Google Earth, and 2013 imagery from the Virginia Base Mapping Program (VBMP). Four GIS shapefiles are developed. The first describes land use and bank conditions (Chesapeake_lubc_2016). The second portrays the presence of beaches (Chesapeake_beaches_2016). The third reports shoreline structures that are described as arcs or lines (e.g. riprap) (Chesapeake_sstru_2016). The final shapefile includes all structures that are represented as points (e.g. piers) (Chesapeake_astru_2016). The metadata file accompanies the shapefiles ...