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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Hα Spectroscopy Of Classical B-Emission Stars, Jessie M. Silaj Dec 2014

The Hα Spectroscopy Of Classical B-Emission Stars, Jessie M. Silaj

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Classical B-emission (Be) stars are rapidly-rotating, massive stars that possess a dense, equatorial, gaseous disk. The presence of a disk was first inferred from the Balmer series emission that these stars exhibit, and Hα emission lines remain both a hallmark observational feature and one of the key diagnostics in determining the physical conditions within the disk.

In the first chapter of this thesis, we investigate the possible role of line-driven winds in disk formation. To test if line-driven winds could supply enough material to account for the equatorial disk, we check for the presence of Hα emission in the models ...


Evidence Of A Mira-Like Tail And Bow Shock About The Semi-Regular Variable V Cvn From Four Decades Of Polarization Measurements., Hilding Neilson, Richard Ignace, Beverly Smith, Gary Henson, Alyssa Adams Aug 2014

Evidence Of A Mira-Like Tail And Bow Shock About The Semi-Regular Variable V Cvn From Four Decades Of Polarization Measurements., Hilding Neilson, Richard Ignace, Beverly Smith, Gary Henson, Alyssa Adams

ETSU Faculty Works

Polarization is a powerful tool for understanding stellar atmospheres and circumstellar environments. Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been observed for decades and some are known to be polarimetrically variable, however, the semi-regular variable V Canes Venatici displays an unusually large, unexplained amount of polarization. We present ten years of optical polarization observations obtained with the HPOL instrument, supplemented by published observations spanning a total interval of about forty years for V CVn. We find that V CVn shows large polarization variations ranging from 1 - 6%. We also find that for the past forty years the position angle measured for ...


Evidence Of A Mira-Like Tail And Bow Shock About The Semi-Regular Variable V Cvn From Four Decades Of Polarization Measurements., Hilding R. Neilson, Richard Ignace, Beverly J. Smith, Gary Henson, Alyssa M. Adams Aug 2014

Evidence Of A Mira-Like Tail And Bow Shock About The Semi-Regular Variable V Cvn From Four Decades Of Polarization Measurements., Hilding R. Neilson, Richard Ignace, Beverly J. Smith, Gary Henson, Alyssa M. Adams

Richard Ignace

Polarization is a powerful tool for understanding stellar atmospheres and circumstellar environments. Mira and semi-regular variable stars have been observed for decades and some are known to be polarimetrically variable, however, the semi-regular variable V Canes Venatici displays an unusually large, unexplained amount of polarization. We present ten years of optical polarization observations obtained with the HPOL instrument, supplemented by published observations spanning a total interval of about forty years for V CVn. We find that V CVn shows large polarization variations ranging from 1 - 6%. We also find that for the past forty years the position angle measured for ...


Dust Stratification In Young Circumstellar Disks, Terrence Rettig, Sean D. Brittain, Theodore Simon, Erika Gibb, Dinshaw S. Balsara, David A. Tilley, Craig Kulesa Aug 2014

Dust Stratification In Young Circumstellar Disks, Terrence Rettig, Sean D. Brittain, Theodore Simon, Erika Gibb, Dinshaw S. Balsara, David A. Tilley, Craig Kulesa

Sean D Brittain

We present high-resolution infrared spectra of four YSOs (T Tau N, T Tau S, RNO 91, and HL Tau). The spectra exhibit narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, as well as broad emission lines of gas-phase 12CO. The narrow absorption lines of CO are shown to originate from the colder circumstellar gas. We find that the line-of-sight gas column densities resulting from the CO absorption lines are much higher than expected for the measured extinction for each source and suggest the gas/dust ratio is measuring the dust settling and/or grain coagulation in these extended disks. We ...


Co Line Emission And Absorption From The Hl Tauri Disk-Where Is All The Dust?, Sean D. Brittain, Terrence W. Rettig, Theodore Simon, Craig Kulesa Aug 2014

Co Line Emission And Absorption From The Hl Tauri Disk-Where Is All The Dust?, Sean D. Brittain, Terrence W. Rettig, Theodore Simon, Craig Kulesa

Sean D Brittain

We present high-resolution infrared spectra of HL Tau, a heavily embedded young star. The spectra exhibit broad emission lines of 12CO gas-phase molecules, as well as narrow absorption lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. The broad emission lines of vibrationally excited 12CO are dominated by the hot (T ~ 1500 K) inner disk. The narrow absorption lines of CO are found to originate from the circumstellar gas at a temperature of ~100 K. The 12CO column density for this cooler material [(7.5 ± 0.2) × 1018 cm-2] indicates a large column of absorbing gas along the line of sight. In dense ...


Warm Gas In The Inner Disks Around Young Intermediate-Mass Stars, Sean D. Brittain, Theodore Simon, Joan R. Najita, Terrence W. Rettig Aug 2014

Warm Gas In The Inner Disks Around Young Intermediate-Mass Stars, Sean D. Brittain, Theodore Simon, Joan R. Najita, Terrence W. Rettig

Sean D Brittain

The characterization of gas in the inner disks around young stars is of particular interest because of its connection to planet formation. In order to study the gas in inner disks, we have obtained high-resolution K- and M-band spectroscopy of 14 intermediate-mass young stars. In sources that have optically thick inner disks, i.e., E(K-L)>1, our detection rate of the rovibrational CO transitions is 100%, and the gas is thermally excited. Of the five sources that do not have optically thick inner disks, we only detect the rovibrational CO transitions from HD 141569. In this case, we show ...


Co Emission In The Inner Disk Around Young Intermediate-Mass Stars, Matt L. Stevans, Sean D. Brittain Aug 2014

Co Emission In The Inner Disk Around Young Intermediate-Mass Stars, Matt L. Stevans, Sean D. Brittain

Sean D Brittain

We present observations that indicate viscous heating contributes significantly to the surface heating of the inner disk region (0.1-5 AU) around young intermediate-mass stars, Herbig AeBe stars, when the inner disk is optically thick. Brgamma flux is known to scale with accretion rate around young stars. We find a trend between Brgamma and CO emissivity, a tracer 1, 500 K gas in the gaseous atmospheres of less evolved inner disk regions in a sample of 25 Herbig AeBe stars, the higher mass analog of T Tauri stars. Evolved Herbig circumstellar disks do not follow this trend as closely. A ...


The Herschel View Of Gas In Protoplanetary Systems (Gasps). First Comparisons With A Large Grid Of Models, C Pinte, P Woitke, F Menard, G Duchene, I Kamp, G Meeus, G Mathews, C D. Howard, C A. Grady, W.-F. Thi, I Tilling, J.-C. Augereau, W.R.F. Dent, J M. Alacid, S Andrews, D R. Ardila, G Aresu, D Barrado, Sean D. Brittain, D R. Ciardi Aug 2014

The Herschel View Of Gas In Protoplanetary Systems (Gasps). First Comparisons With A Large Grid Of Models, C Pinte, P Woitke, F Menard, G Duchene, I Kamp, G Meeus, G Mathews, C D. Howard, C A. Grady, W.-F. Thi, I Tilling, J.-C. Augereau, W.R.F. Dent, J M. Alacid, S Andrews, D R. Ardila, G Aresu, D Barrado, Sean D. Brittain, D R. Ciardi

Sean D Brittain

The Herschel GASPS key program is a survey of the gas phase of protoplanetary discs, targeting 240 objects which cover a large range of ages, spectral types, and disc properties. To interpret this large quantity of data and initiate self-consistent analyses of the gas and dust properties of protoplanetary discs, we have combined the capabilities of the radiative transfer code MCFOST with the gas thermal balance and chemistry code ProDiMo to compute a grid of ≈300 000 disc models (DENT). We present a comparison of the first Herschel/GASPS line and continuum data with the predictions from the DENT grid ...


Accretion Variability Of Herbig Ae/Be Stars Observed By X-Shooter Hd 31648 And Hd 163296, I Mendigutia, Sean D. Brittain, C Eiroa, G Meeus, B Montesinos, A Mora, J Muzerolle, R D. Oudmaijer, E Rigliaco Aug 2014

Accretion Variability Of Herbig Ae/Be Stars Observed By X-Shooter Hd 31648 And Hd 163296, I Mendigutia, Sean D. Brittain, C Eiroa, G Meeus, B Montesinos, A Mora, J Muzerolle, R D. Oudmaijer, E Rigliaco

Sean D Brittain

This work presents X-Shooter/Very Large Telescope spectra of the prototypical, isolated Herbig Ae stars HD 31648 (MWC 480) and HD 163296 over five epochs separated by timescales ranging from days to months. Each spectrum spans over a wide wavelength range covering from 310 to 2475 nm. We have monitored the continuum excess in the Balmer region of the spectra and the luminosity of 12 ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral lines that are commonly used as accretion tracers for T Tauri stars. The observed strengths of the Balmer excesses have been reproduced from a magnetospheric accretion shock model, providing a ...


Observations Of Herbig Ae/Be Stars With Herschel/Pacs. The Atomic And Molecular Contents Of Their Protoplanetary Discs, G Meeus, B Montesinos, I Mendigutia, I Kamp, W F. Thi, C Eiroa, C A. Grady, G Mathews, G Sandell, C. Martin-Zaidi, Sean D. Brittain, W.R.F. Dent, C Howard, F Menard, C Pinte, A Roberge, B Vandenbussche, J P. Williams Aug 2014

Observations Of Herbig Ae/Be Stars With Herschel/Pacs. The Atomic And Molecular Contents Of Their Protoplanetary Discs, G Meeus, B Montesinos, I Mendigutia, I Kamp, W F. Thi, C Eiroa, C A. Grady, G Mathews, G Sandell, C. Martin-Zaidi, Sean D. Brittain, W.R.F. Dent, C Howard, F Menard, C Pinte, A Roberge, B Vandenbussche, J P. Williams

Sean D Brittain

We observed a sample of 20 representative Herbig Ae/Be stars and 5 A-type debris discs with PACS onboard Herschel, as part of the GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) project. The observations were done in spectroscopic mode, and cover the far-infrared lines of [O i], [C ii], CO, CH+, H2O, and OH. We have a [Oi] 63 μm detection rate of 100% for the Herbig Ae/Be and 0% for the debris discs. The [Oi] 145 μm line is only detected in 25% and CO J = 18–17 in 45% (and fewer cases for higher J transitions) of the Herbig ...


High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Hd 100546. Ii. Analysis Of Variable Rovibrational Co Emission Lines, Sean D. Brittain, Joan Najita, John S. Carr, Joseph Liskowsky, Matthew R. Troutman, Greg W. Doppmann Aug 2014

High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Hd 100546. Ii. Analysis Of Variable Rovibrational Co Emission Lines, Sean D. Brittain, Joan Najita, John S. Carr, Joseph Liskowsky, Matthew R. Troutman, Greg W. Doppmann

Sean D Brittain

We present observations of rovibrational CO in HD 100546 from four epochs spanning 2003 January through 2010 December. We show that the equivalent widths of the CO lines vary during this time period with the v = 1–0 CO lines brightening more than the UV fluoresced lines from the higher vibrational states.While the spectroastrometric signal of the hot band lines remains constant during this period, the spectroastrometric signal of the v = 1–0 lines varies substantially. At all epochs, the spectroastrometric signals of the UV fluoresced lines are consistent with the signal one would expect from gas in an ...


Gas In The Protoplanetary Disc Of Hd 169142: Herschel's View, G Meeus, C Pinte, P Woitke, B Montesinos, I Mendigutia, P Riviere-Marichalar, C Eiroa, G S. Mathews, B Vandenbussche, C D. Howard, A Roberge, G Sandell, G Duchene, F Menard, C A. Grady, W.R.F. Dent, I Kamp, J C. Augereau, W F. Thi, I Tilling, J M. Alacid, S Andrews, D R. Ardila, G Aresu, D Barrado, Sean D. Brittain Aug 2014

Gas In The Protoplanetary Disc Of Hd 169142: Herschel's View, G Meeus, C Pinte, P Woitke, B Montesinos, I Mendigutia, P Riviere-Marichalar, C Eiroa, G S. Mathews, B Vandenbussche, C D. Howard, A Roberge, G Sandell, G Duchene, F Menard, C A. Grady, W.R.F. Dent, I Kamp, J C. Augereau, W F. Thi, I Tilling, J M. Alacid, S Andrews, D R. Ardila, G Aresu, D Barrado, Sean D. Brittain

Sean D Brittain

In an effort to simultaneously study the gas and dust components of the disc surrounding the young Herbig Ae star HD 169142, we present far-IR observations obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. This work is part of the open time key program GASPS, which is aimed at studying the evolution of protoplanetary discs. To constrain the gas properties in the outer disc, we observed the star at several key gas-lines, including [OI] 63.2 and 145.5 mum, [CII] 157.7 mum, CO 72.8 and 90.2 mum, and o-H2O 78.7 and 179.5 ...


High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Hd 100546. I. Analysis Of Asymmetric Ro-Vibrational Oh Emission Lines, Joseph Liskowsky, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, John S. Carr, Greg W. Doppman, Matthew R. Troutman Aug 2014

High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Of Hd 100546. I. Analysis Of Asymmetric Ro-Vibrational Oh Emission Lines, Joseph Liskowsky, Sean D. Brittain, Joan R. Najita, John S. Carr, Greg W. Doppman, Matthew R. Troutman

Sean D Brittain

We present observations of ro-vibrational OH and CO emission from the Herbig Be star HD 100546. The emission from both molecules arises from the inner region of the disk extending from approximately 13 AU from the central star. The velocity profiles of the OH lines are narrower than the velocity profile of the [O i] λ6300 line, indicating that the OH in the disk is not cospatial with the Oi. This suggests that the inner optically thin region of the disk is largely devoid of molecular gas. Unlike the ro-vibrational CO emission lines, the OH lines are highly asymmetric. We ...