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Climate change

2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 122

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Italian Catalogue Of Herbage Varieties, M. Giolo, Giovanni Corsi, N. Mugueta, F. Sorgoni, Pier Giacomo Bianchi, Renzo Torricelli, Mario Falcinelli Dec 2019

The Italian Catalogue Of Herbage Varieties, M. Giolo, Giovanni Corsi, N. Mugueta, F. Sorgoni, Pier Giacomo Bianchi, Renzo Torricelli, Mario Falcinelli

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

With 3.4 million hectares, permanent grassland covers 25.8% of Italian U.A.A. (Usable Agricultural Area). Most of this is located in hilly and mountainous areas and is important for the stability of the soil even if their productivity is low. Alfalfa and annual forages cover 1.8 million hectares (C.R.P.A. 2010). Italy’s large longitudinal extension (between latitudes 35° and 47° N), delivers a great variety of climates (Fig. 1). The northern regions bordering the rest of Europe differ greatly from the southern regions surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea.


Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell Dec 2019

Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Reduced body size and accelerated life cycle due to warming are considered major ecological responses to climate change with fitness costs at the individual level. Surprisingly, we know little about how relevant ecological factors can alter these life history trade‐offs and their consequences for individual fitness. Here, we show that food modulates temperature‐dependent effects on body size in the water flea Daphnia magna and interacts with temperature to affect life history parameters. We exposed 412 individuals to a factorial manipulation of food abundance and temperature, tracked each reproductive event, and took daily measurements of body size from each ...


The Use Of Functional Traits To Identify Grasses And Fodder Shrubs For Domestication To Suit A Changing Climate, Meredith L. Mitchell, R. D. B. Whalley, Hayley C. Norman Dec 2019

The Use Of Functional Traits To Identify Grasses And Fodder Shrubs For Domestication To Suit A Changing Climate, Meredith L. Mitchell, R. D. B. Whalley, Hayley C. Norman

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There is uncertainty about future climatic predictions; however there is little doubt amongst experts that the future will be warmer. Climate change and the associated elevation in atmospheric CO2 level and temperatures will provide novel challenges and potential opportunities for cultivated plant species. Plant breeding and domestication can contributed to improvements in both yield and quality of grasses and fodder shrubs. A range of key functional traits is required to cope with this changing climate. The main challenges that are discussed are new pests and pathogens; changes in the pattern of nutrient supply and forage quality; challenge associated with ...


Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell Dec 2019

Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Impending threats to shrubland ecosystems, posed by climate change, necessitate niche modeling efforts to project vegetation range shifts. However, efforts often remain unguided by individual-scale interspecific plant interactions. The stress gradient hypothesis posits that facilitation should increase in areas of high abiotic stress, only if the individuals are able to ameliorate the surrounding area via functional traits. The Sheep Range of Nevada was used to assess the role of functional traits as predictors of plant association. Larrea tridentata, Coleogyne ramosissima, and Artemisia nova were selected as shrubs with variable life history strategies and ranges in order to identify general patterns ...


What If The Key To Climate Change Is Hiding Under The Sea?, Shira Feder Dec 2019

What If The Key To Climate Change Is Hiding Under The Sea?, Shira Feder

Capstones

“We know more about outer space than we do the ocean,” says Vicki Ferrini, a research scientist at Columbia University with over 20 ocean expeditions under her belt. And as the woman leading Seabed 2030, the charge to map the world’s oceans—which are 85% unexplored—she knows how vital this is to combat climate change and exactly how she’s going to do it. Read it here: https://medium.com/@shira.feder/what-if-the-key-to-climate-change-is-hiding-under-the-sea-4503565c33a2


Conservation Insights For Endemic Alpine Plants (Nabalus Spp.) Facing Global Environmental Change, Kristen Haynes Dec 2019

Conservation Insights For Endemic Alpine Plants (Nabalus Spp.) Facing Global Environmental Change, Kristen Haynes

Dissertations and Theses

Amid the current global biodiversity crisis spurred by anthropogenic environmental changes, determining conservation priorities and the extinction vulnerability of rare taxa are tasks of critical importance. Organisms can avoid environmental change-induced extinction through three possible response modes: evolutionary adaptation, migration (range shift), and tolerance through phenotypic plasticity. In this dissertation, I leveraged transplant experiments and population genomics to assess the ability of rare alpine rattlesnake-roots (Nabalus spp.) to adapt, migrate, and/or tolerate environmental change. I also employed these same techniques to define conservation units and priorities within two endemic alpine taxa (Nabalus boottii and Nabalus trifoliolatus var. nanus) and ...


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du Dec 2019

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure ...


Summer Dormancy And Survival Of Tall Fescue In Relation To Endophyte Presence, J. L. Thomas, Charles P. West, D. P. Malinowski Dec 2019

Summer Dormancy And Survival Of Tall Fescue In Relation To Endophyte Presence, J. L. Thomas, Charles P. West, D. P. Malinowski

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

True summer dormancy in temperate perennial grasses is the ability to survive summer stresses by ceasing growth and senescing vegetative tissues independently of water supply, as opposed to summer-active grasses, which respond to rains by continuing growth, but senesce during droughts (Volaire and Norton 2006). Summer dormancy is a common drought-escape mechanism for Mediterranean-origin perennial grasses, but is also being considered as a potentially useful trait in semiarid to humid zones whose climates are not strictly Mediterranean, but where temperate grass survival is threatened by summer heat and water deficits (Malinowski et al. 2005). Moreover, summer dormancy may provide a ...


Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones Dec 2019

Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones

Honors Scholar Theses

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) are an ancient mutualism in which soil-dwelling fungi enhance plant absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen in exchange for photosynthates. VAM are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and nutrient content, fluctuating between mutualism and parasitism depending on conditions of drought stress and nutrient deficiency. Understanding how VAM respond to precipitation changes is crucial for both conservation and agricultural purposes. To test how soil moisture changes the effects of VAM colonization and growth in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), a common prairie grass, I planted 300 seeds in a greenhouse in sterilized soil and soil inoculated with VAM fungi ...


Changes In The Diet And Body Size Of A Small Herbivorous Mammal (Hispid Cotton Rat, Sigmodon Hispidus) Following The Late Pleistocene Megafauna Extinction, Catalina P. Tomé, Emma A. Elliott Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, Seth D. Newsome, Felisa A. Smith Dec 2019

Changes In The Diet And Body Size Of A Small Herbivorous Mammal (Hispid Cotton Rat, Sigmodon Hispidus) Following The Late Pleistocene Megafauna Extinction, Catalina P. Tomé, Emma A. Elliott Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, Seth D. Newsome, Felisa A. Smith

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

The catastrophic loss of large-bodied mammals during the terminal Pleistocene likely led to cascading effects within communities. While the extinction of the top consumers probably expanded the resources available to survivors of all body sizes, little work has focused on the responses of the smallest mammals. Here, we use a detailed fossil record from the southwestern United States to examine the response of the hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus to biodiversity loss and climatic change over the late Quaternary. In particular, we focus on changes in diet and body size. We characterize diet through carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Dec 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Australian Grasslands Research At The Crossroads, Alan Robson Nov 2019

Australian Grasslands Research At The Crossroads, Alan Robson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands research in Australia is at a crossroad. There are several difficulties. First, the decline of sheep production and dairying within Australia and increased cropping has focused attention on crop research rather than pasture research. Second, enrolments in agricultural and related education have declined, and graduate numbers are insufficient to meet demand for expertise. Third, there has been a move towards specialisation in research and there are relatively few generalist agricultural scientists able to integrate research results into agricultural ecosystems. There remain very many challenges. Adapting grassland production to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide and methane is a major ...


Managing Grassland Systems In A Changing Climate: The Search For Practical Solutions, Jean-François Soussana, Luis Gustavo Barioni, Tamara Ben Ari, Rich Conant, Pierre Gerber, Petr Havlik, Alexandre Ickowicz, Mark Howden Nov 2019

Managing Grassland Systems In A Changing Climate: The Search For Practical Solutions, Jean-François Soussana, Luis Gustavo Barioni, Tamara Ben Ari, Rich Conant, Pierre Gerber, Petr Havlik, Alexandre Ickowicz, Mark Howden

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

By the end of the XXIst century, a global temperature rise between 1.5 and 4°C compared to 1980-1999 and CO2 concentrations in the range 550-900 ppm are expected, together with an increased frequency of extreme climatic events (heat waves, droughts, and heavy rain) that is likely to negatively affect grassland production and livestock systems in a number of world regions. Grassland management has a large potential to mitigate livestock greenhouse gas emissions at a low (or even negative) cost, by combining a moderate intensification, the restoration of degraded pastures and the development of silvo-pastoral systems. Climate ...


The Effects Of Seasonal Variations, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, And Climate Change On The Tuna-Dolphin Association, Caitlynn Birch, Michael D. Scott, Zhi-Yong Yin, Lisa T. Ballance Nov 2019

The Effects Of Seasonal Variations, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, And Climate Change On The Tuna-Dolphin Association, Caitlynn Birch, Michael D. Scott, Zhi-Yong Yin, Lisa T. Ballance

Theses

Tuna and dolphins swim together in the waters of the eastern tropical Pacific, and this association has long benefitted tuna fishermen and intrigued scientists. Although the tuna-dolphin association is often referred to as a “mystery,” much is known about the association. Yellowfin tuna are primarily caught with spotted dolphins and, to a lesser extent, spinner dolphins; historically the spotted dolphin has borne the brunt of the bycatch mortality. The tuna-dolphin association is thought to be a product of the distinct oceanography of the ETP: a shallow mixed layer, a thick oxygen minimum zone, and warm surface waters. As the mixed ...


Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker Nov 2019

Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker

Ecology Center Publications

Climate‐mediated disturbances outside the range of historical variability can have severe consequences on vital, post‐disturbance regeneration processes. High‐elevation forests of the Rocky Mountains that are dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Additionally, these forests have experienced recent epidemic spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks that have often resulted in >95% mortality of overstory Engelmann spruce. Therefore, the future distribution of Engelmann spruce forests depends largely on natural regeneration processes. We examined Engelmann spruce seedlings across gradients in soil moisture and stand structural conditions 20 yr ...


Emission Of Green House Gases From Grasslands And Their Mitigation, Prem N. Sharma, Shyam Khadka Oct 2019

Emission Of Green House Gases From Grasslands And Their Mitigation, Prem N. Sharma, Shyam Khadka

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere began in pre-industrial times and it continues to increase. This could result into an alarming increase in temperature of up to 5.4 oC by year 2100 due to a net global annual GHG emission of H 4.5-6.5 Gt C equivalent. About 18% of the world’s GHG are contributed by livestock and related activities on grasslands that are spread over almost 35 million Km2.These grasslands give livelihood to over a billion people most of who are poor. Twenty to 70% of the land surface ...


Climate Change Impact And Adaptation In Temperate Grassland And Livestock Industries, Afshin Ghahramani, Andrew D. Moore Oct 2019

Climate Change Impact And Adaptation In Temperate Grassland And Livestock Industries, Afshin Ghahramani, Andrew D. Moore

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Climate is projected to have negative impact on temperate grassland and livestock productions across the globe. Moderately elevated atmospheric CO2 in the near future is expected to increase plant photosynthetic rates but this is likely to be limited by soil nitrogen deficits. However, in Australia at least it is unlikely that positive effect of elevated CO2 on plant production be able to offset the negative impacts of climate change. Currently there is a considerable gap between actual and achievable production and profit in Australian grazing systems and many management and genetic improvements for climate adaptation would operate by ...


Rainwater Harvesting And Its Impact On Farming Systems, J. S. Samra Oct 2019

Rainwater Harvesting And Its Impact On Farming Systems, J. S. Samra

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Landless, small holders and other poors supplement their livelihood and adapt to climate change by grazing, stall feeding with crop residues and fodder cultivated under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Improving productivity by conserving rainfall, ground water recharging, harvesting and recycling of rainwater especially in degraded open access or shared land with community participation was quite successful over a wide range of precipitation and ecological situations. Various types of trenches, bunding, vegetative barriers, gully plugs, ponds, check dams, land slides and mine spoils stabilization etc. retained more soil moisture, seeds, vegetative propagules etc. in situ and prevented soil erosion. It regenerated ...


Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong Oct 2019

Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Predicting how organisms respond to climate change requires that we understand the temperature dependence of fitness in relevant ecological contexts (e.g., with or without predation risk). Predation risk often induces changes to life history traits that are themselves temperature dependent. We explore how perceived predation risk and temperature interact to determine fitness (indicated by the intrinsic rate of increase, r) through changes to its underlying components (net reproductive rate, generation time, and survival) in Daphnia magna. We exposed Daphnia to predation cues from dragonfly naiads early, late, or throughout their ontogeny. Predation risk increased r differentially across temperatures and ...


Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson Oct 2019

Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson

Aspen Bibliography

The boreal zone of Alaska is dominated by interactions between disturbances, vegetation, and soils. These interactions are likely to change in the future through increasing permafrost thaw, more frequent and intense wildfires, and vegetation change from drought and competition. We utilize an individual tree-based vegetation model, the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), to estimate current and future forest conditions across sites within interior Alaska. We updated UVAFME for application within interior Alaska, including improved simulation of permafrost dynamics, litter decay, nutrient dynamics, fire mortality, and postfire regrowth. Following these updates, UVAFME output on species-specific biomass and stem density ...


Salt Marsh Health And Biomass Responses To A Changing Environment, Gwen Joelle Miller Oct 2019

Salt Marsh Health And Biomass Responses To A Changing Environment, Gwen Joelle Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Coastal salt marshes are important ecosystems not only for their aesthetic beauty but also for their ecosystem services that they provide including improving water quality, providing protection from storm surges and hurricanes, and carbon sequestration. With climate change, including drought, warmer temperatures and sea-level rise, these systems are going to be impacted. Understanding how salt marshes will respond, or already have responded, to climate change will help us be better prepared for the future. By scripting a model to project how marshes may migrate with sea-level rise, I discover that salt marshes within Beaufort and Jasper counties, South Carolina will ...


The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev Sep 2019

The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a collective prediction among ecologists that climate change will enhance phytoplankton biomass in temperate lakes. Yet there is noteworthy variation in the structure and regulating functions of lakes to make this statement challengeable and, perhaps, inaccurate. To generate a common understanding on the trophic transition of lakes, I examined the interactive effects of climate change and landscape properties on phytoplankton biomass in 12,644 lakes located in relatively intact forested landscapes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. Chl-a concentration was obtained via analyzing Landsat satellite imagery data over a 28-year period (1984-2011) and ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Antarctic Holocene Climate Change: A Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope Record From Palmer Deep, Amelia E. Shevenell, James P. Kennett Sep 2019

Antarctic Holocene Climate Change: A Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope Record From Palmer Deep, Amelia E. Shevenell, James P. Kennett

Amelia Shevenell

The first moderate‐ to high‐resolution Holocene marine stable isotope record from the nearshore Antarctic continental shelf (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1098B) suggests sensitivity of the western Antarctic Peninsula hydrography to westerly wind strength and El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO)‐like climate variability. Despite proximity to corrosive Antarctic water masses, sufficient CaCO3 in Palmer Deep sediments exists to provide a high‐quality stable isotopic record (especially in the late Holocene). Coherence of benthic foraminifer δ18O, δ13C, sedimentologic, and CaCO3 fluctuations suggests that rapid (years) Palmer Deep bottom water temperature fluctuations of 1°–1 ...


The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher Sep 2019

The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher

Kristen N. Buck

The proportion of aerosol iron (Fe) that dissolves in seawater varies greatly and is dependent on aerosol composition and the physicochemical conditions of seawater, which may change depending on location or be altered by global environmental change. Aerosol and surface seawater samples were collected in the Sargasso Sea and used to investigate the impact of these changing conditions on aerosol Fe dissolution in seawater. Our data show that seawater temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration, within the range of current and projected future values, had no significant effect on the dissolution of aerosol Fe. However, the source and composition of aerosols ...


Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29 Sep 2019

Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather Aug 2019

Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean ...


Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Climate change is warming the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. Under predicted end-of-century temperatures, many teleosts show impaired development and altered critical behaviors, including behavioral lateralisation. Since laterality is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, changes in the strength and direction of lateralisation suggest that rapid climate warming might impact brain development and function. However, despite the implications for cognitive functions, the potential effects of elevated temperature in lateralisation of elasmobranch fishes are unknown. We incubated and reared Port Jackson sharks at current and projected end-of-century temperatures and measured preferential detour responses to left or right. Sharks incubated ...