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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang Sep 2018

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum May 2018

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor May 2018

Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor

Journal of Latin American Geography

Despite continued forest loss and extensive demand for wood products throughout Guatemala, the locally managed and protected forests of Totonicapán remain some of the most intact within the country. Here, we study the growth rings of Guatemalan fir (Pinaceae; Abies guatemalensis Rehder; pinabete) at Totonicapán to assess environmental influences on tree growth and the potential vulnerability of these forests to climate change in the western highlands. We find that late summer and dry season precipitation are critical drivers in annual ring-width variability and that tree growth responds negatively to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. Considering ...


Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood Feb 2018

Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood

Michigan Tech Publications

The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4‐m‐diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers ...


Temperate And Tropical Forest Canopies Are Already Functioning Beyond Their Thermal Thresholds For Photosynthesis, Alida C. Mau, Sasha C. Reed, Tana E. Wood, Molly A. Cavaleri Jan 2018

Temperate And Tropical Forest Canopies Are Already Functioning Beyond Their Thermal Thresholds For Photosynthesis, Alida C. Mau, Sasha C. Reed, Tana E. Wood, Molly A. Cavaleri

Michigan Tech Publications

Tropical tree species have evolved under very narrow temperature ranges compared to temperate forest species. Studies suggest that tropical trees may be more vulnerable to continued warming compared to temperate species, as tropical trees have shown declines in growth and photosynthesis at elevated temperatures. However, regional and global vegetation models lack the data needed to accurately represent such physiological responses to increased temperatures, especially for tropical forests. To address this need, we compared instantaneous photosynthetic temperature responses of mature canopy foliage, leaf temperatures, and air temperatures across vertical canopy gradients in three forest types: tropical wet, tropical moist, and temperate ...


Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco Jan 2018

Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco

Research on Capitol Hill

Abundance of native forb species is declining, leading to degraded ecosystems within the Great Basin.

Forbs provide many ecosystem functions, including wildlife habitat for species such as Sage Grouse, increased biodiversity, resistance to erosion, and protection from invasive plant species.

Climate change is predicted to affect timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation within the Great Basin. During the fall season, precipitation is expected to increase by 30%.

Changes in precipitation will likely affect fall emergence of forbs, which is essential for overwintering and establishment.

Learning how precipitation affects forb emergence could lead to new methods that increase fall emergence and ...


Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag Jan 2018

Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Shifting climate and wildfire regimes are changing forest structure and function globally. In the western US, future forest structure will be determined by interactions between climate change and disturbance, including increasingly frequent large wildfires, as well as the forest management actions of landowners and managers. While research on the ecological impacts of these changes is rapidly expanding, there is limited focus on how forest vulnerability may vary across land ownerships, which may have varying capacities for climate-adaptive forest management. In this dissertation, I explored how coniferous forests in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon are vulnerable to climate and wildfire ...


Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan Jan 2018

Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The impacts of climate change have been widely documented around the world. One of the most rapidly changing areas is the boreal forest of North America. The extent of change has been such that there have been shifts in long-standing climate-growth relationships in many boreal tree species; while the growth of many of these high-latitude forests were formerly limited by temperature, warming has increased the evapotranspirative demands such that there is widespread drought stress limiting productivity in the boreal forest. With the importance of the boreal forest as a global carbon sink, it is imperative to understand the extent of ...


Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White Jan 2018

Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In recent years, climate warming has led to an increase in the severity and frequency of naturally occurring fires in boreal ecosystems globally. In 2014, an unprecedented 3.4 million hectares of boreal forest burned in the Northwest Territories (NWT). While much research has focused on post-fire succession of serotinous tree species such as Picea mariana (black spruce) and Pinus banksiana (jack pine), the understory community of vascular plants play an important role in ecosystem functioning but less is known about the response of this component of the system to changing fire regimes. Regeneration strategies such as the ability to ...


Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross Jan 2018

Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Forest ecosystems are being altered by climate change, invasive species, and additional stressors. Our ability to detect these changes and quantify their impacts relies on detailed data across spatial and temporal scales. This dissertation expands the ecological utility of long-term satellite imagery by developing high quality forest mapping products and examining spatiotemporal changes in tree species abundance and phenology across the northeastern United States (US; the ‘Northeast’).

Species/genus-level forest composition maps were developed by integrating field data and Landsat images to model abundance at a sub-pixel scale. These abundance maps were then used to 1) produce a more detailed ...