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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold Feb 2019

Adaptation Strategies And Approaches For Forested Watersheds, P. Danielle Shannon, Christopher Swanston, Maria Janowiak, Stephen D. Handler, Kristen M. Schmitt, Leslie A. Brandt, Patricia Butler-Leopold

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Intentional climate adaptation planning for ecosystems has become a necessary part of the job for natural resource managers and natural resource professionals in this era of non-stationarity. One of the major challenges in adapting ecosystems to climate change is in the translation of broad adaptation concepts to specific, tangible actions. Addressing management goals and values while considering the long-term risks associated with local climate change can make forested watershed management plans more robust to uncertainty and changing conditions. We provide a menu of tiered adaptation strategies, which we developed with a focus on forests of the Midwest and Northeastern U ...


Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides Serve As Phosphate Traps In Tundra And Boreal Peat Soils, Elizabeth M. Herndon, Lauren Kinsman-Costello, Kiersten A. Duroe, Jonathan Mills, Evan Kane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Aaron A. Thompson, Stan D. Wullschleger Jan 2019

Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides Serve As Phosphate Traps In Tundra And Boreal Peat Soils, Elizabeth M. Herndon, Lauren Kinsman-Costello, Kiersten A. Duroe, Jonathan Mills, Evan Kane, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Aaron A. Thompson, Stan D. Wullschleger

School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Publications

Arctic and boreal ecosystems are experiencing pronounced warming that is accelerating decomposition of soil organic matter and releasing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Future carbon storage in these ecosystems depends on the balance between microbial decomposition and primary production, both of which can be regulated by nutrients such as phosphorus. Phosphorus cycling in tundra and boreal regions is often assumed to occur through biological pathways with little interaction with soil minerals; that is, phosphate released from organic molecules is rapidly assimilated by plants or microorganisms. In contrast to this prevailing conceptual model, we use sequential extractions and spectroscopic techniques to ...


Reexamining The Utility Of Existing Climate Adaptation Frameworks Through Application On A Northern Forest, Alexander Rice Jan 2019

Reexamining The Utility Of Existing Climate Adaptation Frameworks Through Application On A Northern Forest, Alexander Rice

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A review of the literature reveals the strengths and limitations of various climate adaptation frameworks and illuminates a general path by which a type of adaptation can be achieved. A number of useful frameworks exist but the number of independent case studies demonstrating the adaptation process in a detailed manner is much more limited. Additionally, components of the various adaptation processes can often seem vague and concepts such as adaptability ill-defined. For land managers approaching climate adaptation independently can be difficult, particularly in the areas of goal creation and vulnerability assessment. Within frameworks where user-defined adaptation goals dictate whether or ...


Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood Feb 2018

Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood

Michigan Tech Publications

The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4‐m‐diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers ...


Effects Of In-Situ Leaf-Level Canopy Warming In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Kelsey Carter Jan 2017

Effects Of In-Situ Leaf-Level Canopy Warming In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Kelsey Carter

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Rising mean annual temperatures due to climate change have intensified the need to understand the effects of warming on plant physiological processes. Forest photosynthesis is the most important pathways of terrestrial carbon sequestration, yet continued warming could reduce this important carbon sink. Photosynthesis is highly sensitive to temperature and begins to decline after an optimum temperature (Topt) is reached, leading to reduced carbon uptake. To date, logistical difficulties have limited our ability to test photosynthetic responses to sustained warming in mature forest canopies. In order to understand how elevated temperatures will affect forest ecosystems, we need to be able ...


Consensus On Consensus: A Synthesis Of Consensus Estimates On Human-Caused Global Warming, John Cook, Naomi Oreskes, Peter T. Doran, William R L Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed W. Maibach, J Stuart Carlton, Stephan Lewandowsky, Andrew G. Skuce, Sarah A. Green, Dana Nuccitelli, Peter Jacobs, Mark Richardson, Bärbel Winkler, Rob Painting, Ken Rice Apr 2016

Consensus On Consensus: A Synthesis Of Consensus Estimates On Human-Caused Global Warming, John Cook, Naomi Oreskes, Peter T. Doran, William R L Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed W. Maibach, J Stuart Carlton, Stephan Lewandowsky, Andrew G. Skuce, Sarah A. Green, Dana Nuccitelli, Peter Jacobs, Mark Richardson, Bärbel Winkler, Rob Painting, Ken Rice

Department of Chemistry Publications

The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%–100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al(Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett.11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl Jan 2016

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The aim of this study was to validate and apply a lake model for predicting the susceptibility of small inland lakes in Michigan to changes in thermal regime and increased cyanobacteria growth as a result of future climate conditions. The Freshwater Lake Model was selected, tested for sensitivity to various inputs, and validated through comparison to observed conditions. The sensitivity analysis showed that the lake model was most sensitive to solar radiation, air temperature, and air humidity. Comparison of predicted climate data with observed conditions revealed highly variable climate model error. The lake model validation was conducted using 10 lakes ...


Investigating The Effects Of Short- And Long-Term Climatic Variation On The Water Use Of Three Northern Hardwood Tree Species, Alex R. Collins Jan 2015

Investigating The Effects Of Short- And Long-Term Climatic Variation On The Water Use Of Three Northern Hardwood Tree Species, Alex R. Collins

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Many tree species are expected to decline in the northern Midwestern United States due to climate change increasing annual temperature 3-5º C by 2100. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), an economically important timber and syrup species, is not expected to be sustainable in its current range under projected future climate, while trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and red maple (Acer rubrum) are expected to react more favorably to climate change. The success of individual tree species is dependent on how climate change will alter a species environment in regards to water use. Climate change could potentially reduce available soil moisture, reducing potential ...


Instantaneous Photosynthetic Response To Temperature Of Mature Forest Canopies And Experimentally Warmed Seedlings, Alida C. Mau Jan 2015

Instantaneous Photosynthetic Response To Temperature Of Mature Forest Canopies And Experimentally Warmed Seedlings, Alida C. Mau

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Tropical trees have been shown to be more susceptible to warming compared to temperate species, and have shown growth and photosynthetic declines at elevated temperatures as little as 3oC above ambient. However, regional and global vegetation models lack the data needed to accurately represent physiological response to increased temperatures in tropical forests. We compared the instantaneous photosynthetic responses to elevated temperatures of four mature tropical rainforest tree species in Puerto Rico and the temperate broadleaf species sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in Michigan. Contrary to expectations, leaves in the upper canopy of both temperate and tropical forests had temperature optima that ...


Warming Alters Photosynthetic Rates Of Sub-Boreal Peatland Vegetation, Arvo Aljaste Jan 2011

Warming Alters Photosynthetic Rates Of Sub-Boreal Peatland Vegetation, Arvo Aljaste

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Boreal peatlands are important in the global carbon cycle. Despite covering only 3% of the global land area, peatlands store approximately one third of all soil carbon. Temperature is one of the major drivers in peatland carbon cycling as it affects both plant production and CO2 fluxes from soils. However, it is relatively unknown how boreal peatland plant photosynthesis is affected by higher temperatures. Therefore, we measured plant photosynthetic rates under two different warming treatments in a poor fen in Northern Michigan. Eighteen plots were established that were divided into three treatments: control, open-top chamber (OTC) warming and infrared ...