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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Carbon Balance Of Long Term And Newly Established Temperate Grasslands, J. Clifton-Brown, G. Lanigan, R. B. Taylor, J. I. Burke, M. B. Jones Jun 2023

The Carbon Balance Of Long Term And Newly Established Temperate Grasslands, J. Clifton-Brown, G. Lanigan, R. B. Taylor, J. I. Burke, M. B. Jones

IGC Proceedings (1993-2023)

Carbon (C) sequestration is the process of removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it in C pools of varying lifetime. Storage can be in the form of above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass or recalcitrant organic and inorganic C in the soil. While the processes of C sequestration are ultimately regulated at the molecular level, management practices and climate can greatly affect the way in which terrestrial ecosystems sequester C (Soussana et al., 2004). Because temperate grasslands account for a significant portion of the agricultural and semi-natural land-cover in N-W Europe any increase in the potential of temperate grasslands …


What Is Refractory Organic Matter In The Ocean?, Federico Baltar, Xosé A. Alvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Ronald Benner, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl, Christian Lønborg Apr 2021

What Is Refractory Organic Matter In The Ocean?, Federico Baltar, Xosé A. Alvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Ronald Benner, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl, Christian Lønborg

Faculty Publications

About 20% of the organic carbon produced in the sunlit surface ocean is transported into the ocean’s interior as dissolved, suspended and sinking particles to be mineralized and sequestered as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), sedimentary particulate organic carbon (POC) or “refractory” dissolved organic carbon (rDOC). Recently, the physical and biological mechanisms associated with the particle pumps have been revisited, suggesting that accepted fluxes might be severely underestimated (Boyd et al., 2019; Buesseler et al., 2020). Perhaps even more poorly understood are the mechanisms driving rDOC production and its potential accumulation in the ocean. On the basis of …


Nitrogen Fertilization Restructured Spatial Patterns Of Soil Organic Carbon And Total Nitrogen In Switchgrass And Gamagrass Croplands In Tennessee Usa, Jianwei Li, Siyang Jian, Chad S. Lane, Chunlan Guo, Yuehan Lu, Qi Deng, Melanie A. Mayes, Kudjo E. Dzantor, Dafeng Hui Jan 2020

Nitrogen Fertilization Restructured Spatial Patterns Of Soil Organic Carbon And Total Nitrogen In Switchgrass And Gamagrass Croplands In Tennessee Usa, Jianwei Li, Siyang Jian, Chad S. Lane, Chunlan Guo, Yuehan Lu, Qi Deng, Melanie A. Mayes, Kudjo E. Dzantor, Dafeng Hui

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

Nitrogen (N) fertilizers can potentially alter spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in croplands such as switchgrass (SG: Panicum virgatum L.) and gamagrass (GG: Tripsacum dactyloides L.), but it remains unclear whether these effects are the same between crops and under different rates of fertilization. 13C and 15N are two important proxy measures of soil biogeochemistry, but they were rarely examined as to their spatial distributions in soil. Based on a three-year long fertilization experiment in Middle Tennessee, USA, the top mineral horizon soils (0–15 cm) were collected using a spatially explicit design within …


Coupling Metaproteomics With Taxonomy To Determine Responses Of Bacterioplankton To Organic Perturbations In The Western Arctic Ocean, Molly P. Mikan Apr 2019

Coupling Metaproteomics With Taxonomy To Determine Responses Of Bacterioplankton To Organic Perturbations In The Western Arctic Ocean, Molly P. Mikan

OES Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how the functionality of marine microbial communities change over time and space, and which taxonomic groups dominate distinct metabolic pathways, are essential to understanding the ecology of these microbiomes and the factors contributing to their regulation of elemental cycles in the oceans. The primary goal of this dissertation was to investigate the community metabolic and taxonomic responses and the degradation potential of two compositionally distinct marine microbiomes within the shallow shelf ecosystem of the Chukchi Sea after rapid fluctuations in algal organic matter availability. Novel bioinformatics tools were collaboratively developed and used together with community proteomics (metaproteomics) to characterize …


Warming Deferentially Altered Multidimensional Soil Legacy Induced By Past Land Use History, Weiling Dong, Alin Song, Xueduan Liu, Bing Yu, Boren Wang, Yuqiu Lu, Yanling Li, Huaqun Yin, Jianwei Li, Fenliang Fan Jan 2018

Warming Deferentially Altered Multidimensional Soil Legacy Induced By Past Land Use History, Weiling Dong, Alin Song, Xueduan Liu, Bing Yu, Boren Wang, Yuqiu Lu, Yanling Li, Huaqun Yin, Jianwei Li, Fenliang Fan

Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Faculty Research

The legacy effects of previous land use and climate history may affect current soil function. However, the manner in which these legacy effects of land use are modulated by the subsequent climate remains unclear. For this reason, we investigated how the legacies of soil multiple functions left by conversion of grassland to agricultural management were mediated by climate warming with a reciprocal transplant approach. The overall legacy was further separated into the contributions by changes in the abiotic properties of the soil (abiotic process) and microbial community (biotic process). We here hypothesized that warming may mediate the legacy effects of …


Modeling PCo2 Variability In The Gulf Of Mexico, Zuo Xue, Ruoying He, Katja Fennel, Wei-Jun Cai, Steven Lohrenz, Wei-Jen Huang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Zhengchen Zang Aug 2016

Modeling PCo2 Variability In The Gulf Of Mexico, Zuo Xue, Ruoying He, Katja Fennel, Wei-Jun Cai, Steven Lohrenz, Wei-Jen Huang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Zhengchen Zang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

A three-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model was used to simulate and examine temporal and spatial variability of sea surface pCO2 in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The model was driven by realistic atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions from a data-assimilative global ocean circulation model, and observed freshwater and terrestrial nutrient and carbon input from major rivers. A 7-year model hindcast (2004–2010) was performed and validated against ship measurements. Model results revealed clear seasonality in surface pCO2 and were used to estimate carbon budgets in the Gulf. Based on the average of model simulations, the GoM was a …


Toward “Optimal” Integration Of Terrestrial Biosphere Models, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joshua B. Fisher, Anna M. Michalak, Kevin Bowman, Philippe Ciais, Robert Cook, Bassil El-Masri, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Anthony W. King, Hiumin Lei, Junjie Liu, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jaifu Mao, Shushi Peng, Benjamin Poulter, Daniel Ricciuto, Kevin Schaefer, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang, Ning Zeng Jun 2015

Toward “Optimal” Integration Of Terrestrial Biosphere Models, Christopher R. Schwalm, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Joshua B. Fisher, Anna M. Michalak, Kevin Bowman, Philippe Ciais, Robert Cook, Bassil El-Masri, Daniel Hayes, Maoyi Huang, Akihiko Ito, Atul Jain, Anthony W. King, Hiumin Lei, Junjie Liu, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Jaifu Mao, Shushi Peng, Benjamin Poulter, Daniel Ricciuto, Kevin Schaefer, Xiaoying Shi, Bo Tao, Hanqin Tian, Weile Wang, Yaxing Wei, Jia Yang, Ning Zeng

Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model-one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (−1.16 versus −1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change …