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2016

Earth Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 27, 2016, Brad Rippey Dec 2016

U.S. Drought Monitor, December 27, 2016, Brad Rippey

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for December 27, 2016 (12/27/16) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Watershed Modeling And Sediment Yield Prediction Of The Los Olmos Creek Watershed In South Texas, Rockford Miller, Jungseok Ho, Chu-Lin Cheng Dec 2016

Watershed Modeling And Sediment Yield Prediction Of The Los Olmos Creek Watershed In South Texas, Rockford Miller, Jungseok Ho, Chu-Lin Cheng

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Studying the sediment that accumulates in a stream is an important aspect in the study of water quality and resources. With respect to water quality, the main issue is the turbidity of the water. Increased losses of natural landscape increase the erosion process in turn raising the turbidity of the water and reducing the light that can penetrate to the water reducing the growth of aquatic life. With respect to water resources, sediment accumulates in the river ways, harbors, and in dams reducing the effectiveness of these resources. This study focused on determining the amount of sediment that is outputted ...


Lilliput Effect Dynamics Across The Cretaceous-Paleogene Mass Extinction: Approaches, Prevalence, And Mechanisms, Matthew Brett Jarrett Dec 2016

Lilliput Effect Dynamics Across The Cretaceous-Paleogene Mass Extinction: Approaches, Prevalence, And Mechanisms, Matthew Brett Jarrett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An organism's body size entails both physiological and ecological costs. Furthermore, as a parameter in analyzing organisms, it represents a fundamental and essential morphometric character. Reductions in size following mass extinction is a commonly observed phenomenon in the fossil record. This study examines the evolutionary significance of this phenomenon termed the: 'Lilliput Effect' by proposing that it represents a rapid evolutionary response to altered selection pressures during a mass extinction. This primary hypothesis is evaluated against two additional hypotheses of size reduction: 1) stunted growth as a response to stressed ecosystems, and/or 2) mass extinctions are size selective ...


The Impact Of Organic Farms: Biodiversity And Climate Change Resilience In The Southeast, Josie Newton Dec 2016

The Impact Of Organic Farms: Biodiversity And Climate Change Resilience In The Southeast, Josie Newton

Earth and Environmental Sciences Presentations

Resilience to climate change serves as an indicator of the effectiveness of organic farming practices. Resilience means that an area is able to return to a stable state after a disturbance. In this context, it means that the area is able to function regularly even in the face of climate change, an instance that affects species health and biodiversity. By mapping the locations of organic farms across the southeastern United States along with the resilience scores of areas as evaluated by The Nature Conservancy and comparing this map to farm locations and biodiversity measures, we are able to determine the ...


Habitat Quality Modeling For Bird Species At Furman University, Emma Cook Dec 2016

Habitat Quality Modeling For Bird Species At Furman University, Emma Cook

Earth and Environmental Sciences Presentations

In rapidly urbanizing areas, such as Greenville County in Upstate South Carolina, it is important to study habitat use and quality across land cover types in order to maximize conservation. Habitat fragmentation is a threat to many species of birds in areas with increasing development, especially those species that utilize larger forest patches for nesting and foraging. While land cover type and patch size are extremely important factors in determining habitat quality for birds, recent research has shown that the matrix of surrounding landscape proves to be very important as well. The landscape matrix, sometimes called landscape mosaic, considers the ...


Mapping The Impact Of Intensive Rotational Grazing On Soil Fertility Over Time On Greenbrier Farms In Pickens County, South Carolina, Emily Kirby Dec 2016

Mapping The Impact Of Intensive Rotational Grazing On Soil Fertility Over Time On Greenbrier Farms In Pickens County, South Carolina, Emily Kirby

Earth and Environmental Sciences Presentations

Intensive rotational grazing (IRG) is a management technique that involves a more intentional management approach which includes increased paddock numbers, shorter grazing periods, larger livestock presence per acre, and longer periods of rest on pastures. Potential advantages of this management technique include improved forage quality, greater yield, decreased erosion, stable production during adverse growing condition, and improved soil fertility. This study collects and analyzes data to understand the impact of rotational grazing on soil fertility as measured by SOC (soil organic carbon) and SON (soil organic nitrogen) on Greenbrier Farms in Easley, South Carolina. This study analyzes the transition from ...


Value Of Tissue Testing To Improve Phosphorus, Potassium, And Micronutrients Management For Corn And Soybean, Antonio P. Mallarino Dec 2016

Value Of Tissue Testing To Improve Phosphorus, Potassium, And Micronutrients Management For Corn And Soybean, Antonio P. Mallarino

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil testing is a useful and commonly used diagnostic tool for making phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization decisions. Soil testing for micronutrients also is useful, but its value is more uncertain because of more complex and less understood soil processes that affect their availability for crops.


Long-Term Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Soil, Yield And Economic Returns, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Sotirios Archontoulis Dec 2016

Long-Term Tillage And Crop Rotation Effects On Soil, Yield And Economic Returns, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, David Kwaw-Mensah, Sotirios Archontoulis

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) are major annual crops grown in yearly rotation in Iowa. The economic returns of both crops with different tillage systems and crop rotations are highly influenced by regional soil and climate conditions. This study was conducted at seven locations in Iowa from 2003 to 2013 with the objectives to: (i) investigate seasonal variability in corn and soybean yields as affected by tillage and crop rotation, (ii) identify appropriate tillage system for each crop rotation and location, and (iii) evaluate the magnitude of crop rotation effect on the yields and economic ...


Automated Soil Sampling Machines Provide Different Results Compared To Hand Sampling, Scott Nelson Dec 2016

Automated Soil Sampling Machines Provide Different Results Compared To Hand Sampling, Scott Nelson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil sampling to characterize levels of soil fertility is one of the foundations of profitable management. Soil fertility below optimum levels reduces yield potential, while soil fertility above optimum levels results in lost opportunity costs, profits and potential environmental degradation. In site specific fertility management, soil testing is especially important as it is the basis upon which variable rate prescriptions are written.


Annual Forage Cropping-Systems For Midwestern Ruminant Livestock Production, John Ernest Mcmillan Dec 2016

Annual Forage Cropping-Systems For Midwestern Ruminant Livestock Production, John Ernest Mcmillan

Open Access Dissertations

Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 and 112 kg ha-1 . The first set of crops were C4 summer annuals seeded within two weeks of wheat grain harvest and included, brown mid-rib (BMR ...


Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann Dec 2016

Modern Fair-Weather And Storm Sediment Transport Around Ship Island, Mississippi: Implications For Coastal Habitats And Restoration Efforts, Eve Rettew Eisemann

Master's Theses

The Mississippi – Alabama barrier island chain is experiencing accelerated sea level rise, decreased sediment supply, and frequent hurricane impacts. These three factors drive unprecedented rates of morphology change and ecosystem reduction. All islands in the chain have experienced land loss on the order of hectares per year since records began in the 1840s. In 1969, Hurricane Camille impacted as a Category 5, breaching Ship Island, and significantly reduced viable seagrass habitat. Hurricane Katrina impacted as a Category 3 in 2005, further widening Camille Cut. To better understand the sustainability of these important islands and the ecosystems they support, sediment transport ...


Residual Effects Of Nitrogen Fertilization On Soil Nitrogen Pools And Corn Growth, Meghan E. Moser Dec 2016

Residual Effects Of Nitrogen Fertilization On Soil Nitrogen Pools And Corn Growth, Meghan E. Moser

Open Access Theses

Given the dynamic nature of soil nitrogen (N), inorganic N fertilization to corn (Zea mays L.) has potential to alter N pool balance by creating an accumulation or depletion of soil N. Current corn N recommendations in the common corn-soybean rotation of Indiana strive to find the best N rate that maximizes producer profit. Increasing our understanding of soil N will inform producers if they should adjust fertilizer rates for corn to influence maintenance of organic N and Carbon. Our objective was to determine residual N effects from fertilized corn in a corn-soybean rotation by measuring (1) soil N pools ...


How Do Designers Of The Built Environment Attempt To Make Ecological Sustainability Sensory Legible?, Carly L. Bartow Dec 2016

How Do Designers Of The Built Environment Attempt To Make Ecological Sustainability Sensory Legible?, Carly L. Bartow

Architecture Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework for making ecosystem function and ecologically sustainable design more perceptible or sensible to people through architecture and the built environment. Design features of the Bertschi School Science Wing and the Bullitt Center in Seattle, Washington are incorporated to illustrate the sensory legibility of ecological sustainability criteria.The criteria are available to designers to help educate a building's occupants on environmentally sustainable design and motivate more sustainable behavior.


Soil And Plant Property Differences Among High-Yield Soybean Areas In Arkansas, Taylor Cass Adams Dec 2016

Soil And Plant Property Differences Among High-Yield Soybean Areas In Arkansas, Taylor Cass Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Continued achievement of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields greater than 6719 kg ha-1 (100 bu ac-1) will depend on decreasing the yield gap, which is contingent on gathering more information regarding the soil physical, chemical, and microbiological environment and the main plant factors contributing to high-yield soybean. Therefore, understanding the main factor differences between high- and average-yield areas may provide insight for making management decisions to increase yields. The objectives of this study were i) to evaluate the effects of region and soil depth on soil property differences between high- and average-soybean-yielding areas, ii) to determine which soil properties ...


Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations And The Vegetation Of Prairie Potholes: Potential Impacts Of Climate Change, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, David M. Mushet Dec 2016

Interannual Water-Level Fluctuations And The Vegetation Of Prairie Potholes: Potential Impacts Of Climate Change, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, David M. Mushet

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive ...


Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti Dec 2016

Liming Characteristics Of A High-Calcium, Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Product And Its Effects On Runoff Water Quality, Jason Richard Burgess-Conforti

Theses and Dissertations

In 2013, only 37% of the 32 million Mg of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products generated in the United States were reused beneficially. If FGD by-products could be used as a beneficial soil amendment, millions of megagrams may be diverted away from surface impoundments and landfills. The purpose of this research was to identify the liming characteristics of a high-Ca dry FGD (DFGD) by-product in comparison to a Class-C fly ash (FA) and reagent-grade CaCO3, and to evaluate the effects of land application to a managed grassland on runoff, plant, and soil quality. Liming characteristics were determined by measuring the ...


Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys Dec 2016

Cover Crop Establishment And Potential Benefits To Arkansas Farmers, Ashley Elizabeth Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean farmers in Arkansas need best management practices (BMPs) that maximize the benefits of using cover crops including planting date and fertilization recommendations. An evaluation of cover crop species, planting dates, seeding rates, fertilizer rates, and N accumulation aids in providing these BMPs. The first objective of this research is to assess the effect of planting date on biomass production, as well as looking at the interaction of seeding rate or fertilizer rate for legumes or non-legumes, respectively, using Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum), cereal rye (Secale cereale), black oats (Avena strigosa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tillage radish (Raphanus sativus ...


Pretreatment For Removal Of Organic Material Is Not Necessary For X-Ray-Diffraction Determination Of Mineralogy In Temperate Skeletal Carbonate, Abigail M. Smith, Marcus M. Key, Jr., Zoe E. Henderson, V. Christine Davis, David J. Winter Dec 2016

Pretreatment For Removal Of Organic Material Is Not Necessary For X-Ray-Diffraction Determination Of Mineralogy In Temperate Skeletal Carbonate, Abigail M. Smith, Marcus M. Key, Jr., Zoe E. Henderson, V. Christine Davis, David J. Winter

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Quantifying the effects of ocean acidification requires understanding the skeletal carbonate mineralogy in living marine organisms. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) is the simplest and most commonly used technique for determining this. Samples being analyzed by XRD are typically pretreated to remove organic material prior to grinding to a crystallite powder. This pretreatment was traditionally performed as organic material may obscure the mineral peaks on XRD traces. This study compared controls with no pretreatment with the most common pretreatment methods: roasting, immersion in chlorine bleach, and immersion in hydrogen peroxide. The latter two methods were performed at two strengths and two durations ...


The Relationship Between Lead In Groundwater And Elementary School Students' Academic Performance In Missouri, Lynnette Xiangling Li Dec 2016

The Relationship Between Lead In Groundwater And Elementary School Students' Academic Performance In Missouri, Lynnette Xiangling Li

MSU Graduate Theses

Lead exposure can come from various sources, e.g., lead mines, industrial areas, and lead based paint. Missouri has more than 4,128 lead mines. Lead is a neurotoxin. The objectives of the study were to investigate i) the spatial relationship between lead mines and lead distribution in groundwater, ii) the statistical impact of lead in groundwater on students' Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) scores, and iii) the geographic variations of lead's impact on students' MAP scores. Geographic Information Science spatial analysis tools were used to analyze the concentration of lead in groundwater within school districts in Missouri. Regression analysis ...


Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, Ryan Dupont, Joan E. Mclean, Richard C. Peralta, Sarah E. Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith Nov 2016

Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, Ryan Dupont, Joan E. Mclean, Richard C. Peralta, Sarah E. Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

The aims of the original proposed project remain the same, that is, to test the hypothesis that Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for stormwater harvesting is a technically feasible, socially and environmentally acceptable, economically viable, and permittable option for developing new water supplies for arid Western urban ecosystems experiencing increasing population, and climate change pressures on existing water resources. The project is being carried out via three distinct but integrated components that include: 1) Monitoring of existing distributed Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) harvesting schemes involving a growing number of demonstration Green Infrastructure (GI) test sites; 2) Integrated stormwater/vadose zone/groundwater ...


Adjustment And Optimization Of The Cropping Systems Under Water Constraint, Pingli An, Wei Ren, Xiliin Liu, Mengmei Song, Xuemin Li Nov 2016

Adjustment And Optimization Of The Cropping Systems Under Water Constraint, Pingli An, Wei Ren, Xiliin Liu, Mengmei Song, Xuemin Li

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of ...


Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell Nov 2016

Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell

Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources

Prescribed burning is used in West Virginia, USA to return the important disturbance process of fire to oak and oak-pine forests. Species composition and structure are often the main goals for re-establishing fire with less emphasis on fuel reduction or reducing catastrophic wildfire. In planning prescribed fires land managers could benefit from the ability to predict mortality to overstory trees. In this study, wildfires and prescribed fires in West Virginia were examined to determine if specific landscape and terrain characteristics were associated with patches of high/moderate post-fire change. Using the ensemble machine learning approach of Random Forest, we determined ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, November 22, 2016, Richard R. Heim Jr. Nov 2016

U.S. Drought Monitor, November 22, 2016, Richard R. Heim Jr.

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for November 22, 2016 (11/22/16) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


U.S. Drought Monitor, November 15, 2016, Richard R. Heim Jr. Nov 2016

U.S. Drought Monitor, November 15, 2016, Richard R. Heim Jr.

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for November 15, 2016 (11/15/16) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


U.S. Drought Monitor, November 8, 2016, Deborah J. Bathke Nov 2016

U.S. Drought Monitor, November 8, 2016, Deborah J. Bathke

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for November 8, 2016 (11/8/16) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Adsorptive And Kinetic Characterization Of Aqueous Zinc Removal By Biochars, Sergio Mireles, Yongsik Ok, Chu-Lin Cheng, Jihoon Kang Nov 2016

Adsorptive And Kinetic Characterization Of Aqueous Zinc Removal By Biochars, Sergio Mireles, Yongsik Ok, Chu-Lin Cheng, Jihoon Kang

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Biochars have shown a great potential to treat stormwater runoff contaminated with heavy metals due to their favorable physical and chemical characteristics. Biochar materials were produced from pyrolysis of oak tree and wood at 400C and 450C respectively, and their Zn adsorption behavior from aqueous solutions were evaluated to assess their applicability as a filter media for stormwater treatment. Two adsorption isotherm models, Freundlich and Langmuir, were used to fit the batch-scale experimental data. The kinetics of Zn adsorption was investigated under two contrasting physical condition (stagnant vs. agitated). The adsorption isotherm was better fitted with the Langmuir ...


Whiting Events Off Southwest Florida: Remote Sensing And Field Observations, Jacqueline Long Nov 2016

Whiting Events Off Southwest Florida: Remote Sensing And Field Observations, Jacqueline Long

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

“Whiting” is a term used to describe a sharply defined patch of water that contains high levels of suspended, fine-grained calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These features are named for their bright (at times white) appearance when compared to surrounding waters, and have been found to occur globally, persisting for multiple consecutive days. Although whitings have been widely studied using chemical, biological, geological, and physical techniques, there has been little effort to document their spatio-temporal distributions in a systematic way, not to mention the lack of consensus on what generates whitings and allows them to persist for days to weeks at ...


U.S. Drought Monitor, November 1, 2016, Deborah J. Bathke Nov 2016

U.S. Drought Monitor, November 1, 2016, Deborah J. Bathke

US Ag in Drought Archive

Drought map of U.S. for November 1, 2016 (11/1/16) plus: U.S. crop areas experiencing drought (map), Approximate percentage of crop located in drought, by state (bar graph), Percent of crop area located in drought, past 52 weeks (line graph) for: Corn, Soybeans, Hay, Cattle, Winter wheat.


Identifying Groundwater - Dependent Wetlands Of The Broome Sandstone Aquifer In The La Grange Groundwater Area, Nicholas Wright, Richard J. George Dr, Robert Paul, Paul Raper Nov 2016

Identifying Groundwater - Dependent Wetlands Of The Broome Sandstone Aquifer In The La Grange Groundwater Area, Nicholas Wright, Richard J. George Dr, Robert Paul, Paul Raper

Resource management technical reports

This report identifies wetlands that are likely to be dependent on the Broome Sandstone aquifer within the La Grange groundwater allocation area. The Broome Sandstone aquifer is the dominant groundwater resource in the area. With potential agricultural growth of this area, it is necessary to understand, monitor and manage the aquifer and its dependent wetlands. This report describes how we created a watertable surface that was used to identify wetlands and to determine which of the previously mapped wetlands are likely to be sourced from the Broome Sandstone aquifer. A watertable surface was created from 148 points taken from bore ...


Identifying Soil Constraints That Limit Wheat Yield In The South-West Of Western Australia, Dennis Van Gool Nov 2016

Identifying Soil Constraints That Limit Wheat Yield In The South-West Of Western Australia, Dennis Van Gool

Resource management technical reports

This is a novel approach using regional-scale information. The analysis estimated that:

  • most of the wheat-growing land in south-west WA has one or more soil constraints
  • about 1.6 million hectares (9% of the total area) are not suitable for cropping
  • about 2.2 million hectares (12% of the total area) are suitable for cropping but are subject to many (more than 3) constraints; soil amelioration is unlikely to significantly improve profitable yield gain
  • subsurface acidity extends over 12.6 million hectares (about 70% of the total area); about 7.6 million hectares of that area (42% of the total ...