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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Selection Of Efficient Taq Dna Polymerase To Optimize T-Dna Genotyping Method For Rapid Detection Of Mutant Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants, Inna B. Chastukhina, Liliia R. Nigmatullina, Lia R. Valeeva, Eugene V. Shakirov Dec 2016

Selection Of Efficient Taq Dna Polymerase To Optimize T-Dna Genotyping Method For Rapid Detection Of Mutant Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants, Inna B. Chastukhina, Liliia R. Nigmatullina, Lia R. Valeeva, Eugene V. Shakirov

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Plants harbor homologues of various animal genes involved in phosphorus metabolism, telomere biology and other cellular processes. Compared to experiments with many other multicellular organisms, research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana takes advantage of short generation time and an ever increasing arsenal of genetic and transgenic tools, including large collections of T-DNA knockout and activation lines. The availability of thousands of publicly available transgenic Arabidopsis lines provides a unique opportunity to address a number of important biological questions. However, identification of individual T-DNA mutant plants from a pool of seeds provided by a biological stock distribution center remains a ...


Drought Responsive Gene Expression Regulatory Divergence Between Upland And Lowland Ecotypes Of A Perennial C4 Grass, John T. Lovell, Scott Schwartz, David B. Lowry, Eugene V. Shakirov, Jason E. Bonnette, Xiaoyu Weng, Mei Wang, Jenifer Johnson, Avinash Sreedasyam, Christopher Plott, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Thomas E. Juenger Mar 2016

Drought Responsive Gene Expression Regulatory Divergence Between Upland And Lowland Ecotypes Of A Perennial C4 Grass, John T. Lovell, Scott Schwartz, David B. Lowry, Eugene V. Shakirov, Jason E. Bonnette, Xiaoyu Weng, Mei Wang, Jenifer Johnson, Avinash Sreedasyam, Christopher Plott, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Thomas E. Juenger

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Climatic adaptation is an example of a genotype-by-environment interaction (G×E) of fitness. Selection upon gene expression regulatory variation can contribute to adaptive phenotypic diversity; however, surprisingly few studies have examined how genome-wide patterns of gene expression G×E are manifested in response to environmental stress and other selective agents that cause climatic adaptation. Here, we characterize drought-responsive expression divergence between upland (drought-adapted) and lowland (mesic) ecotypes of the perennial C4 grass, Panicum hallii, in natural field conditions. Overall, we find that cis-regulatory elements contributed to gene expression divergence across 47% of genes, 7.2% of which exhibit ...


Evaluating Potential Plant Hormone Cross Talk Between Auxin And Ethylene In Arabidopsis, Mia Lynne Brown Jan 2015

Evaluating Potential Plant Hormone Cross Talk Between Auxin And Ethylene In Arabidopsis, Mia Lynne Brown

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Auxin is the primary hormone responsible for plant growth and development. Regulation of auxin-response genes occurs through transcriptional activators (auxin response factors called ARFs) which bind to auxin response elements (AuxREs). Some auxin-responsive genes encode aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) enzymes which regulate the production of the plant hormone ethylene. The major research objective was to evaluate transcriptional cross talk between auxin and ethylene. Both AuxREs and ethylene response elements were found in several ACS and ARF genes, suggesting cross talk between the two hormones at the transcriptional level. Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in ARF7 and containing a ...


Nitrogen Deposition Contributes To Soil Acidification In Tropical Ecosystems, Xiankai Lu, Qinggong Mao, Frank S. Gilliam, Yiqi Luo, Jiangming Mo Jun 2014

Nitrogen Deposition Contributes To Soil Acidification In Tropical Ecosystems, Xiankai Lu, Qinggong Mao, Frank S. Gilliam, Yiqi Luo, Jiangming Mo

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has greatly altered terrestrial ecosystem functioning, threatening ecosystem health via acidification and eutrophication in temperate and boreal forests across the northern hemisphere. However, response of forest soil acidification to N deposition has been less studied in humid tropics compared to other forest types. This study was designed to explore impacts of long-term N deposition on soil acidification processes in tropical forests. We have established a long-term N deposition experiment in an N-rich lowland tropical forest of Southern China since 2002 with N addition as NH4NO3 of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ...


Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen Sep 2013

Microclimate Moderates Plant Responses To Macroclimate Warming, Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Anthony Coomes, Lander Baeten, Gorik Verstraeten, Mark Vellend, Markus Bernhardt-Römermann, Carissa D. Brownd, Jörg Brunet, Johnny Cornelis, Guillaume M. Decocq, Hartmut Dierschke, Ove Eriksson, Frank S. Gilliam, Radim Hédl, Thilo Heinken, Martin Hermy, Patrick Hommel, Michael A. Jenkins, Daniel L. Kelly, Keith J. Kirby, Fraser J. G. Mitchell, Tobias Naaf, Miles Newman, George Peterken, Petr Petrík, Jan Schultz, Grégory Sonnier, Hans Van Calster, Donald M. Waller, Gian-Reto Walther, Peter S. White, Kerry D. Woods, Monika Wulf, Bente Jessen Graae, Kris Verheyen

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., “thermophilization” of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that “climatic lags” may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over ...


Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies To Communicate Concepts In Plant Biology, Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello Phd May 2013

Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies To Communicate Concepts In Plant Biology, Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello Phd

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Why do students think plants are “boring”? One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their) time. This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology. Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.

The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting to movies. The technology for making time-lapse movies is now easily attainable and fairly inexpensive, allowing its use for skill levels from grade school through college undergraduates ...


Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Empirical Nitrogen Critical Loads For Ecoregions Of The United States, Linda H. Pardo, Mark E. Fenn, Christine L. Goodale, Linda H. Geiser, Charles T. Driscoll, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara L. Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers, Robin L. Dennis Dec 2011

Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Empirical Nitrogen Critical Loads For Ecoregions Of The United States, Linda H. Pardo, Mark E. Fenn, Christine L. Goodale, Linda H. Geiser, Charles T. Driscoll, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara L. Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers, Robin L. Dennis

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize ...


Synthesis, Linda H. Pardo, Linda H. Geiser, Mark E. Fenn, Charles T. Driscoll, Christine L. Goodale, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers Jan 2011

Synthesis, Linda H. Pardo, Linda H. Geiser, Mark E. Fenn, Charles T. Driscoll, Christine L. Goodale, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the level of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the critical loads approach. The critical load is dei ned as the level of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effect occurs over the long term according to present knowledge.

The objective of this project was to synthesize ...


Effects Of Experimental Nitrogen Additions On Plant Diversity In An Old-Growth Tropical Forest, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo, Frank S. Gilliam, Guoyi Zhou, Yunting Fang Oct 2010

Effects Of Experimental Nitrogen Additions On Plant Diversity In An Old-Growth Tropical Forest, Xiankai Lu, Jiangming Mo, Frank S. Gilliam, Guoyi Zhou, Yunting Fang

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Response of plant biodiversity to increased availability of nitrogen (N) has been investigated in temperate and boreal forests, which are typically N-limited, but little is known in tropical forests. We examined the effects of artificial N additions on plant diversity (species richness, density and cover) of the understory layer in an N saturated old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypothesis: N additions decrease plant diversity in N saturated tropical forests primarily from N-mediated changes in soil properties. Experimental additions of N were administered at the following levels from July 2003 to July 2008: no addition (Control ...


Global Assessment Of Nitrogen Deposition Effects On Terrestrial Plant Diversity : A Synthesis, R. Bobbink, K. Hicks, J. Galloway, T. Spranger, R. Alkemade, M. Ashmore, M. Bustamante, S. Cinderby, E. Davidson, F. Dentener, B. Emmett, J. W. Erisman, M. Fenn, Frank S. Gilliam, A. Nordin, L. Pardo, W. Devries Jan 2010

Global Assessment Of Nitrogen Deposition Effects On Terrestrial Plant Diversity : A Synthesis, R. Bobbink, K. Hicks, J. Galloway, T. Spranger, R. Alkemade, M. Ashmore, M. Bustamante, S. Cinderby, E. Davidson, F. Dentener, B. Emmett, J. W. Erisman, M. Fenn, Frank S. Gilliam, A. Nordin, L. Pardo, W. Devries

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a recognized threat to plant diversity in temperate and northern parts of Europe and North America. This paper assesses evidence from field experiments for N deposition effects and thresholds for terrestrial plant diversity protection across a latitudinal range of main categories of ecosystems, from arctic and boreal systems to tropical forests. Current thinking on the mechanisms of N deposition effects on plant diversity, the global distribution of G200 ecoregions, and current and future (2030) estimates of atmospheric N-deposition rates are then used to identify the risks to plant diversity in all major ecosystem types now ...


A Two-Year Seasonal Analysis Of Wetland Vegetation At The Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area In Mason County, West Virginia, Anne Carrington Blankenship Jan 2005

A Two-Year Seasonal Analysis Of Wetland Vegetation At The Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area In Mason County, West Virginia, Anne Carrington Blankenship

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Disturbances play a key role in the structure of ecosystems. Most ecosystems are subject to several different disturbance regimes that occur at different temporal and spatial scales. Studying the effects of disturbances can lead to a better understanding of a vegetative community’s future productivity. However, in order to understand the effects of disturbance, a vegetative community should first be studied before the disturbance occurs. This study analyzes the composition and seasonal variations of vegetative communities in and around four ponds at the McClintic Wildlife Management Area in Mason County, West Virginia during two growing seasons prior to remediation activities ...


Effects Of Excessive Nitrogen Deposition On Foliar Nutrient Dynamics, Nutrient Concentrations, And Nutrient Ratios In A Central Appalachian Hardwood Forest, Sarah Beth Burdette Jan 2002

Effects Of Excessive Nitrogen Deposition On Foliar Nutrient Dynamics, Nutrient Concentrations, And Nutrient Ratios In A Central Appalachian Hardwood Forest, Sarah Beth Burdette

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Many forested systems of the eastern US are becoming significantly nitrogen (N) saturated due to chronic N deposition from the atmosphere. Nitrogen saturation has the potential to alter important internal plant processes, such as nutrient cycling. While extensive research has been conducted on the responses of soil to N saturation, considerably less research has focused on the response of plant nutrient dynamics, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient ratios to excess N. Research was conducted on two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia: WS3 (fertilized with ammonium sulfate annually since 1989) and WS7 (untreated control). Presenescent and senesced leaves ...


A Vegetation Analysis Of Plant Communities In And Around Selected Holding Ponds At Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area, Mason County, West Virginia, Russell Bowman Shrader Jan 1999

A Vegetation Analysis Of Plant Communities In And Around Selected Holding Ponds At Mcclintic Wildlife Management Area, Mason County, West Virginia, Russell Bowman Shrader

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

This study was conducted as an analysis of vegetation in and around four ponds at McClintic Wildlife Management Area (MWMA), located in Mason County, West Virginia. The MWMA is the former West Virginia Ordnance Works (WVOW), having served as a trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing site from 1941-1946. Such history presents the area with unique conditions resulting in diverse types and amounts of plants, since any type of forest disturbance, regardless of cause, alters ecosystem functions. This project was originally designed as part of a groundwater pump-and-treat plan for MWMA, where potential impacts of groundwater removal to ponds and the associated plant ...


Morphometric Analysis And Comparisons Of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles Of The Scutellaria Ovata Hill (Lamiaceae) Complex In West Virginia, Virginia And Ohio With Emphasis On Shale Barren Taxa, Eric W. Ewing Jan 1996

Morphometric Analysis And Comparisons Of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles Of The Scutellaria Ovata Hill (Lamiaceae) Complex In West Virginia, Virginia And Ohio With Emphasis On Shale Barren Taxa, Eric W. Ewing

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Elements of the Scutellaria ovata complex in the eastern United States are reported to include S. ovata var. pseudoarguta, S. ovata var. rugosa, S. ovata var. virginiana and S. ovata ssp. ovata. All but S. ovata ssp. ovata occur in the shale barren habitat of eastern West Virginia and western Virginia. S. ovata var. pseudoarguta has been proposed as a threatened element in North America. A morphometric study of specimens collected in West Virginia, Virginia and Ohio was undertaken to determine which characters are most useful in separating taxa in the complex. Nineteen characters were assessed from 104 herbarium specimens ...


Flora And Vegetation Of The Meadow River Wetlands, Greenbrier County, West Virginia, Alan Edward Brant Jan 1988

Flora And Vegetation Of The Meadow River Wetlands, Greenbrier County, West Virginia, Alan Edward Brant

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The Meadow River wetlands comprise the second largest wetland complex within the state of West Virginia, containing approximately 3131 acres (1392 ha) of swamp and wet meadow (Evans et al. 1982). Plant collecting within this complex as determined by available literature and herbarium specimens has been limited in the past and apparently dealt only with the wetlands near the head of Otter Creek. Grafton et al. (1982) conducted walk-through surveys in conjunction with a statewide wetland survey and the West Virginia Department of Highways performed a rather detailed vegetation analysis in the same area as part of an environmental impact ...


Flora And Vegetation Of Five Natural Wetlands In The Kanawha And Ohio River Floodplains, Southwestern West Virginia, Bernadine Phillips Brumfield Jan 1982

Flora And Vegetation Of Five Natural Wetlands In The Kanawha And Ohio River Floodplains, Southwestern West Virginia, Bernadine Phillips Brumfield

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Flora and vegetation were studied in five natural wetlands along the Kanawha and Ohio Rivers, southwestern West Virginia. Vegetation was analysed using a stratified-ran­dom approach with nested quadrats along line transects. The abundance of dead trees suggests an overall increase in water level with time. One to three canopy species comprise 75 percent of the Basal Area at all five sites. Acer rubrum and Quercus palustris are the dominant species at the Winfield East, Winfield West and Pt. Pleasant sites. Salix nigra is the dominant species at McCausland Run site and Acer saccharinum is dominant at the Guyan Creek ...


The Effects Of Periodic Inundation On Corticolous Lichens Along Big Seven Mile Creek, Cabell County, West Virginia, Stephen Leslie Beckelhimer Jan 1982

The Effects Of Periodic Inundation On Corticolous Lichens Along Big Seven Mile Creek, Cabell County, West Virginia, Stephen Leslie Beckelhimer

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The distribution of corticolous lichens was studied along Big Seven Mile Creek, a tributary of the Ohio River using step-wise discriminant analysis. The populations appear to respond to complex interacting gradients of humidity, periodic inundation and the abrasive action of water transported debris. Hacroepiphytic coverage and species richness increased with height of the tree bole. Of all species observed, Arthonia caesia (Flot.)Korb and Physcia acinulata Mul. Arg. possess­ed the highest tolerance to periodic inundation. In addition, these species were found to have the highest resistance to scouring by water-borne debris. Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) B. Stein, Parmelia hypotropa Nyl ...