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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him)'S Merciful Reforms In The Conduct Of War: The Prohibited Acts, Muhammad Munir Dr. Dec 2010

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him)'S Merciful Reforms In The Conduct Of War: The Prohibited Acts, Muhammad Munir Dr.

Dr. Muhammad Munir

This paper argues that Islam introduced far reaching reforms to warfare; that the conduct of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his successors does not to allow the burning and drowning of enemy to death. Destroying buildings, cutting down trees, committing perfidy, breaching the trust of the enemy, the killing of women, children, servants, old, infirm, sick, wounded, priests, peasants, prisoners of warand envoys is strictly against the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) or his successors. The destruction of harvest, livestock and forests, looting, plundering and corruption from the war booty and indiscipline are prohibited as ...


Autonomy In Setting Appropriate Level Of Protection Under The Wto Law: Rhetoric Or Reality?, Michael Ming Du Dec 2010

Autonomy In Setting Appropriate Level Of Protection Under The Wto Law: Rhetoric Or Reality?, Michael Ming Du

Michael Ming Du

In the World Trade Organization (WTO) jurisprudence, the Appellate Body (AB) has repeatedly affirmed that WTO Members have the prerogative right in setting any level of protection that they deem appropriate (ALOP). At the same time, WTO Agreements provide for disciplines that a WTO Member must respect when it selects regulatory measures to fulfill its ALOP. Thus, a WTO Member’s autonomy in setting its ALOP, on the one hand, and the full force of other disciplines, on the other hand, are in a constant state of tension. Then, exactly how does a panel balance a Member’s right of ...


Hiv And Aids In Africa: Compulsory Licensing Under Trips And Doha Declaration, Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire Dec 2010

Hiv And Aids In Africa: Compulsory Licensing Under Trips And Doha Declaration, Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire

Ufuoma Barbara Akpotaire

In today’s world, there is a lot of focus on issues such as militancy, global warming, terrorism, racism and even politics. Unfortunately, there is a problem that has killed and is still killing far more people than any of the above issues. That problem is HIV/AIDS.

AIDS is a serious medical condition that predisposes patients towards opportunistic infecting tumors, dementia and death. HIV is the viral agent associated with AIDS. Africa is without doubt more heavily affected by HIV/AIDS than any other region of the world. Although Nigeria’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is still relatively low ...


Law And Finance: A Theoretical Perspective, Tamara Lothian Dec 2010

Law And Finance: A Theoretical Perspective, Tamara Lothian

Tamara Lothian

No abstract provided.


After The Crisis: Institutional Innovation And The Alternative Futures Of American Finance, Tamara Lothian Dec 2010

After The Crisis: Institutional Innovation And The Alternative Futures Of American Finance, Tamara Lothian

Tamara Lothian

No abstract provided.


Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: The 2010 Report By The Un Special Representative On Business And Human Rights, Jernej Letnar Cernic Nov 2010

Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: The 2010 Report By The Un Special Representative On Business And Human Rights, Jernej Letnar Cernic

Jernej Letnar Černič

The relationship between human rights law and business has emerged in recent years as one of the most topical to be discussed and put on the agenda almost worldwide. The activities of corporations in this globalized environment have often served as the catalyst for human rights violations; due to the lack of institutional protection, some corporations are able to exploit regulatory lacunae and the lack of human rights protection. On 9 April 2010 Professor John Ruggie, the United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary General on human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, submitted his fifth Report under ...


Studying Japanese Law Because It's There, Tom Ginsburg Nov 2010

Studying Japanese Law Because It's There, Tom Ginsburg

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


Resolving Incompatibilities Of Bilateral Investment Treaties Of The Eu Member States With The Ec Treaty: Individual And Collective Options, Ahmad Ali Ghouri Nov 2010

Resolving Incompatibilities Of Bilateral Investment Treaties Of The Eu Member States With The Ec Treaty: Individual And Collective Options, Ahmad Ali Ghouri

Ahmad Ali Ghouri

Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) concluded by the EU Member States contain substantially similar clauses, including free movement of capital and investor-to-state dispute resolution. Article 307 EC provides for the primacy of pre-accession treaties over the EC Treaty and simultaneously requires the Member States to eliminate their mutual incompatibilities. The European Court of Justice has declared that free movement of capital clauses of Austrian and Swedish pre-accession extra-EU BITs are incompatible with the EC Treaty as they will impede any restrictions on the movement of capital imposed as future Community legislation. A similar ‘free movement of capital’ clause is present in ...


Uso Social Del Suelo Ejidal Y Comunal Para El Desarrollo Equilibrado De Las Áreas Urbanas Del Estado De Puebla, Bruno L. Costantini García Nov 2010

Uso Social Del Suelo Ejidal Y Comunal Para El Desarrollo Equilibrado De Las Áreas Urbanas Del Estado De Puebla, Bruno L. Costantini García

Bruno L. Costantini García

De origen, difundir los diversos esquemas permitidos por la Ley para posibilitar la realización de proyectos con fines inmobiliarios, a efecto de que los núcleos agrarios y sus integrantes se beneficien equitativamente de la urbanización de sus tierras, coadyuvando con ello al desarrollo urbano planificado y ordenado de los centros de población del Estado de Puebla; como consecuencia, impulsar el desarrollo habitacional equilibrado de éste. Eliminar el circulo.- “necesidad de tierra – asentamiento irregular – solución de conflicto”, mediante la planeación socioeconómico de los núcleos agrarios ejidales y comunales, a fin de diseñar un mecanismo eficaz que satisfaga las necesidades de los ...


Extreme Measures: Does The United States Need Preventive Detention To Combat Domestic Terrorism?, Diane Webber Nov 2010

Extreme Measures: Does The United States Need Preventive Detention To Combat Domestic Terrorism?, Diane Webber

Diane Webber

The paper examines current methods of preventive detention in the United States, that is the detaining of a suspect on home soil to prevent a terrorist attack. This paper looks at two recent events: the Fort Hood shootings and a preventive arrest in France, to consider problems in combating terrorist crimes on U.S. soil. I demonstrate that U.S. law as it now stands, with some limited exceptions, does not permit detention to forestall an anticipated domestic terrorist crime. After reviewing and evaluating the way in which France, Israel and the United Kingdom use forms of preventive detention to ...


The Right To An Effective Remedy For Victims Of Trafficking In Persons: A Survey Of International Law And Policy, Anne T. Gallagher Nov 2010

The Right To An Effective Remedy For Victims Of Trafficking In Persons: A Survey Of International Law And Policy, Anne T. Gallagher

Anne T Gallagher

Remedies are a critical aspect of the international legal response to trafficking, confirming the status of trafficked persons as victims of crime and victims of human rights abuse. Over the past decade, States and the international community have come to better understand the true consequences of trafficking – an essential prerequisite to consensus on what constitutes ‘effective” and “appropriate’ remedies for trafficking-related harm. There have also been great improvements in the articulation and acceptance of legal obligations owed by States to prevent and respond to such harm. Unfortunately, and despite this important progress, victims of trafficking very rarely receive the justice ...


Introductory Note To The Extraordinary Chambers Of The Courts Of Cambodia: Decision On The Appeals Against The Co-Investigative Judges Order On Joint Criminal Enterprise (Jce), Benjamin E. Brockman-Hawe Nov 2010

Introductory Note To The Extraordinary Chambers Of The Courts Of Cambodia: Decision On The Appeals Against The Co-Investigative Judges Order On Joint Criminal Enterprise (Jce), Benjamin E. Brockman-Hawe

Benjamin E. Brockman-Hawe

No abstract provided.


Healthcare In Cuba, Carmen M. Cusack J.D. Oct 2010

Healthcare In Cuba, Carmen M. Cusack J.D.

Carmen M Cusack

Poor Americans who lack health-insurance or have little opportunity to access specialized or non-emergency medical treatment in the U.S. should be permitted by the U.S. State Department to spend money in Cuba in order to receive inexpensive medical treatment, and should be allowed to stay (and spend) in Cuba as long as necessary in order to receive inexpensive medical treatment. If Americans were permitted by an exception in the Helms-Burton Act to spend money in Cuba and visit for medical purposes, then Cuba would likely treat these Americans for a very low cost. This can be argued because ...


The Right To Food And Buyer Power, Aravind Ganesh Oct 2010

The Right To Food And Buyer Power, Aravind Ganesh

Aravind Ganesh

Modern global food supply chains are characterised by extreme levels of concentration in the middle of those chains. This paper argues that such concentration leads to excessive buyer power, which harms the consumers and food producers at the ends of the supply chains. This paper argues that the harms suffered by farmers are serious enough as to constitute violations of the international human right to food as it is expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Political Rights, and further argues that world competition law regimes cannot ignore these human rights ...


Will The Patent Act Survive 2110?, Severin De Wit Oct 2010

Will The Patent Act Survive 2110?, Severin De Wit

Severin de Wit

No abstract provided.


Ley Antimonopolios: Pros Y Contras, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez Oct 2010

Ley Antimonopolios: Pros Y Contras, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

No abstract provided.


The Case Ebay Inc. Vs. Mercexchange Llc, It's Impact On Npes And Patent Enforcement, Severin De Wit Oct 2010

The Case Ebay Inc. Vs. Mercexchange Llc, It's Impact On Npes And Patent Enforcement, Severin De Wit

Severin de Wit

The article describes the impact of US court decision eBay vs. MercExchange on patent injunctions, seen from a European perspective. It deals with European equivalents of injunctive relief. Debates about Patent Reform have a tendency to evolve also around the issue of patent trolls and whether they constitute a threat to the patent system or to innovation (or both). As patent trolls produce no goods, nor do they "practice" the patented invention themselves, trolls have been labeled a "threat" to operating companies. Authors defends that NPEs have gone through considerable effort to locate and acquire patents that remain undervalued, unused ...


Just Laws Versus Unjust Laws: Asserting The Morality Of Civil Disobedience, Amin George Forji Sep 2010

Just Laws Versus Unjust Laws: Asserting The Morality Of Civil Disobedience, Amin George Forji

Amin George Forji

How is a citizen living under a merciless totalitarianism such as the Nazi but opposed to its philosophies expected to respond to the law? Where does his primary obligation as a citizen reside? Is it to the laws of the land that command total submission or to his convictions by which he is convinced that the system is totally unjust? Does one have a moral obligation to always obey the law? Conversely, should one obey an unjust law? Obviously, such an individual like Antigone in ancient Greece is naturally torn between two loyalties. (Note 1)If he obeys the law ...


Freedom Of Movement Under The Framework Of Regional Integration Processes In South America, Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz Jul 2010

Freedom Of Movement Under The Framework Of Regional Integration Processes In South America, Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz

Marco A. Velásquez-Ruiz

This Study addresses the question on whether the migratory phenomenon –considering with special attention the admission of non-nationals– might be regulated under the framework of regional integration processes, using the case of South America as an instance proclive to show how international law can be complemented and adapted to a specific context. It firstly elaborates a theoretical argument on the need to re-lecture the sovereign paradigm –according to which States have exclusive and excluding capacity to regulate the issue– so as to utilize cooperative schemes to develop a comprehensive legal framework provided the identification of migration as a common interest ...


From Energy Sector Inquiry To Recent Antitrust Decisions In European Energy Markets: Competition Law As A Means To Implement Energy Sector Regulation In Eu, Michael Diathesopoulos Jul 2010

From Energy Sector Inquiry To Recent Antitrust Decisions In European Energy Markets: Competition Law As A Means To Implement Energy Sector Regulation In Eu, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

This paper presents the conceptual path followed by European Union, European Commission and European Competition Network, after the Energy Sector Inquiry (2007) towards the realisation of the objective of an Energy Internal Market, fully functional and open to competition. Firstly, we examine the findings of Sector Inquiry and then we describe how the Third Energy Package - that followed - tried to address the issues highlighted by the Inquiry and how Third Energy Package introduces a promising but complex system, in order to develop sector rules. Following the above, we proceed to a brief but close examination of 10 recent -during or ...


Delimitación Téorica Del Delito Penal Fiscal, Bruno L. Costantini García Jul 2010

Delimitación Téorica Del Delito Penal Fiscal, Bruno L. Costantini García

Bruno L. Costantini García

Anális de los elementos constitutivos del delito fiscal, la acción delictiva, los grados de ejecución, la consumación y los responsables.

Pretende distinguir el delito penal común del delito penal fiscal con base en sus elementos y pretende aportar una reflexión de la criminalización del delito fiscal en nuestros tiempos, usado por la Autoridad Hacendaria como un medio de represíón y de opresión de los derechos del contribuyente.


Entre La Responsabilidad Internacional Del Estado Y La Supremacía De La Constitución: Una Propuesta Para Enriquecer El Debate Nacional, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl Jul 2010

Entre La Responsabilidad Internacional Del Estado Y La Supremacía De La Constitución: Una Propuesta Para Enriquecer El Debate Nacional, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl

Sergio Verdugo R.

Este trabajo busca reorientar el debate chileno acerca de si procede o no el control constitucional sobre los tratados internacionales. Luego de analizar las principales líneas que la doctrina y la jurisprudencia nacionales han elaborado, se concluye que el debate no logra escapar de una lógica formalista o literalista, basada en la precisión semántica de expresiones como “precepto legal”, “derechos esenciales” y “suspensión de tratados”. Se propone revitalizar el debate con líneas argumentales inspiradas en los críticos a la doctrina norteamericana de las cuestiones políticas (political question doctrine), para defender la idea de que los tratados internacionales no debieran ser ...


Relational Contract Theory And Management Contracts: A Paradigm For The Application Of The Theory Of The Norms, Michael Diathesopoulos Jun 2010

Relational Contract Theory And Management Contracts: A Paradigm For The Application Of The Theory Of The Norms, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

This paper examines management contracts as a paradigm for the application of relational contracts theory and especially of the theory of contractual and relational norms. This theory, deriving from Macauley's implications, but structured and analysed by I.R. MacNeil gives us a framework for the explanation and understanding of contractual obligations and business relations' rules and practice. After presenting the key literature about the norms theory and especially defining the content of MacNeil's norms, we define management contracts as relations, characterised by a high relational element and we explain why, investigating all their features, which make them a ...


La Globalización De La Legislación Cambiaria, Bruno L. Costantini García Jun 2010

La Globalización De La Legislación Cambiaria, Bruno L. Costantini García

Bruno L. Costantini García

No abstract provided.


National Judges And Supranational Laws On The Effective Application Of Ec Law And Echr: The Case Of Cyprus, Nikolas Kyriakou Jun 2010

National Judges And Supranational Laws On The Effective Application Of Ec Law And Echr: The Case Of Cyprus, Nikolas Kyriakou

Nikolas Kyriakou

No abstract provided.


Diseño Institucional De Órganos Reguladores En México, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez May 2010

Diseño Institucional De Órganos Reguladores En México, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

No abstract provided.


Protección De Datos Personales, Bruno L. Costantini García, Norma E. Pimentel Méndez Apr 2010

Protección De Datos Personales, Bruno L. Costantini García, Norma E. Pimentel Méndez

Bruno L. Costantini García

Introducción a la regulación de la protección de datos personales en México.


Reforma Regulatoria Y Competitividad, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez Apr 2010

Reforma Regulatoria Y Competitividad, Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

Alejandro Faya Rodriguez

No abstract provided.


Standard Of Review Under The Sps Agreement After Ec-Hormones Ii, Michael Ming Du Apr 2010

Standard Of Review Under The Sps Agreement After Ec-Hormones Ii, Michael Ming Du

Michael Ming Du

A recurring and delicate issue in the GATT/WTO dispute settlement processes is whether, and to what extent, WTO Panels and the Appellate Body (AB) should defer to national government decisions. With regard to disputes under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), WTO Panels adopted, and the AB endorsed, a standard of review close to de novo review. As a result, the WTO jurisprudence in SPS disputes has been subject to sharp criticisms over the years. In the recent EC-Hormones II case, the AB has deviated from its established case law and articulated a ...


Reducing Product Standards Heterogeneity Through International Standards In The Wto: How Far Across The River?, Michael Ming Du Apr 2010

Reducing Product Standards Heterogeneity Through International Standards In The Wto: How Far Across The River?, Michael Ming Du

Michael Ming Du

Heterogeneity in product standards across World Trade Organization (WTO) members adversely affects the international flow of goods and its reduction will increase global economic welfare if legitimate regulatory objectives are not violated. The Uruguay Round has seen the incorporation of international standards in both the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement as a harmonization device. Despite many benefits that international standards may offer, WTO’s attachment to international standards has been subject to various criticisms. This paper intends to offer a detailed analysis of the role ...