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2010

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him)'S Merciful Reforms In The Conduct Of War: The Prohibited Acts, Muhammad Munir Dr. Dec 2010

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him)'S Merciful Reforms In The Conduct Of War: The Prohibited Acts, Muhammad Munir Dr.

Dr. Muhammad Munir

This paper argues that Islam introduced far reaching reforms to warfare; that the conduct of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his successors does not to allow the burning and drowning of enemy to death. Destroying buildings, cutting down trees, committing perfidy, breaching the trust of the enemy, the killing of women, children, servants, old, infirm, sick, wounded, priests, peasants, prisoners of warand envoys is strictly against the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) or his successors. The destruction of harvest, livestock and forests, looting, plundering and corruption from the war booty and indiscipline are prohibited as ...


Regulating Compensation, A. Christine Hurt Dec 2010

Regulating Compensation, A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Windfall Myth, A. Christine Hurt Dec 2010

The Windfall Myth, A. Christine Hurt

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Summary Of Gonski V. Dist. Ct., 126 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 51, Ryan Johnson Dec 2010

Summary Of Gonski V. Dist. Ct., 126 Nev. Adv. Op. No. 51, Ryan Johnson

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Second Judicial District Court entered an order compelling arbitration in a construction defect dispute. Petitioners asked for a writ of mandamus vacating the order compelling arbitration.


Third Party Access And Refusal To Deal In European Energy Networks: How Sector Regulation And Competition Law Meet Each Other, Michael Diathesopoulos Dec 2010

Third Party Access And Refusal To Deal In European Energy Networks: How Sector Regulation And Competition Law Meet Each Other, Michael Diathesopoulos

Michael Diathesopoulos

In this paper, we will analyse the issue of concurrence between competition and sector rules and the relation between parallel concepts within the two different legal frameworks. We will firstly examine Third Party Access in relation to essential facilities doctrine and refusal of access and we will identify the common points and objectives of these concepts and the extent to which they provide a context to each other’s implementation. Second, we will focus on how Commission uses sector regulation and objectives as a context within the process of implementation of competition law in the energy sector and third, we ...


Obstaculos Juridicos Y Economicos A La Aplicacion De La Teoria Del Incumplimiento Eficiente: ¿Un Irritante Juridico O Una Figura De Aplicacion Imposible?, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco Dec 2010

Obstaculos Juridicos Y Economicos A La Aplicacion De La Teoria Del Incumplimiento Eficiente: ¿Un Irritante Juridico O Una Figura De Aplicacion Imposible?, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Actualmente el dinamismo del mercado insta a los agentes económicos a vincularse por medio de contratos, vehículo por excelencia de la autonomía privada de las partes como reglamentación de intereses de los mismos. Pero, ¿qué sucede cuando uno de los contratantes incumple o decide apartarse de dicha vinculación? En el presente artículo, el autor analiza, desde la perspectiva del derecho contractual norteamericano, la denominada "teoría del incumplimiento eficiente" y los diversos factores involucrados, así como su eventual incorporación a nuestra realidad jurídica. Finalmente, nos propone pensar mejor en términos de la "teoría de la conclusión contractual eficiente" (comentario de Themis).


Winner's Curse (La Maldición Del Ganador): Un Análisis De La Toma De Decisiones En Subastas De Valor Común, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco Dec 2010

Winner's Curse (La Maldición Del Ganador): Un Análisis De La Toma De Decisiones En Subastas De Valor Común, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

En la presente nota se analiza la denominada maldición del ganador que importa que el ganador de una subasta puede ser quien sufra las más altas pérdidas, en lugar de los participaron que no lograron adjudicarse el bien o el derecho materia de la subasta. Este resultado se produce por una conjunción de fuerzas en contraposición: la lógica que le indica pujar con cuidado; y, el deseo de lograr la adjudicación que se exacerba en atención a la cantidad de proponentes. Ante ello, muchas veces el ganador termina por ofrecer una suma por encima de su propia valuación subjetiva y ...


A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means Dec 2010

A Contractual Approach To Shareholder Oppression Law, Benjamin Means

Faculty Publications

According to standard law and economics, minority shareholders in closely held corporations must bargain against opportunism by controlling shareholders before investing. Put simply, you made your bed, now you must lie in it. Yet most courts offer a remedy for shareholder oppression, often premised on the notion that controlling shareholders owe fiduciary duties to the minority or must honor the minority's reasonable expectations. Thus, law and economics, the dominant mode of corporate law scholarship, appears irreconcilably opposed to minority shareholder protection, a defining feature of the existing law of close corporations.

This Article contends that a more nuanced theory ...


Alteration Of The Contractual Equilibrium Under The Unidroit Principles, Amin Dawwas Dec 2010

Alteration Of The Contractual Equilibrium Under The Unidroit Principles, Amin Dawwas

Pace International Law Review Online Companion

This paper addresses the principles of hardship and specific performance as being unreasonably burdensome or expensive both in terms of their definitions and legal consequences. This paper argues that, in a situation of hardship, the debtor can choose to invoke either the rules of section 6.2 (hardship) or the defense to specific performance under Article 7.2.2-b of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (“UNIDROIT Principles”). Yet, while in a situation where performance of the contract becomes “unreasonably burdensome or expensive,” the debtor might only invoke the exception to specific performance under Article 7.2.2(b ...


Secret Bancaire Et Entraide Internationale En Matière Fiscale: Le Fait Du Prince, Fabien Liegeois Dec 2010

Secret Bancaire Et Entraide Internationale En Matière Fiscale: Le Fait Du Prince, Fabien Liegeois

Fabien LIEGEOIS

No abstract provided.


What Is So Special About Intangible Property? The Case For Intelligent Carryovers, Richard Epstein Dec 2010

What Is So Special About Intangible Property? The Case For Intelligent Carryovers, Richard Epstein

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

One of the major controversies in modern intellectual property law is the extent to which property rights conceptions, developed in connection with land or other forms of tangible property, can be carried over to different forms of property, such as rights in the spectrum or in patents and copyrights. This article defends the thesis that, once the differences in the optimal duration of patents and copyrights are taken into account, the carryover of basic property conceptions from tangible to intangible property should be much encouraged. In some instances, the property rights concepts applicable to land often work even better for ...


Questioning The Frequency And Wisdom Of Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Patents, Richard Epstein Dec 2010

Questioning The Frequency And Wisdom Of Compulsory Licensing For Pharmaceutical Patents, Richard Epstein

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

Many advocates for using compulsory licensing (“CL”) for pharmaceutical patents in developing countries like Thailand rest their case in part on the purported use of CL in the United States. In this paper we take issue with that proposition on several grounds. As a theoretical matter, we argue that the basic presumption in favor of voluntary licenses for IP should apply in the international arena, in addition to the domestic one. In the international context, voluntary licenses are of special importance because they strengthen the supply chain for distributing pharmaceuticals and ease the government enforcement of safety standards. Next, this ...


Toward A General Theory Of Tort Law: Strict Liability In Context, Richard A. Epstein Dec 2010

Toward A General Theory Of Tort Law: Strict Liability In Context, Richard A. Epstein

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

In this extensive article I revisit my earlier writings from the 1970s that deal with tort liability in both stranger and consensual arrangements. On the former, I examine Stephen Perry’s 1988 critique of my work, and more recent contributions by Joshua Getzler and Benjamin Zipursky, to defend the view that a rigorous conception of causation under a theory of strict liability is neither logically impossible nor practically unworkable. In so doing, I reexamine the earlier efforts by writers such as Joseph Beale and H.L.A. Hart & Tony Honoré on causation in order to show how some controversial moves ...


One Bridge Too Far: Why The Employee Free Choice Act Rightly Fell Short, Richard A. Epstein Dec 2010

One Bridge Too Far: Why The Employee Free Choice Act Rightly Fell Short, Richard A. Epstein

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

The Employee Free Choice Act has had enjoyed strong academic support. but thus far has been stymied by fierce political resistance to its central positions that first institute a card-check for the selection of a union and then requires mandatory arbitration if the parties cannot agree to a new contract within 130 days of union recognition. This article critiques the arguments made in support of this fundamental revision of labor law offered by Craig Becker, Benjamin Sachs, and Catherine Fisk & Adam Pulver, all of which purport to show that flaws in the current system of collective bargaining need major prounion ...


¿Interpretamos La Voluntad Del Testador O Sólo Lo Literalmente Expresado En El Testamento?: Consideraciones Desde La Óptica De La Comparación Jurídica, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco Nov 2010

¿Interpretamos La Voluntad Del Testador O Sólo Lo Literalmente Expresado En El Testamento?: Consideraciones Desde La Óptica De La Comparación Jurídica, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Recientemente en el Perú se ha suscitado una discusion, mas mediática que jurídica, sobre la interpretación testamentaria. Planteado en tales términos el debate sólo ha recogido de manera implícita los aspectos medulares de tan compleja materia. Es por esta razón que el objetivo del presente artículo es brindar un vistazo panorámico a la materia desde la perspectiva de la comparación jurídica.


Uso Social Del Suelo Ejidal Y Comunal Para El Desarrollo Equilibrado De Las Áreas Urbanas Del Estado De Puebla, Bruno L. Costantini García Nov 2010

Uso Social Del Suelo Ejidal Y Comunal Para El Desarrollo Equilibrado De Las Áreas Urbanas Del Estado De Puebla, Bruno L. Costantini García

Bruno L. Costantini García

De origen, difundir los diversos esquemas permitidos por la Ley para posibilitar la realización de proyectos con fines inmobiliarios, a efecto de que los núcleos agrarios y sus integrantes se beneficien equitativamente de la urbanización de sus tierras, coadyuvando con ello al desarrollo urbano planificado y ordenado de los centros de población del Estado de Puebla; como consecuencia, impulsar el desarrollo habitacional equilibrado de éste. Eliminar el circulo.- “necesidad de tierra – asentamiento irregular – solución de conflicto”, mediante la planeación socioeconómico de los núcleos agrarios ejidales y comunales, a fin de diseñar un mecanismo eficaz que satisfaga las necesidades de los ...


Contracts, Claude D. Rowher Nov 2010

Contracts, Claude D. Rowher

Cal Law Trends and Developments

Recent decisions have brought about a number of changes in the area of contract interpretation. Although the general trends seem clear and commendable, the details are often obscure and bothersome.


Contracts, Robert G. Meiners Nov 2010

Contracts, Robert G. Meiners

Cal Law Trends and Developments

No abstract provided.


Análisis Económico De La Intervención Judicial En Los Contratos ¿Una Cuestión De Justicia?, Daniel Monroy Nov 2010

Análisis Económico De La Intervención Judicial En Los Contratos ¿Una Cuestión De Justicia?, Daniel Monroy

Daniel A Monroy C

Desde la perspectiva del AED, una de las funciones principales del derecho de contratos, sobre la cual diferentes autores hacen mayor énfasis, es la relacionada con la “disuasión del oportunismo”; en igual sentido, otra de las funciones del derecho de contratos es la relativa a la “interpolación eficiente de términos contractuales”. Dichas funciones suelen explicar buena parte de la regulación en materia de contratos, además de justificar la intervención judicial. Por otro lado, algunos autores nos llevan a considerar que propugnar exclusivamente por la libertad y la autonomía contractual, puede llevarnos a garantizar que los contratos, además de ser mecanismos ...


Salvage Awards On The Somali Coast: Who Pays For Public And Private Rescue Efforts In Piracy Crises?, Geoffrey Christopher Rapp Nov 2010

Salvage Awards On The Somali Coast: Who Pays For Public And Private Rescue Efforts In Piracy Crises?, Geoffrey Christopher Rapp

American University Law Review

This paper, a contribution to the "Troubled Waters: Combating Modern Piracy with the Rule of Law" symposium, explores the question of who pays for rescue efforts associated with maritime piracy. The paper explores the availability of admiralty law's salvage awards to governmental and non-governmental actors who intervene to rescue vessels and crew from pirates. Such awards provide an unusual incentive to rescue, traditionally unavailable for land-based rescue, but may raise complicated questions of policy and international law. The paper concludes by comparing salvage awards to a recent trend in American states to adopt "Search and Rescue" expense statutes allowing ...


Does Disclosure Matter?, Florencia Marotta-Wurgler Nov 2010

Does Disclosure Matter?, Florencia Marotta-Wurgler

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

Disclosure has long been the preferred regulatory approach to curtail one-sided standard form contract terms. Examples include the Truth in Lending Act, the new “ALI Principles of the Law of Software Contracts,” and many other proposals which await Congressional approval. The appeal of disclosure is that it is relatively low cost, improves consumer decision-making and preserves consumer choice. For disclosure to be effective, however, it must increase readership and understanding of contracts to a meaningful rate, and, conditional on readership, contract content must be relevant to purchase decisions. This paper tests both these necessary conditions. We follow the clickstream of ...


Standardization Of Standard-Form Contracts: Competition And Contract Implications, Mark R. Patterson Nov 2010

Standardization Of Standard-Form Contracts: Competition And Contract Implications, Mark R. Patterson

William & Mary Law Review

Standard-form contracts are a common feature of commercial relationships because they offer the advantage of lower transaction costs. This advantage of standard contracts is increased when there is a second layer of standardization under which multiple firms agree on a standard contract. Trade associations and similar entities often effect standardization of this kind through collective agreement on a standard contract, sometimes under the aegis of state actors. Multifirm contract standardization can provide not only the usual transaction-cost advantages of standard-form contracts, but also increased competition among firms, because a standard contract makes comparison among firms’ offerings easier. But standardization among ...


Product Use Information And The Limits Of Voluntary Disclosure, Oren Bar-Gill, Oliver Board Nov 2010

Product Use Information And The Limits Of Voluntary Disclosure, Oren Bar-Gill, Oliver Board

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

Concern about asymmetric information in markets for consumer goods and services has focused on product attribute information. We highlight the importance of another category of information—product use information. In important markets, sellers have better information about how a consumer will use their product or service than the consumer herself. Moreover, we show that the classic unraveling results do not extend to product use information, and thus sellers are less likely to voluntarily disclose this type of information. Our findings have important policy implications: While most disclosure mandates target product attribute information, our analysis suggests that mandating disclosure of product ...


The English Vs. The American Rule On Attorneys Fees: An Empirical Study Of Attorney Fee Clauses In Publicly-Held Companies’ Contracts, Theodore Eisenberg, Geoffrey P. Miller Nov 2010

The English Vs. The American Rule On Attorneys Fees: An Empirical Study Of Attorney Fee Clauses In Publicly-Held Companies’ Contracts, Theodore Eisenberg, Geoffrey P. Miller

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

We study attorney fee clauses in a data set of 2,350 contracts contained as exhibits in Form 8-K filings by reporting corporations. Because 8-K filings are required only for material events, these contracts likely are negotiated by sophisticated parties and, therefore, provide evidence of efficient ex ante solutions to contracting problems. The American Rule for compensating attorneys requires each party to pay its own attorney, win or lose; the English Rule (applicable rule in most of the world) requires the losing party to pay the winner’s reasonable fees. Adoption of the English Rule or other loser-pays arrangements has ...


Resolving The Dilemma Of Nonjusticiable Causation In Failure-To-Warn Litigation, Neil B. Cohen, Aaron Twerski Nov 2010

Resolving The Dilemma Of Nonjusticiable Causation In Failure-To-Warn Litigation, Neil B. Cohen, Aaron Twerski

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Llm Cyberlaw: Information Technology, Law And Society, Subhajit Basu Oct 2010

Llm Cyberlaw: Information Technology, Law And Society, Subhajit Basu

Subhajit Basu

LLM in Cyberlaw: information technology, law and society enables you to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the legal rules regulating cyberlaw activity in the UK and Europe, and at a global level.


Contracts, William T. Laube Oct 2010

Contracts, William T. Laube

Cal Law Trends and Developments

In any given twelve-month reporting period there is, for some reason, a case emphasis on particular problems in each major classification of the law. The field of contracts is no exception. For the period covered by this volume, two basic contract problems float to the surface in the pool of reported appellate decisions. The first problem discussed, and illustrated by a number of recent cases, relates to the obligation to pay "more money" for merchandise or services than that provided for in the original contract. There are various background situations which activate the demand for "more money," but the most ...


Commercial Transactions, Neil M. Levy Oct 2010

Commercial Transactions, Neil M. Levy

Cal Law Trends and Developments

The emphasis of this article reflects the degree to which commercial law today is statutory. Particularly in California, where the Uniform Commercial Code has only been in effect since January 1, 1965, few cases construing that statute reached the appellate courts during the year 1967. However, the state legislature in 1967 amended 25 sections of the California Commercial Code. Although these amendments cover a wide range of substantive problems, they can be viewed in the light of the policy of the code as enunciated in section 1102(2)(c), "[t]o make uniform the law among the various jurisdictions." In ...


Imitando La Intermediación Financiera Indirecta: El Caso De Los Bancos De Alimentos, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco Oct 2010

Imitando La Intermediación Financiera Indirecta: El Caso De Los Bancos De Alimentos, Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

Renzo E. Saavedra Velazco

De un tiempo a esta parte se observa un enorme desarrollo de supermercados, sea de gran envergadura, sea pequeña escala. Correlativamente, y pesar del sólido progreso macroeconómico, aún existe un segmento considerable de la sociedad en estado de desamparo y que requiere de medidas asistenciales por parte del Estado. Sin embargo en países como los recursos son excesivamente limitados, por ello resulta importante las alternativas de responsabilidad social empresarial que se vienen implementando o de modo directo la participación privada para colaborar en los esfuerzos asistenciales. Es en este marco donde se inserta la actuación de los Bancos de Alimentos.


Edwards V. Arthur Andersen Llp: There Is Not A "Narrow-Restraint" Exception To California's Prohibition Of Noncompetition Agreements, And A General Release May Not Mean What It Says, Bradford P. Anderson Oct 2010

Edwards V. Arthur Andersen Llp: There Is Not A "Narrow-Restraint" Exception To California's Prohibition Of Noncompetition Agreements, And A General Release May Not Mean What It Says, Bradford P. Anderson

Golden Gate University Law Review

On August 7, 2008, the California Supreme Court issued a vital enunciation of State Law in the decision of Edwards v. Arthur Andersen LLP. The court explicitly rejected the existence of any "narrow restraint" exception to California's prohibition against noncompetition agreements under California Business and Professions Code section 16600. The majority also stated that a general release "does not encompass nonwaivable statutory protections, such as the employee indemnity protection of [Labor Code section] 2802,'' even if the express language of the contract is all-encompassing. The Edwards Court's rejection of a "narrow-restraint" exception brings needed certainty to interpretation of ...