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Religious Exemptions, Formal Neutrality, And Laïcité, Frederick Mark Gedicks Jul 2006

Religious Exemptions, Formal Neutrality, And Laïcité, Frederick Mark Gedicks

Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

Rights to free exercise in the United States are governed by a doctrine of formal neutrality, which seems to resemble the French doctrine of la'cit6. This resemblance tempts one to conclude that the doctrinal regimes of religious liberty in the United States and France are also essentially the same. Despite their superficial resemblance, however formal neutrality and laĭcité generate regimes of religious liberty that are substantially, even radically, different. Notwithstanding conceptually similar organizing principles, there is a significant difference in the substance of religious liberty in the United States and France owing to very different conceptions of the proper ...


The Endorsement Court, Jay D. Wexler Jan 2006

The Endorsement Court, Jay D. Wexler

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The Rehnquist Court was the first to apply the so-called “endorsement test” to evaluate the constitutionality of government-sponsored religious symbols and displays. The test asks whether a “reasonable observer” would feel that the government has sent “a message to non-adherents that they are outsiders, not full members of the political community, and an accompanying message to adherents that they are insiders, favored members of the political community.” Although the Supreme Court itself has applied the endorsement test in only a handful of cases, the test has played an extremely important role in how courts throughout the country have evaluated government ...


Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: The Rehnquist Court And “Majority Religion”, Garrett Epps Jan 2006

Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: The Rehnquist Court And “Majority Religion”, Garrett Epps

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

This Essay explores the evolution of the remarkable new view of religion and the Constitution during the Rehnquist Court era. Part II analyzes Justice Scalia’s dissent in Lee v. Weisman, which set out the agenda for the religious caucus of the Court in the early years. Part III shows how the rhetoric of equality and historical grievance has been used to dismantle the boundary—for old time’s sake, let us call it a “wall of separation”—that separated religious institutions from the public fisc. Part IV analyzes Justice Scalia’s dissent in McCreary County v. American Civil Liberties ...


The Apparent Consistency Of Religion Clause Doctrine, Abner S. Greene Jan 2006

The Apparent Consistency Of Religion Clause Doctrine, Abner S. Greene

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

A hallmark of religion clause scholarship is the complaint that the doctrine is a hopeless muddle. However, the Rehnquist Court brought a considerable amount of consistency—well, apparent consistency— to the doctrine. I say “apparent consistency” because, just as a paradox is only a seeming contradiction, so was the Rehnquist Court’s religion clause jurisprudence only seemingly consistent. The doctrine focuses on whether the government singles out religion for special benefit (generally problematic under the Establishment Clause) or for special burden (generally problematic under the Free Exercise Clause). If, on the other hand, the government benefits religion as part of ...


What's Right And Wrong With “No Endorsement”, Thomas C. Berg Jan 2006

What's Right And Wrong With “No Endorsement”, Thomas C. Berg

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

Contrary to Professor Wexler, I argue that unless the endorsement test is properly understood and limited, it has the critical flaw of putting the Establishment Clause at war with the other religion guarantee of the First Amendment, the Free Exercise Clause. If the Establishment Clause forbade government endorsement of religion in all contexts, it would undermine the government’s ability to give special accommodation to religious practice and thus would severely impair free exercise values. “No endorsement of religion” thus must function, not as the general requirement of the Establishment Clause, but only as a rule for the particular class ...


Justice Scalia And The Religion Clauses: A Comment On Professor Epps, Eric R. Claeys Jan 2006

Justice Scalia And The Religion Clauses: A Comment On Professor Epps, Eric R. Claeys

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

In this Comment, I hope to identify the areas in which Professor Epps makes novel and important insights, and the areas in which originalists and religionists will disagree with how he evaluates those insights.


Religion, Speech, And The Minnesota Constitution: State-Based Protections Amid First Amendment Instabilities, Steven P. Aggergaard Jan 2006

Religion, Speech, And The Minnesota Constitution: State-Based Protections Amid First Amendment Instabilities, Steven P. Aggergaard

William Mitchell Law Review

No abstract provided.


"Play In The Joints Between The Religion Clauses" And Other Supreme Court Catachreses, Carl H. Esbeck Jan 2006

"Play In The Joints Between The Religion Clauses" And Other Supreme Court Catachreses, Carl H. Esbeck

Hofstra Law Review

Consistent with its fumbling of late when dealing with cases involving religion, the U.S. Supreme Court has taken to reciting the metaphor of play in the joints between the Religion Clauses. This manner of framing the issue before the Court presumes that the Free Exercise and Establishment Clauses run in opposing directions, and indeed will often conflict. It then becomes the Court's task, as it sees it, to determine if the law in question falls safely in the narrows where there is space for legislative action neither compelled by the Free Exercise Clause nor prohibited by the Establishment ...


Taking Free Exercise Rights Seriously, Alan Brownstein Jan 2006

Taking Free Exercise Rights Seriously, Alan Brownstein

Case Western Reserve Law Review

No abstract provided.