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Fee Effects, Kathryn Judge Jan 2013

Fee Effects, Kathryn Judge

Faculty Scholarship

Intermediaries are a pervasive feature of modern economies. This article draws attention to an under-theorized cost arising from the use of specialized intermediaries – a systematic shift in the mix of transactions consummated. The interests of intermediaries are imperfectly aligned with the parties to a transaction. Intermediaries seek to maximize their fees, a transaction cost from the perspective of the parties. Numerous factors, including the requirement that a transaction create value in excess of the associated fees to proceed and an intermediary’s interest in maintaining a good reputation, constrain an intermediary’s tendency to use its influence in a self-serving ...


(Crime) School Is In Session: Mapping Illegal Earnings To Institutional Placement, Holly Nguyen, Thomas Loughran, Ray Paternoster, Jeffrey Fagan Jan 2013

(Crime) School Is In Session: Mapping Illegal Earnings To Institutional Placement, Holly Nguyen, Thomas Loughran, Ray Paternoster, Jeffrey Fagan

Faculty Scholarship

A growing consensus suggests that incarcerating offenders tends to have either null or criminogenic effects at both the individual and neighborhood levels. There is also further evidence that there are unintended consequences of incarcerating juvenile offenders such as delayed psychosocial development and school dropout. The current study considers a much less examined hypothesis — that correctional environments can facilitate the accumulation of “criminal capital” and might actually encourage offending by serving as a school of crime. Using unique panel data from a sample of serious juvenile offenders, we are able to identify the criminal capital effect by considering illegal earnings and ...


The Shale Oil And Gas Revolution, Hydraulic Fracturing, And Water Contamination: A Regulatory Strategy, Thomas W. Merrill, David M. Schizer Jan 2013

The Shale Oil And Gas Revolution, Hydraulic Fracturing, And Water Contamination: A Regulatory Strategy, Thomas W. Merrill, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

The United States is expected to become the world’s largest oil producer by 2020, overtaking Saudi Arabia, and the world’s top natural gas producer by 2015, surpassing Russia. In the past decade, energy companies have learned to tap previously inaccessible oil and gas in shale with “hydraulic fracturing” (“fracturing” or “fracking”), pumping fluid at high pressure to crack the shale and release gas and oil trapped inside. This “shale revolution” has created millions of jobs, enhanced our energy independence, and reduced U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by substituting natural gas for coal.

Even so, fracturing is controversial. It ...


The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: A Concise Introduction And Lexicon, Michael Heller Jan 2013

The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: A Concise Introduction And Lexicon, Michael Heller

Faculty Scholarship

This article gives a concise introduction to the ‘tragedy of the anticommons.’ The anticommons thesis is simple: when too many people own pieces of one thing, nobody can use it. Usually, private ownership creates wealth. But too much ownership has the opposite effect – it leads to wasteful underuse. This is a free market paradox that shows up all across the global economy. If too many owners control a single resource, cooperation breaks down, wealth disappears, and everybody loses. Conceptually, underuse in an anticommons mirrors the familiar problem of overuse in a ‘tragedy of the commons.’ The field of anticommons studies ...


Sultans Of Swing? The Emerging Wto Case Law On Tbt, Carlo M. Cantore, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2013

Sultans Of Swing? The Emerging Wto Case Law On Tbt, Carlo M. Cantore, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

Following years of silence after EC-Sardines, three cases were adjudicated by Panels under the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) in 2011: US-Clove Cigarettes, US-Tuna II (Mexico), and US-COOL. These three cases dealt with key provisions of the Agreement, but the Panels adopted irreconcilable approaches. All three decisions were appealed before the Appellate Body (AB), but even the latter failed to apply a coherent methodology to adjudicate similar.

In Section II, we provide a brief account of the facts and the outcomes of the cases, whereas, in Section III we discuss the methodology applied by the WTO judiciary ...


Multilateral Environmental Agreements In The Wto: Silence Speaks Volumes, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2013

Multilateral Environmental Agreements In The Wto: Silence Speaks Volumes, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

This study contributes to the debate concerning the appropriate role of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in in WTO dispute settlement. Its distinguishing feature is that it seeks to address this relationship in light of the reason why the parties have chosen to separate their obligations into two bodies of law without providing an explicit nexus between them. The basic conclusion is that legislators’ silence concerning this relationship should speak volumes to WTO adjudicating bodies: MEAs should not be automatically understood as imposing legally binding obligations on WTO Members, but could be used as sources of factual information.


The Collapse Of The Harm Principle Redux: On Same-Sex Marriage, The Supreme Court's Opinion In United States V. Windsor, John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty (1859), And H. L. A. Hart's Modern Harm Principle, Bernard E. Harcourt Jan 2013

The Collapse Of The Harm Principle Redux: On Same-Sex Marriage, The Supreme Court's Opinion In United States V. Windsor, John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty (1859), And H. L. A. Hart's Modern Harm Principle, Bernard E. Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

In an article published in 1999, titled The Collapse of the Harm Principle, I argued that the harm principle, originally articulated in John Stuart Mill’s essay On Liberty (1859), had collapsed under the weight of its own success and no longer serves, today, as a limiting principle on the legal enforcement of morality. Several readers raised forceful questions about the relationship between Mill’s original essay and the harm principle, as well as about the continuing vitality of Mill’s argument. In this article, I return to my original argument to draw an important distinction and clarify a central ...


Three Discount Windows, Kathryn Judge Jan 2013

Three Discount Windows, Kathryn Judge

Faculty Scholarship

It is widely assumed that the Federal Reserve is the lender of last resort in the United States and that the Fed’s discount window is the primary mechanism through which it fulfills this role. Yet, when banks faced liquidity constraints during the 2007–2009 financial crisis (the Crisis), the discount window played a relatively small role in providing banks much needed liquidity. This is not because banks forewent government backed liquidity; rather, they sought it elsewhere. First, they increased their reliance on collateralized loans, known as advances, from the Federal Home Loan Bank system, a little known government sponsored ...


The Returns To Criminal Capital, Thomas Loughran, Holly Nguyen, Alex R. Piquero, Jeffrey Fagan Jan 2013

The Returns To Criminal Capital, Thomas Loughran, Holly Nguyen, Alex R. Piquero, Jeffrey Fagan

Faculty Scholarship

Human capital theory (Becker 1962; Mincer 1958; Schultz 1960; 1961) posits that individuals can increase their labor market returns through investments in education and training. This concept has been studied extensively across several disciplines. An analog concept of criminal capital, while the focus of speculation and limited empirical study, remains considerably less developed theoretically and methodologically. This paper offers a formal theoretical model of criminal capital indicators and tests for greater illegal wage returns using a sample of serious adolescent offenders, many of whom participate in illegal income-generating activities. Our results reveal that, consistent with human capital theory, there are ...


Regulatory Capabilities: A Normative Framework For Assessing The Distributional Effects Of Regulation, Katharina Pistor, Fabrizio Cafaggi Jan 2013

Regulatory Capabilities: A Normative Framework For Assessing The Distributional Effects Of Regulation, Katharina Pistor, Fabrizio Cafaggi

Faculty Scholarship

This paper develops the normative concept of "regulatory capabilities", which asserts that nobody – individuals, groups or entities – should be subjected to a regulatory regime – public or private, domestic or transnational – without some freedom to choose. Choice in this context means the ability to accept or reject a regulatory regime imposed by others or to create an alternative one. A mere formal option is not sufficient; the freedom to choose requires real alternatives. The concept of regulatory capabilities has particular traction in the transnational context where private, hybrid public-private and public actors compete for influence, shape domestic regulation and in doing ...


Street Stops And Police Legitimacy: Teachable Moments In Young Urban Men’S Legal Socialization, Tom Tyler, Jeffrey Fagan, Amanda Geller Jan 2013

Street Stops And Police Legitimacy: Teachable Moments In Young Urban Men’S Legal Socialization, Tom Tyler, Jeffrey Fagan, Amanda Geller

Faculty Scholarship

An examination of the influence of street stops on the legal socialization of young men showed an association between the number of police stops and a diminished sense of police legitimacy. This association however is not only a consequence of the number of street or car stops they experience or of the degree of police intrusion that occurs during those stops. Rather, the estimated impact of involuntary contact with the police is mediated by evaluations of the fairness of police actions and judgments about whether the police are acting lawfully. Whether the police are viewed as exercising their authority fairly ...


Freedom Of Contracts, Hanoch Dagan, Michael Heller Jan 2013

Freedom Of Contracts, Hanoch Dagan, Michael Heller

Faculty Scholarship

“Freedom of contracts” has two components: (1) the familiar freedom to bargain for terms within a contract and (2) the long-neglected freedom to choose from among contract types. Theories built on the first freedom have reached an impasse; attention to the second points toward a long-elusive goal, a liberal and general theory of contract law. This theory is liberal because it develops an appealing conception of contractual autonomy grounded in the actual diversity of contract types. It is general because it explains how contract values – utility, community, and autonomy – properly relate to each other across contract types. Finally, it is ...


Protecting Reliance, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 2013

Protecting Reliance, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

Reliance plays a central role in contract law and scholarship. One party relies on the other’s promised performance, or its statements, or its anticipated entry into a formal agreement. Saying that reliance is important, however, says nothing about what we should do about it. In this paper the focus is on the many ways that parties choose to protect reliance. The relation between what parties do and what contract doctrine cares about is tenuous at best. Contract performance takes place over time and the nature of the parties’ future obligations can be deferred to take account of changing circumstances ...


In The Shadow Of The Dsu: Addressing Specific Trade Concerns In The Wto Sps And Tbt Committees, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis, Erik Wijkström Jan 2013

In The Shadow Of The Dsu: Addressing Specific Trade Concerns In The Wto Sps And Tbt Committees, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis, Erik Wijkström

Faculty Scholarship

The paper argues that focusing only on disputes formally raised in the WTO Dispute Settlement system underestimates the extent of trade conflict resolution within the WTO. Both the SPS and TBT Committees address a significant number of ‘specific trade concerns’ (STCs) that in the overwhelming majority of cases do not become formal disputes. The STCs address differences between Members concerning the conformity of national measures in the SPS and TBT areas with these agreements. It appears as if Committee work on STCs significantly helps defuse potential trade frictions concerning national policies in the covered areas.


Article Iii Double-Dipping: Proposition 8'S Proponents, Blag, And The Government's Interest, Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2013

Article Iii Double-Dipping: Proposition 8'S Proponents, Blag, And The Government's Interest, Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

Two fundamental standing problems plague Proposition 8’s proponents and the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group (BLAG) in the marriage cases currently before the U.S. Supreme Court. First is the Article III double-dipping problem, to which this Essay’s title refers. This problem arises because those parties purport to derive their Article III standing by asserting the governments’ interest in defending the challenged marriage laws. Yet the governments in both cases, via their chief legal officers, have taken the position that excluding same-sex couples from marriage is unconstitutional. To permit this Janus-faced commitment to both sides of the cases would ...


Miller V. Alabama And The (Past And) Future Of Juvenile Justice Policy, Elizabeth S. Scott Jan 2013

Miller V. Alabama And The (Past And) Future Of Juvenile Justice Policy, Elizabeth S. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

This essay was the keynote address for a symposium on Miller v Alabama, the 2012 Supreme Court opinion holding unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment a statute imposing a mandatory sentence of life without parole for juveniles convicted of homicide. The essay argues that Miller embodies a way of thinking about juvenile crime that has taken hold in the early 21st century – an approach that emphasizes the importance for legal policy of developmental differences between juveniles and adults. This emerging trend contrasts sharply with the regulatory approach of the 1990s when moral panics over juvenile crime fueled punitive law reforms that ...


Copyright 1992-2012: The Most Significant Development, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2013

Copyright 1992-2012: The Most Significant Development, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Fordham Intellectual Property Law & Policy Conference, its organizer, Professor Hugh Hansen, planned a session on “U.S. Copyright Law: Where Has It Been? Where Is It Going?” and asked me to look back over the twenty years since the conference’s inception in order to identify the most important development in copyright during that period. Of course, the obvious answer is “the Internet,” or “digital media,” whose effect on copyright law has been pervasive. I want to propose a less obvious response, but first acknowledge that digital media and communications have ...


From Hypatia To Victor Hugo To Larry And Sergey: ‘All The World's Knowledge’ And Universal Authors’ Rights – The 2012 British Academy Law Lecture, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2013

From Hypatia To Victor Hugo To Larry And Sergey: ‘All The World's Knowledge’ And Universal Authors’ Rights – The 2012 British Academy Law Lecture, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Access to ‘all the world’s knowledge’ is an ancient aspiration; a less venerable, but equally vigorous, universalism strives for the borderless protection of authors’ rights. Late 19th-century law and politics brought us copyright universalism; 21st-century technology may bring us the universal digital library. But how can ‘all the world’s knowledge’ be delivered, on demand, to users anywhere in the world (with Internet access), if the copyrights of the creators and publishers of many of those works are supposed to be enforceable almost everywhere in the world? Does it follow that the universal digital library of the near future ...


Compulsory Sexuality, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2013

Compulsory Sexuality, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals — those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others — constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a ...


Exceptional Authorship: The Role Of Copyright Exceptions In Promoting Creativity, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2013

Exceptional Authorship: The Role Of Copyright Exceptions In Promoting Creativity, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

It has been suggested that today’s authors need copyright exceptions and limitations more than they need exclusive rights. I will first test the proposition by examining what one might call authorship-oriented exceptions, from ‘fair abridgement’ in early English cases to the original meaning of ‘transformative use’ in the U.S. fair use doctrine. All of these exceptions trained on the promotion of creativity by allowing authors to make reasonable borrowings from old works in the creation of new ones. I conclude that both today’s assemblers of ‘remixes’ and yesterday’s traditional creators of works of entertainment or scholarship ...


The Leaky Leviathan: Why The Government Condemns And Condones Unlawful Disclosures Of Information, David Pozen Jan 2013

The Leaky Leviathan: Why The Government Condemns And Condones Unlawful Disclosures Of Information, David Pozen

Faculty Scholarship

The United States government leaks like a sieve. Presidents denounce the constant flow of classified information to the media from unauthorized, anonymous sources. National security professionals decry the consequences. And yet the laws against leaking are almost never enforced. Throughout U.S. history, roughly a dozen criminal cases have been brought against suspected leakers. There is a dramatic disconnect between the way our laws and our leaders condemn leaking in the abstract and the way they condone it in practice.

This Article challenges the standard account of that disconnect, which emphasizes the difficulties of apprehending and prosecuting offenders, and advances ...


New Modes Of Pluralist Global Governance, Grainne De Burca, Robert O. Keohane, Charles F. Sabel Jan 2013

New Modes Of Pluralist Global Governance, Grainne De Burca, Robert O. Keohane, Charles F. Sabel

Faculty Scholarship

This paper describes three modes of pluralist global governance. Mode One refers to the creation and proliferation of comprehensive, integrated international regimes on a variety of issues. Mode Two describes the emergence of diverse forms and sites of cross-national decision making by multiple actors, public and private as well as local, regional and global, forming governance networks and “regime complexes,” including the orchestration of new forms of authority by international actors and organizations. Mode Three, which is the main focus of the paper, describes the gradual institutionalization of practices involving continual updating and revision, open participation, an agreed understanding of ...


Brief Of Amici Curiae Professors Nan D. Hunter, Et Al., Addressing The Merits In Support Of Respondents, Nan D. Hunter, Suzanne B. Goldberg Jan 2013

Brief Of Amici Curiae Professors Nan D. Hunter, Et Al., Addressing The Merits In Support Of Respondents, Nan D. Hunter, Suzanne B. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

In this amicus brief filed in United States v. Windsor, pending before the Supreme Court, amici constitutional law professors argue that all classifications that carry the indicia of invidiousness should trigger a more searching inquiry than the traditional rational basis test under the Equal Protection Clause would suggest. Classifications that already receive heightened scrutiny, such as race or sex, fit easily into this approach. But the Court’s equal protection jurisprudence has become muddied in a series of cases in which it says rational basis review, but appears to do a more rigorous review. Sexual orientation classifications seemingly were analyzed ...


Assessing The Optimism Of Payday Loan Borrowers, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2013

Assessing The Optimism Of Payday Loan Borrowers, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

This essay compares the results from a survey administered to payday loan borrowers at the time of their loans to subsequent borrowing and repayment behavior. It thus presents the first direct evidence of the accuracy of payday loan borrowers’ understanding of how the product will be used. The data show, among other things, that about 60% of borrowers accurately predict how long it will take them finally to repay their payday loans. The evidence directly contradicts the oft-stated view that substantially all extended use of payday loans is the product of lender misrepresentation or borrower self-deception about how the product ...


Self-Defensive Force Against Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic And Political Dimensions, Matthew C. Waxman Jan 2013

Self-Defensive Force Against Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic And Political Dimensions, Matthew C. Waxman

Faculty Scholarship

When does a cyber-attack (or threat of cyber-attack) give rise to a right of self-defense – including armed self-defense – and when should it? This essay examines these questions through three lenses: (1) a legal perspective, to examine the range of reasonable interpretations of self-defense rights as applied to cyber-attacks, and the relative merits of interpretations within that range; (2) a strategic perspective, to link a purported right of armed self-defense to long-term policy interests including security and stability; and (3) a political perspective, to consider the situational context in which government decision-makers will face these issues and predictive judgments about the ...


Desistance And Legitimacy: The Impact Of Offender Notification Meetings On Recidivism Among High Risk Offenders, Andrew V. Papachristos, Danielle M. Wallace, Tracey L. Meares, Jeffrey Fagan Jan 2013

Desistance And Legitimacy: The Impact Of Offender Notification Meetings On Recidivism Among High Risk Offenders, Andrew V. Papachristos, Danielle M. Wallace, Tracey L. Meares, Jeffrey Fagan

Faculty Scholarship

Objective: Legitimacy-based approaches to crime prevention operate under the assumption that individuals — including violent offenders — are more likely to comply with the law when they believe that the law and its agents are legitimate and act in ways that seem inherently “fair” and “just.” While mounting evidence finds an association between such legitimacy-based programs and reductions in aggregate levels of crime and violence, no study has investigated whether such programs influence individual offending. This study evaluates the effectiveness of one such program — Project Safe Neighborhoods’ (PSN) Offender Notification Meetings — at reducing individual recidivism among a population of returning prisoners in ...


The Opportunities For And Hurdles To Combined Heat And Power In New York City, Alexis Saba, Bianca Howard, Michael Gerrard, Vijay Modi Jan 2013

The Opportunities For And Hurdles To Combined Heat And Power In New York City, Alexis Saba, Bianca Howard, Michael Gerrard, Vijay Modi

Faculty Scholarship

This paper first seeks to quantify the potential for CHP development in New York City and describe the primary hurdles to optimal deployment in Parts I and II. Part III provides policy solutions for overcoming these hurdles and recommendations for how stakeholders can use information and analysis to maximize the opportunities for CHP.


Shallow Signals, Bert I. Huang Jan 2013

Shallow Signals, Bert I. Huang

Faculty Scholarship

Whether in dodging taxes, violating copyrights, misstating corporate earnings, or just jaywalking, we often follow the lead of others in our choices to obey or to flout the law. Seeing others act illegally, we gather that a rule is weakly enforced or that its penalty is not serious. But we may be imitating by mistake: what others are doing might not be illegal — for them.

Whenever the law quietly permits some actors to act in a way that is usually forbidden, copycat misconduct may be erroneously inspired by the false appearance that “others are doing it too.” The use of ...


The Pre-Session Recess, Peter L. Strauss Jan 2013

The Pre-Session Recess, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

In the brief remarks following, I do not address the Burkean argument that practice has established the permissibility of recess appointments during the week-or-more adjournments of Congress that modern transportation modalities permit. We can perhaps let President Eisenhower’s recess appointments of Chief Justice Warren, Justice Brennan, and Justice Stewart stand witness to that understanding. Rather, I want to suggest flaws in the originalist analysis used by the Canning court and in the Senate’s ruse of meeting every three days over the winter period of 2011-12 that many take to place the January 4, 2012 recess appointments President Obama ...


Law And Ethics For Autonomous Weapon Systems: Why A Ban Won't Work And How The Laws Of War Can, Kenneth Anderson, Matthew C. Waxman Jan 2013

Law And Ethics For Autonomous Weapon Systems: Why A Ban Won't Work And How The Laws Of War Can, Kenneth Anderson, Matthew C. Waxman

Faculty Scholarship

Public debate is heating up over the future development of autonomous weapon systems. Some concerned critics portray that future, often invoking science-fiction imagery, as a plain choice between a world in which those systems are banned outright and a world of legal void and ethical collapse on the battlefield. Yet an outright ban on autonomous weapon systems, even if it could be made effective, trades whatever risks autonomous weapon systems might pose in war for the real, if less visible, risk of failing to develop forms of automation that might make the use of force more precise and less harmful ...