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The New York Court Of Appeals Visits (And Then Revisits) The Preclusive Impact Of Administrative Findings Of Fact In Subsequent State Court Actions, Jay C. Carlisle Nov 2014

The New York Court Of Appeals Visits (And Then Revisits) The Preclusive Impact Of Administrative Findings Of Fact In Subsequent State Court Actions, Jay C. Carlisle

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The Court of Appeals decision in Auqui v. Seven Thirty One Limited Partnership, 3 N.E.3d 682 (N.Y. 2013), recognizes that administrative proceedings which take the form of “quasi-judicial” determinations may sometimes be given preclusive impact in subsequent judicial proceedings provided that the identity of issue and full and fair opportunity requirements of collateral estoppel or issue preclusion are satisfied. The decision also recognizes that administrative determinations made without the benefit of rules of evidence, pre-trial disclosure and motion practice should be given very limited affect in subsequent judicial proceedings. The fact that the Empire State’s highest ...


Why Full Implementation Is Long Overdue, Merril Sobie Oct 2014

Why Full Implementation Is Long Overdue, Merril Sobie

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In 1980, the American Bar Association (ABA) promulgated a far-reaching comprehensive body of Juvenile Justice Standards, thereby providing a blueprint for the reform of a system that had serious deficiencies. Developed in partnership with the Institute of Judicial Administration (IJA) at New York University, the standards address the entire juvenile justice continuum, from police handling and intake to adjudication, disposition, juvenile corrections, and ancillary functions. Approximately 300 professionals collaborated for a decade to produce the 23 volumes approved by the ABA House of Delegates.

To this day, the standards remain relevant and reformist. Several have been implemented in whole or ...


The State Response To Climate Change: 50 State Survey, Laura Jensen, Kelly Nishikawa, Benjamin Lowenthal Sep 2014

The State Response To Climate Change: 50 State Survey, Laura Jensen, Kelly Nishikawa, Benjamin Lowenthal

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This survey accompanies Global Climate Change and U.S. Law, Second Edition (Michael B. Gerrard and Jody Freeman, eds, 2014). It compiles state legislation, rules and executive orders that specifically address climate change as of the end of April 2014. It also includes a wide variety of state activities that may have an impact on greenhouse gases including legislation related to energy efficiency and renewable energy. The focus of this material is to provide readers with an understanding of the range of state activity that may contribute to greenhouse gas reduction and climate change. Some types of energy efficiency, alternative ...


Highest Court In New York Affirms Local Power To Regulate Hydrofracking, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Sep 2014

Highest Court In New York Affirms Local Power To Regulate Hydrofracking, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In one of the most anxiously awaited New York land use decisions in recent memory, the State’s highest court held that local governments have the power to regulate hydrofracking under their authority to enact zoning ordinances. Both the Towns of Dryden and Middlefield enacted zoning laws that entirely banned gas drilling and associated activities within their borders. The plaintiffs, a private gas company in one case and a private property owner in the other, claimed that a supersession clause in the State Oil, Gas, and Solution Mining Law (OGSML) preempted local authority. After reviewing the plain language of the ...


Global Water Resources & Publications, Taryn L. Rucinski Jul 2014

Global Water Resources & Publications, Taryn L. Rucinski

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Before we as a society can begin crafting innovative legal solutions to help combat the global water crisis, researchers and experts in the field first need access to sound sources of scientific information. Despite the seeming simplicity of that goal, locating research about water, sanitation, and agricultural conditions, especially in developing countries, can be immensely challenging as it is complicated by issues of language, currency, scope, and accuracy. The purpose of this note is to provide practitioners with a list of free, high quality resources that should help make their research in this area a bit more accessible.


Innovative Financing For Renewable Energy, Richard L. Ottinger, John Bowie Jul 2014

Innovative Financing For Renewable Energy, Richard L. Ottinger, John Bowie

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Carbon pollution from fossil-fuel combustion is the largest contributor to climate change worldwide. Renewable energy can materially help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their principal cause, worldwide dependence on carbon fuels. If our goal is to remain at or below 1990 numbers, then fossil fuels must be phased out of the global energy portfolio.

While other factors such as energy inefficiencies in buildings, appliances and transportation, for example; deforestation, farm animal excretion, pipeline leakage, HFCs for refrigeration, black soot and changes in land use also contribute to increased emissions, finding new, innovative ways to empower people to seize ...


Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel Jul 2014

Options For Adaption To Climate Change, Richard L. Ottinger, Pianpian Wang, Kristin M. Motel

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In order to tackle climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”) provided a portfolio of measures: mitigation, adaptation and constant research. Although Article 10 of the Kyoto Protocol underlined the importance of adaptation, adaptation to climate change had been obtained limited attention in the early negotiations of climate talks. In 2010, Cancun Session of Conference of Parties (“COP”) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (“UNFCCC”) highlighted the equal importance of adaptation just as mitigation. Since then, increasing attention has been drawn to adaptation practice by the international society. Typically, adaptation can be broken down into ...


Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross May 2014

Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) and selected lower federal and state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


Lessons From A Lawyer’S Life, Leslie Carothers May 2014

Lessons From A Lawyer’S Life, Leslie Carothers

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The author, scholar-in-residence at Pace Law School, received the 2013 ABA Award for Distinguished Achievement in Environmental Law and Policy. A pioneer in the early years of environmental protection, she expands in this space on her remarks in accepting the honor, drawing insights for today’s environmental professionals.


Horton The Elephant Interprets The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure: How The Federal Courts Sometimes Do And Always Should Understand Them, Donald L. Doernberg Jan 2014

Horton The Elephant Interprets The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure: How The Federal Courts Sometimes Do And Always Should Understand Them, Donald L. Doernberg

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In Shady Grove, the Court considered whether a federal class action was maintainable in a diversity case where state law forbade class actions. The justices were sharply split into shifting majorities. One majority concluded that Rule 23 was not substantive for REA purposes and that it applied, but its members could not agree on why. Four justices thought it was proper to look only at the Federal Rule in question to see whether it addressed substance or procedure on its face. A different majority supported an approach to REA questions that required evaluating state law to determine whether the Federal ...


The Professor And The Judge: Introducing First Year Students To The Law In Context, Michael B. Mushlin, Lisa Margaret Smith Jan 2014

The Professor And The Judge: Introducing First Year Students To The Law In Context, Michael B. Mushlin, Lisa Margaret Smith

Pace Law Faculty Publications

For the past five years the authors, one a law professor, and the other a federal judge, have joined forces to teach introductory civil procedure to first semester first year students. Our approach is contrary to the traditional theory of legal instruction which holds that students learn first by a rigid diet of Socratic teaching of the fundamentals of legal analysis without any exposure to the real world or even a simulation of it. The central idea behind our experiment is that at the beginning of law school it is essential to provide a contextual introduction to the work of ...


A National Mineral Policy As An International Investment Law Stratagem: The Case Of Tajikistan's Gold Reserves, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2014

A National Mineral Policy As An International Investment Law Stratagem: The Case Of Tajikistan's Gold Reserves, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes that a national mineral policy ("NMP") can be crafted to generate foreign direct investment ("FDI") and strengthen sustainable development goals. Less-developed countries ("LDCs") typically overlook or underestimate this federal policy imperative while seeking to harness mineral resources.' Creation of a NMP and complementary changes to federal mining investment laws can provide host countries increased opportunities as well as autonomy to profit from their own natural resources and, at the same time, investor nations can benefit from a NMP because of further mining prospects.

This Article goes on to discuss how the formulation and implementation of a NMP ...


The Paradox Of Race-Conscious Labels, Leslie Y. Garfield Jan 2014

The Paradox Of Race-Conscious Labels, Leslie Y. Garfield

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Labeling affirmative action laws with integrity is a hopelessly paradoxical pursuit. This article illustrates the consequences of such a pursuit. Section I traces the origins of the Top Ten Percent Law, which arose as a legislative protest to the Fifth Circuit's rejection of the use of race in admissions decisions. This section provides an in-depth understanding of the Top Ten Percent Law and concludes with a detailed analysis of the Fisher decision. Section II supplies an explanation of the majority's conclusion to treat the Top Ten Percent Law as race-neutral and provides detailed support for Justice Ginsburg's ...


To Abbreviate Or Not To Abbreviate: A Perspective On Administrative Agency Bluebook Citations, Taryn L. Rucinski Jan 2014

To Abbreviate Or Not To Abbreviate: A Perspective On Administrative Agency Bluebook Citations, Taryn L. Rucinski

Pace Law Faculty Publications

For students and practitioners, one of the most confusing issues posed today by The Bluebook lies in when and how to abbreviate federal and state administrative agency names. Or to put it another way: Do I use: EPA, E.P.A., Envtl. Protection Agency, or U.S. Envtl. Protection Agency?


The International Sugar Trade And Sustainable Development: Curtailing The Sugar Rush, Nadia B. Ahmad Jan 2014

The International Sugar Trade And Sustainable Development: Curtailing The Sugar Rush, Nadia B. Ahmad

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article will briefly examine the history of the international sugar trade and discuss the current status of the sugar industry in world markets, specifically in Brazil, India, and the United States. The international sugar trade industry should consider instituting sustainable development practices not only for the public good, but also to enhance its bottom line. As "one of the most highly distorted agricultural commodity markets," the international sugar market is an ideal environment to implement sustainable development practices and begin change with respect to CSR through "guaranteed minimum payments to producers, production and marketing controls (quotas), state-regulated retail prices ...


Resoling International Shoe, Donald L. Doernberg Jan 2014

Resoling International Shoe, Donald L. Doernberg

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Goodyear Dunlop Tire Operations, S.A. v. Brown and Daimler AG v. Bauman sharply restricted general jurisdiction over corporations, limiting it to a corporation’s (1) state of incorporation, (2) state of principal place of business, or (3) another state where the corporation is “essentially at home.” The Court analogized the first two categories to an individual’s domicile. The Court made clear that the third category is very small, leading Justice Sotomayor, in her opinion concurring in the judgment, to charge that the Court had made many corporations “too big for general jurisdiction.” It is noteworthy that although the ...


Setting The Table For Urban Agriculture, Margot J. Pollans Jan 2014

Setting The Table For Urban Agriculture, Margot J. Pollans

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article provides context for the various roles that law plays in the cultivation of urban agriculture. This article first reflects on how popular support for the development of a legal framework that promotes urban agriculture is rooted deeply in American agrarian traditions. The article then notes the palatable tension between the rhetoric in support of urban agriculture and the modes of urban law and planning that dominated the twentieth century. It considers how various approaches to urban planning have facilitated or thwarted urban agriculture and surveys recent legal developments designed to accommodate and encourage urban agriculture projects as alternatives ...


Meat Animals, Humane Standards And Other Legal Fictions, David N. Cassuto Jan 2014

Meat Animals, Humane Standards And Other Legal Fictions, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Law and food are distinct concepts, though the discipline (Law and Food) implies a relationship worthy of study. The conjunction (“and”) creates meaning. However, its absence also conveys meaning. For example, “meat animal” suggests that animals can be both meat and animal. This conflation has powerful legal implications. National Meat Association v. Harris (2012) makes chillingly plain the law’s indifference to whether a meat animal is alive or dead. This essay examines the way supposedly humane federal practices ignore the systematic brutalization of “food animals” as those animals get processed into marketable flesh. It concludes with some observations about ...


Sex, Science, And The Age Of Anxiety, Linda C. Fentiman Jan 2014

Sex, Science, And The Age Of Anxiety, Linda C. Fentiman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article examines the question of whether the HPV vaccine should be mandated (for girls and/or boys) in the context of declining rates of childhood immunization, and the potential threat to public health that this decline poses. The article addresses two interconnected legal issues: first, is mandating vaccines to prevent the spread of disease constitutional under substantive due process and equal protection principles, and second, should parents be permitted to “opt out” of mandatory vaccination on their children’s behalf, either for all vaccines or those which prevent particular diseases. The article addresses these issues in the context of ...


Preface To Protecting The Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground, John R. Nolon Jan 2014

Preface To Protecting The Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Protecting the Environment Through Land Use Law: Standing Ground takes a close look at the historical struggle of local governments to balance land development with natural resource conservation. This book updates and expands on his four previous books, which established a comprehensive framework for understanding the many ways that local land use authority can be used to preserve natural resources and environmental functions at the community level. Standing Ground describes in detail how localities are responding to new challenges, including the imperative that they adapt to and help mitigate climate change and create sustainable neighborhoods. This body of work emphasizes ...


The Resilience Principle, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

The Resilience Principle, Nicholas A. Robinson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Resilient self-help is essential in coping with life’s upsets. This essay explores the prospect of recognizing Resilience as a Principle of Law. The propositions set forth here were debated at two conferences held in Brasilia, in December of 2013. The first, for legislators, was convened in the Senate of Brazil by the National Congress’ Joint Permanent Committee on Climate Change, and the second, for judges, was convened by the Federal Judicial Council’s Judicial Studies Center (Conselho da Justiça Federal Centro de Estudos Judiciários) and the High Court of Brazil (Superior Tribunal de Justiça). This eJournal of the IUCN ...


Mitigating The Adverse Impacts Of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Role For Local Zoning?, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2014

Mitigating The Adverse Impacts Of Hydraulic Fracturing: A Role For Local Zoning?, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article focuses on the action localities have taken toward mitigating some of the adverse impacts of hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking. The Article will explore impacts at the local level and will show the governance gap that has resulted from federal and state regulations that leave many local impacts unmitigated. Zoning laws and other practices that local governments are adopting are also discussed, explaining why state preemption over the traditional role of local governments in regulating this particular heavy industrial activity is not the ideal situation.


The Prosecutor’S Contribution To Wrongful Convictions, Bennett L. Gershman Jan 2014

The Prosecutor’S Contribution To Wrongful Convictions, Bennett L. Gershman

Pace Law Faculty Publications

A prosecutor is viewed by the public as a powerful law enforcement official whose responsibility is to convict guilty people of crimes. But not everybody understands that a prosecutor’s function is not only to win convictions of law-breakers. A prosecutor is a quasi-judicial official who has a duty to promote justice to the entire community, including those people charged with crimes. Indeed, an overriding function of a prosecutor is to ensure that innocent people not get convicted and punished.

A prosecutor is constitutionally and ethically mandated to promote justice. The prosecutor is even considered a "Minister of Justice" who ...


No Entry To The Public Lands: Towards A Theory Of A Public Trust Servitude For A Way Over Abutting Private Land, Shelby D. Green Jan 2014

No Entry To The Public Lands: Towards A Theory Of A Public Trust Servitude For A Way Over Abutting Private Land, Shelby D. Green

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article explores the problem of inadequate access and why owners of private property abutting public lands cannot fence out the public if their sole or primary purpose is to deny access to public land. The reasons why such landowners should not be allowed to put up fences, even on their own land, if the effect is to hinder the public's access to public land are several. First, it is opportunistic and unjustly interferes with citizens' ability to enjoy the interest they hold in public lands. Second, it denies citizens access rights rooted in the common law. Third, and ...


Keynote: Sustaining Society In The Anthropocene Epoch, Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

Keynote: Sustaining Society In The Anthropocene Epoch, Nicholas A. Robinson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This paper explores the argument that human transformation of Earth's systems is eclipsing the international law-making of nation states. Globally the processes of trade law or environmental law often progress transnationally, with little direction by national governments. Intergovernmental and non-governmental international organizations act with autonomy, apart from nations. To be clear, nation states still are the major players in world order, but trends of sustainable development or social networked communications transcend individual nations. Whether viewed as environmental law or sustainability law, this body of law exists at once globally and locally; it is different in kind from the Westphalia ...


Citizen Litigants Citizen Regulators: Four Cases Where Citizen Suits Drove Development Of Clean Water Law, Karl S. Coplan Jan 2014

Citizen Litigants Citizen Regulators: Four Cases Where Citizen Suits Drove Development Of Clean Water Law, Karl S. Coplan

Pace Law Faculty Publications

One of the key innovations of the 1970s regulatory environmental revolution was the provision for citizen enforcement of regulatory standards. This innovation upset the previous bipolar regulatory model, which was a two-way negotiation between the regulated industries and the (often captive) regulatory agencies. By removing agency enforcement discretion as a means of underenforcing statutory norms, the citizens suit brought a new constituency to the regulatory bargaining table. The citizen suit had the intended effect of implementing a regime of full enforcement of the new environmental norms.

But the revolutionary effect of the newly minted citizen suit was not limited to ...


Plain Meaning, Precedent, And Metaphysics: Interpreting The “Addition” Element Of The Clean Water Act Offense, Jeffrey G. Miller Jan 2014

Plain Meaning, Precedent, And Metaphysics: Interpreting The “Addition” Element Of The Clean Water Act Offense, Jeffrey G. Miller

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The Clean Water Act (CWA) prohibits addition of any pollutant to navigable waters from any point source by any person without a permit. Surprisingly, the first element of this prohibition, “addition,” remains undefined. It has been interpreted broadly by regulators and judges to expand the prohibition to such an extent that it threatens to capture innocent people. EPA in particular has confused “addition” with “navigable waters” to such an extent that it threatens to eviscerate half of the CWA’s regulatory strategies and programs: water quality standards and the § 404 program protecting wetlands. This Article examines the interpretation of “addition ...


Accessing Law: An Empirical Study Exploring The Influence Of Legal Research Medium, Katrina Fischer Kuh Jan 2014

Accessing Law: An Empirical Study Exploring The Influence Of Legal Research Medium, Katrina Fischer Kuh

Pace Law Faculty Publications

The legal profession is presently engaged in an uncontrolled experiment. Attorneys now locate and access legal authorities primarily through electronic means. Although this shift to an electronic research medium radically changes how attorneys discover and encounter law, little empirical work investigates impacts from the shift to an electronic medium.

This Article presents the results of one of the most robust empirical studies conducted to date comparing research processes using print and electronic sources. While the study presented in this Article was modest in scope, the extent and type of the differences that it reveals are notable. Some of the observed ...


Due Process Disaggregation, Jason Parkin Jan 2014

Due Process Disaggregation, Jason Parkin

Pace Law Faculty Publications

One-size-fits-all procedural safeguards are becoming increasingly suspect under the Due Process Clause. Although the precise requirements of due process vary from context to context, the Supreme Court has held that, within any particular context, the Due Process Clause merely requires one-size-fits-all procedures that are designed according to the needs of the average or typical person using the procedures. As the Court explained when announcing the modern approach to procedural due process in Mathews v. Eldridge, the due process calculus must be focused on “the generality of cases, not the rare exceptions.” A more granular approach to due process rules, the ...


In Memoriam: David Sive (1922-2014) And Joseph Sax (1936-2014), Nicholas A. Robinson Jan 2014

In Memoriam: David Sive (1922-2014) And Joseph Sax (1936-2014), Nicholas A. Robinson

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In 1995, Professor of Law David Sive and Pace’s Law Faculty established this lectureship, in honor of Lloyd K. Garrison, to commemorate Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v. Federal Power Commission.1 Known as the Storm King case, this ruling inaugurated what we today call environmental law. Two individuals above all others guided and framed the jurisprudential foundations for environmental law. We honor these founders today. Their lives were intertwined.