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2014

Criminal Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

What Are Transitions For? Atrocity, International Criminal Justice, And The Political, Paulo D. Barrozo Dec 2014

What Are Transitions For? Atrocity, International Criminal Justice, And The Political, Paulo D. Barrozo

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This essay offers an answer to the question of what societies afflicted by atrocities ought to transition into. The answer offered is able to better direct the evaluation of previous models and the design of new models of transitional justice. Into what, then, should transitional justice transition? I argue in this essay that transitional justice should be a transition into the political, understood in its robust liberalism version. I further argue that the most significant part of transitions ought to happen in the minds of the members of political communities, precisely where the less tangible and yet most important dimension ...


Summary Of Brant V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 97, Jaymes Orr Dec 2014

Summary Of Brant V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 97, Jaymes Orr

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Court upheld that the exclusion of expert testimony is left to the district court’s wide discretion, except in cases of abuse of its discretion. Expert testimony must be relevant and reliable to be of assistance to the trier of fact. Because Brant could not present scientific or other evidence that his interrogation witness would demonstrate that Brant’s brain injury caused him falsely confess, the district court’s discretion would not be disturbed and the judgment was affirmed.


Actual Innocence In New York: The Curious Case Of People V. Hamilton, Benjamin E. Rosenberg Dec 2014

Actual Innocence In New York: The Curious Case Of People V. Hamilton, Benjamin E. Rosenberg

Res Gestae

It is rare for a case from the New York Appellate Division to be as significant as People v. Hamilton. The case, however, was the first New York appellate court decision to hold that a defendant might vacate his conviction if he could demonstrate that he was “actually innocent” of the crime of which he was charged. Although the precedential force of the decision is limited to the Second Department, trial courts throughout the state are required to follow Hamilton unless or until the appellate court in their own Department rules on the issue. Courts throughout the state are thus ...


Determinants Of The Irish Bail System Before And After 1997., Adrian Berski Dec 2014

Determinants Of The Irish Bail System Before And After 1997., Adrian Berski

Reports

Bail can be defined as:

The setting at liberty of an accused person upon others becoming sureties for the accused at his trail. The decision to admit a person to bail is judicial matter and, consequently, the court cannot delegate the exercise of this judicial power to an administrative official[1].

According to the above definition it should be emphasized that an accused person has to ensure the State that he/she will return to the court proceedings or Garda Síochána Station at the particular time. It is imperative that bail is established on the fact that a criminal is ...


Discovering A Gold Mine Of U.S. Government Information: Exploring The Hathitrust Catalog And Its Rich Veins, Bert Chapman Dec 2014

Discovering A Gold Mine Of U.S. Government Information: Exploring The Hathitrust Catalog And Its Rich Veins, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

The Hathitrust Catalog provides researchers at member institutions with exponentially expanded access to historical U.S. Government information resources. This presentation describes how researchers can use this resource to conduct substantive research using government information resources on public policy issues such as Internal Revenue Service program problems, infectious diseases such as Ebola, and U.S. foreign relations with the former Soviet Union/Russian Federation.


Do Cameras Make A Difference? The Death Of Eric Garner And Another “No Indictment”, Donald Roth Dec 2014

Do Cameras Make A Difference? The Death Of Eric Garner And Another “No Indictment”, Donald Roth

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

"If body cameras are supposed to help clear up the record, why was there no indictment in a case that seems so clearly abusive, and if a grand jury declined to indict despite the video evidence, what use is adopting cameras?"

Posting about the grand jury decision in New York City following the death of Eric Garner and how Christians should react to it from In All Things - an online hub committed to the claim that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ has implications for the entire world.

http://inallthings.org/do-cameras-make-a-difference-the-death-of-eric-garner-and-another-no-indictment/


Racial Disparity In Federal Criminal Sentences, Sonja B. Starr, M. Marit Rehavi Dec 2014

Racial Disparity In Federal Criminal Sentences, Sonja B. Starr, M. Marit Rehavi

Articles

Using rich data linking federal cases from arrest through to sentencing, we find that initial case and defendant characteristics, including arrest offense and criminal history, can explain most of the large raw racial disparity in federal sentences, but significant gaps remain. Across the distribution, blacks receive sentences that are almost 10 percent longer than those of comparable whites arrested for the same crimes. Most of this disparity can be explained by prosecutors’ initial charging decisions, particularly the filing of charges carrying mandatory minimum sentences. Ceteris paribus, the odds of black arrestees facing such a charge are 1.75 times higher ...


A Tale Of Two (And Possibly Three) Atkins: Intellectual Disability And Capital Punishment Twelve Years After The Supreme Court's Creation Of A Categorical Bar, John H. Blume, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Paul Marcus, Emily C. Paavola Dec 2014

A Tale Of Two (And Possibly Three) Atkins: Intellectual Disability And Capital Punishment Twelve Years After The Supreme Court's Creation Of A Categorical Bar, John H. Blume, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Paul Marcus, Emily C. Paavola

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This article examines empirically the capital cases decided by the lower courts since the United States Supreme Court created the categorical ban against the execution of persons with intellectual disability twelve years ago in the Atkins decision.


The Sentencing Of "Couriers" Under Section 33b Of The Misuse Of Drugs Act: Pp V Chum Tat Suan [2014] Sgca 59, Benjamin Joshua Ong Dec 2014

The Sentencing Of "Couriers" Under Section 33b Of The Misuse Of Drugs Act: Pp V Chum Tat Suan [2014] Sgca 59, Benjamin Joshua Ong

Research Collection School Of Law

Sections 33B(1)–(2) of the Misuse of Drugs Act (“the Act”)1 allow for a person who commits an offence under ss 5(1) or 7 of the Act to be sentenced to life imprisonment and caning instead of death if two conditions are met.


Sex Offender Law And The Geography Of Victimization, J. J. Prescott, Amanda Y. Agan Dec 2014

Sex Offender Law And The Geography Of Victimization, J. J. Prescott, Amanda Y. Agan

Articles

Sex offender laws that target recidivism (e.g., community notification and residency restriction regimes) are premised—at least in part—on the idea that sex offender proximity and victimization risk are positively correlated. We examine this relationship by combining past and current address information of registered sex offenders (RSOs) with crime data from Baltimore County, Maryland, to study how crime rates vary across neighborhoods with different concentrations of resident RSOs. Contrary to the assumptions of policymakers and the public, we find that, all else equal, reported sex offense victimization risk is generally (although not uniformly) lower in neighborhoods where more ...


Shadow Trial: Prosecutors In Ferguson Violated Our Right To An Open Criminal Justice System, Sonja R. West, Dahlia Lithwick Nov 2014

Shadow Trial: Prosecutors In Ferguson Violated Our Right To An Open Criminal Justice System, Sonja R. West, Dahlia Lithwick

Popular Media

St. Louis County prosecutor Robert McCulloch’s decision to “open up” the grand jury proceedings by including massive amounts of testimony and evidence has been decried as “highly unusual,” “deeply unfair,” and evidence that police officer Darren Wilson received “special treatment.” McCulloch’s move to include a good deal of exculpatory evidence and testimony led to a three-month, closed-door proceeding that included 70 hours of testimony, including 60 witnesses and three medical examiners. The breadth of the evidence presented to the grand jury has led many to declare that it turned the entire proceeding into something that walks and quacks ...


No Indictment: Making Sense Of Monday's Decision In Ferguson, Donald Roth Nov 2014

No Indictment: Making Sense Of Monday's Decision In Ferguson, Donald Roth

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

"It was no surprise that this decision stirred strong emotional responses across the board, with many taking the same decision as either full exoneration of Mr. Wilson or proof positive of a racist system incapable of producing justice. So how do we make sense of what has happened?"

Posting about the grand jury decision in Ferguson, Missouri following the death of Michael Brown and how Christians should react to it from In All Things - an online hub committed to the claim that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ has implications for the entire world.

http://inallthings.org/no-indictment-making-sense-of-mondays-decision-in-ferguson/


What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar Nov 2014

What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A new form of restitution has become a core aspect of criminal punishment. Courts now order defendants to compensate victims for an increasingly broad category of losses, including emotional and psychological losses and losses for which the defendant was not found guilty. Criminal restitution therefore moves far beyond its traditional purpose of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, restitution has become a mechanism of imposing additional punishment. Courts, however, have failed to recognize the punitive nature of restitution and thus enter restitution orders without regard to the constitutional protections that normally attach to criminal proceedings. This Article deploys a ...


Sex Offender Residency Restrictions Serve No Purpose, Stephen Butts Oct 2014

Sex Offender Residency Restrictions Serve No Purpose, Stephen Butts

GGU Law Review Blog

No abstract provided.


Summary Of Byars V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 85, Katherine Frank Oct 2014

Summary Of Byars V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 85, Katherine Frank

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Court determined that (1) pursuant to Missouri v. McNeely[1], the natural dissipation of marijuana in the blood stream does not constitute a per se exigent circumstance permitting a warrantless blood draw, (2) NRS 484C.160(7)[2], which allows officers to use force to obtain blood samples, violates the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution[3], and (3) when a warrantless blood draw is nonetheless taken in good faith, evidence obtained from the blood draw is admissible at trial.


Summary Of Watson V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 76, Lindsay Liddell Oct 2014

Summary Of Watson V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 76, Lindsay Liddell

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Court determined that (1) a Batson objection to peremptory strikes should be analyzed with reference to the amount of allegedly targeted-group members within the venire; and (2) that a jury instruction is not issued in error when there was a reasonable likelihood that the jury did not understand the instruction incorrectly, even if the rule does not comprehensively explain the underlying doctrine, so long as it accurately states the law.


Summary Of Artiga-Morales V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 77, Janine Lee Oct 2014

Summary Of Artiga-Morales V. State, 130 Nev. Adv. Op. 77, Janine Lee

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

In the absence of a rule or statute mandating disclosure of jury background information from the prosecution to the defense, no such obligation exists.[1] If policy considerations dictate that defendants should be allowed to see prosecution-developed jury dossiers, then a court rule should be proposed, considered and adopted as implicitly authorized by NRS 179A.100(7)(j). Such a procedure would allow the court to better assess the “scope of disparity, impact on juror privacy interests, the need to protect work product, practicality, and fundamental fairness

than this case, with its limited record and arguments.”

[1] This is the ...


Lost In The Weeds Of Pot Law: The Role Of Ethics In The Movement To Legalize Marijuana, Helia Garrido Hull Oct 2014

Lost In The Weeds Of Pot Law: The Role Of Ethics In The Movement To Legalize Marijuana, Helia Garrido Hull

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Inverse Relationship Between The Constitutionality And Effectiveness Of New York City "Stop And Frisk", Jeffrey Bellin Oct 2014

The Inverse Relationship Between The Constitutionality And Effectiveness Of New York City "Stop And Frisk", Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

New York City sits at the epicenter of an extraordinary criminal justice phenomenon. While employing aggressive policing tactics, such as “stop and frisk,” on an unprecedented scale, the City dramatically reduced both violent crime and incarceration – with the connections between these developments (if any) hotly disputed. Further clouding the picture, in August 2013, a federal district court ruled the City’s heavy reliance on “stop and frisk” unconstitutional. Popular and academic commentary generally highlights isolated pieces of this complex story, constructing an incomplete vision of the lessons to be drawn from the New York experience. This Article brings together all ...


Why Full Implementation Is Long Overdue, Merril Sobie Oct 2014

Why Full Implementation Is Long Overdue, Merril Sobie

Pace Law Faculty Publications

In 1980, the American Bar Association (ABA) promulgated a far-reaching comprehensive body of Juvenile Justice Standards, thereby providing a blueprint for the reform of a system that had serious deficiencies. Developed in partnership with the Institute of Judicial Administration (IJA) at New York University, the standards address the entire juvenile justice continuum, from police handling and intake to adjudication, disposition, juvenile corrections, and ancillary functions. Approximately 300 professionals collaborated for a decade to produce the 23 volumes approved by the ABA House of Delegates.

To this day, the standards remain relevant and reformist. Several have been implemented in whole or ...


Human Rights Infringements In Brazil’S Penitentiary System Understood Through Access To Healthcare, Sara Morris Oct 2014

Human Rights Infringements In Brazil’S Penitentiary System Understood Through Access To Healthcare, Sara Morris

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Brazil has a reputation of being home to some of the worst penitentiary conditions worldwide, eventually leading the United Nations to make an appeal to the Brazilian government in 2003 to analyze their systems and make necessary improvements. The poor conditions and lack of access to legal counsel, living space, and specifically healthcare, cause riots and uprisings within prisons that in the past have lead to death of prisoners and guards. Prisons serve a very specific purpose in society, and according to most social theorists that is to reform, not to torture. In Brazil there is no capital punishment, so ...


Femicide In Bolivia After Law 348, Adán Martínez Oct 2014

Femicide In Bolivia After Law 348, Adán Martínez

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project explores the concept of femicide from a unique perspective, by analyzing the effect that Law #348: The Internal Law to Guarantee Women a Life Without Violence after a year that it passed during the Morales' administration. I examine two crucial questions to this study: 1) How do we explain the paradox that although this law has passed, today we see an increase in the number of femicides in Bolivia? 2) What are the obstacles that prevent that application of law 348 3) What can we do to put a stop to femicides? I demonstrate that several factors like ...


Proportionality, Discretion, And The Roles Of Judges And Prosecutors At Sentencing, Palma Paciocco Oct 2014

Proportionality, Discretion, And The Roles Of Judges And Prosecutors At Sentencing, Palma Paciocco

Articles & Book Chapters

The Supreme Court of Canada recently held that prosecutors are not constitutionally obligated to consider the principle of proportionality when exercising their discretion in a manner that narrows the range of available sentences: since only judges are responsible for sentencing, they alone are constitutionally required to ensure proportionality. When mandatory minimum sentences apply, however, judges have limited sentencing discretion and may be unable to achieve proportionality. If the Court takes the principle of proportionality seriously, and if it insists that only judges are constitutionally bound to enforce that principle, it must therefore create new tools whereby judges can avoid imposing ...


It’S Not Too Difficult: A Plea To Resurrect The Impossibility Defense, Ken Levy Oct 2014

It’S Not Too Difficult: A Plea To Resurrect The Impossibility Defense, Ken Levy

All Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Beyond The Schoolhouse Gates: The Unprecedented Expansion Of School Surveillance Authority Under Cyberbullying Laws, Emily F. Suski Oct 2014

Beyond The Schoolhouse Gates: The Unprecedented Expansion Of School Surveillance Authority Under Cyberbullying Laws, Emily F. Suski

Faculty Publications By Year

For several years, states have grappled with the problem of cyberbullying and its sometimes devastating effects. Because cyberbullying often occurs between students, most states have understandably looked to schools to help address the problem. To that end, schools in forty-six states have the authority to intervene when students engage in cyberbullying. This solution seems all to the good unless a close examination of the cyberbullying laws and their implications is made. This Article explores some of the problematic implications of the cyberbullying laws. More specifically, it focuses on how the cyberbullying laws allow schools unprecedented surveillance authority over students. This ...


The Fatal Flaws Of The 'Sneak And Peek' Statute And How To Fix It, Jonathan Witmer-Rich Oct 2014

The Fatal Flaws Of The 'Sneak And Peek' Statute And How To Fix It, Jonathan Witmer-Rich

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In the USA PATRIOT Act, Congress authorized delayed notice search warrants — warrants authorizing a “sneak and peek” search, in which investigators conduct covert searches, notifying the occupant weeks or months after the search. These warrants also sometimes authorize covert seizures — a “sneak and steal” search — in which investigators seize evidence, often staging the scene to look like a burglary.

Covert searches invade the privacy of the home and should be used only in exceptional cases. The current legal rules governing delayed notice search warrants are conceptually flawed. The statute uses a legal doctrine — “exigent circumstances” — that does not make logical ...


Exoneration Of Death Row Convict Supports Abolitionists, Lauren Carasik Sep 2014

Exoneration Of Death Row Convict Supports Abolitionists, Lauren Carasik

Media Presence

No abstract provided.


Forced Decryption As Equilibrium—Why It’S Constitutional And How Riley Matters, Dan Terzian Sep 2014

Forced Decryption As Equilibrium—Why It’S Constitutional And How Riley Matters, Dan Terzian

NULR Online

No abstract provided.


Section 6: Criminal, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The College Of William & Mary School Of Law Sep 2014

Section 6: Criminal, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The College Of William & Mary School Of Law

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


The Challenges Of Preventing And Prosecuting Social Media Crimes, Thaddeus A. Hoffmeister Sep 2014

The Challenges Of Preventing And Prosecuting Social Media Crimes, Thaddeus A. Hoffmeister

School of Law Faculty Publications

Wanted: Caretaker For Farm. Simply watch over a 688 acre patch of hilly farmland and feed a few cows, you get 300 a week and a nice 2 bedroom trailer, someone older and single preferred but will consider all, relocation a must, you must have a clean record and be trustworthy—this is a permanent position, the farm is used mainly as a hunting preserve, is overrun with game, has a stocked 3 acre pond, but some beef cattle will be kept, nearest neighbor is a mile away, the place is secluded and beautiful, it will be a real get ...