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The Fiduciary Constitution Of Human Rights, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle Dec 2009

The Fiduciary Constitution Of Human Rights, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

We argue that human rights are best conceived as norms arising from a fiduciary relationship that exists between states (or statelike actors) and the citizens and noncitizens subject to their power. These norms draw on a Kantian conception of moral personhood, protecting agents from instrumentalization and domination. They do not, however, exist in the abstract as timeless natural rights. Instead, they are correlates of the state’s fiduciary duty to provide equal security under the rule of law, a duty that flows from the state’s institutional assumption of irresistible sovereign powers.


Medellin, Delegation And Conflicts (Of Law), Peter B. Rutledge Oct 2009

Medellin, Delegation And Conflicts (Of Law), Peter B. Rutledge

Scholarly Works

The case of Medellin v. Texas presented the Supreme Court with a recurring question that has bedeviled judges, legal scholars, and political scientists-what effect, if any, must a United States court give to the decision of an international tribunal, particularly where, during the relevant time, the United States was party to a treaty protocol that bound it to that tribunal's judgments. While the Supreme Court held that the International Court of Justice's ("ICJ") decision was not enforceable federal law, its decision reflected an important recognition that the issues presented in that case were not limited to the specific ...


Interest As Damages, John Y. Gotanda, Thierry J. Sénéchal Jul 2009

Interest As Damages, John Y. Gotanda, Thierry J. Sénéchal

Working Paper Series

In this article, we posit that when arbitral tribunals decide international disputes, they typically fail to fully compensate claimants for the loss of the use of their money. This failure occurs because they do not acknowledge that businesses typically invest in opportunities that pose a significantly greater risk than the risk reflected in such commonly used standards as U.S. T-bills and LIBOR rates. Claimants also must share the blame when they do not set out a well-constructed claim for interest as damages. However, even when claimants do so, tribunals often award damages at a statutory rate or at rate ...


Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks Jul 2009

Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks

Scholarly Works

The past several decades have seen a Copernican shift in the paradigm of armed conflict, which the traditional Law of International Armed Conflict (LOIAC) canon has not fully matched. Standing out in stark relief against the backdrop of relative inactivity in LOIAC, is the surfeit of activity in the field of international human rights law, which has become a dramatic new force in the ancient realm of international law. Human rights law, heretofore not formally part of the traditional juridico-military calculus, has gained ever increasing salience in that calculus. Indeed, human rights law has ramified in such a manner that ...


Ratify The Un Disability Treaty, Michael Ashley Stein, Janet E. Lord Jul 2009

Ratify The Un Disability Treaty, Michael Ashley Stein, Janet E. Lord

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Influenza A(H1n1) And Pandemic Preparedness Under The Rule Of International Law, Lawrence O. Gostin Jul 2009

Influenza A(H1n1) And Pandemic Preparedness Under The Rule Of International Law, Lawrence O. Gostin

O'Neill Institute Papers

A novel strain of Influenza A (H1N1) spread rapidly through Mexico in April 2009 and now spans the globe. By the time WHO was notified and responded, geographical containment was not feasible, leading the agency to call for mitigation. The international outbreak of SARS in 2003 and the more recent Influenza A (H5N1) among birds with limited transmission to humans helped prepare the world for the current pandemic threat. SARS galvanized the WHO to revise the antiquated International Health Regulations (IHR) in 2005, which took effect June 15, 2007. Governments instituted preparedness plans in response to avian influenza.

Despite increased ...


A Fiduciary Theory Of Jus Cogens, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent Jul 2009

A Fiduciary Theory Of Jus Cogens, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


In The Name Of Sovereignty? The Battle Over In Dubio Mitius Inside And Outside The Courts, Christophe J. Larouer Apr 2009

In The Name Of Sovereignty? The Battle Over In Dubio Mitius Inside And Outside The Courts, Christophe J. Larouer

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

Contrary to some prominent legal scholars’ predictions, the principle of in dubio mitius, that is, the principle of restrictive interpretation of treaty obligations in deference to the sovereignty of states, has not disappeared. Worse, the Appellate Body (AB) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has carried it into the 21st Century, reigniting the ideological debate dividing the legal doctrine over the conception of what the relationship between domestic and international law should be. Therefore, after retracing the history of this principle during which key legal figures opposed one another, this article examines the divergent positions defended by the proponents and ...


Multilateralism Or Regionalism; What Can Be Done About The Proliferation Of Regional Trading Agreements?, Luwam G. Dirar Apr 2009

Multilateralism Or Regionalism; What Can Be Done About The Proliferation Of Regional Trading Agreements?, Luwam G. Dirar

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

Regional trading agreements are treaties entered into by states. States enter into regional trading agreements for different reasons some of which are economic, political and security reasons. Regional trading agreements (herein after RTAs) have been successful in achieving trade liberalization at a much faster speed than the World Trade Organization (herein after WTO). The most notable example of RTAs is the European Communities that has been successful to liberalize both trade in goods and services.

Members of those Regional Trading Agreements create rules of origin. Rules of origin are important in allocating the appropriate duty for imported goods. They tell ...


Does One Size Fit All? A Comparative Study To Determine An Alternative To International Patent Harmonization, Rohan K. George Apr 2009

Does One Size Fit All? A Comparative Study To Determine An Alternative To International Patent Harmonization, Rohan K. George

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

The Agreement for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) was ratified by a majority of the countries of the world in 1994 as a precondition to membership in the World Trade Organization. Today, 153 of the countries of the world are parties to the TRIPS Agreement. The effect of the TRIPS Agreement was to create the first international substantive standards of patent harmonization, and to cause many countries to adopt intellectual property laws far stronger than they had in existence at the time. Today, the process of patent harmonization initiated with the TRIPS Agreement moves forward, through a ...


The United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples: A New Dawn For Indigenous Peoples Rights?, Ronald Kakungulu Apr 2009

The United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples: A New Dawn For Indigenous Peoples Rights?, Ronald Kakungulu

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

Governments in many countries of the world struggle with how to accommodate properly the needs and claims [rights] of native/indigenous peoples within their jurisdictions whose presence long predates European conquest and occupation. In this paper, a comparison and contrast of the approaches of the African and other jurisdictions whose jurisprudence is informative to the protection of the rights of African indigenous peoples, like the Inter-American Court of Human Rights compared with the US, Canada, New Zealand and Australia ‘the big four’ who voted against the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous on September 13, 2007 at the UN ...


Collaborative Governance: Lessons For Europe From U.S. Electricity Restructuring, Charles H. Koch Jr. Apr 2009

Collaborative Governance: Lessons For Europe From U.S. Electricity Restructuring, Charles H. Koch Jr.

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Rethinking ‘Preventive Detention’ From A Comparative Perspective: Three Frameworks For Detaining Terrorist Suspects, Stella J. Burch Mar 2009

Rethinking ‘Preventive Detention’ From A Comparative Perspective: Three Frameworks For Detaining Terrorist Suspects, Stella J. Burch

Student Scholarship Papers

President Barack Obama has convened a multiagency taskforce whose remit includes considering whether the U.S. should develop a new system of ‘preventive detention’ to hold terrorist suspects. American scholars and advocates who favor the establishment of a ‘preventive detention’ regime in the United States frequently point to comparative examples in support of their argument. At the same time, advocates and scholars opposed to the introduction of such a system often turn to comparative law to bolster their arguments against ‘preventive detention.’ Thus far, however, the scholarship produced by both sides of the debate has been limited in two key ...


Measuring State Compliance With The Right To Education Using Indicators: A Case Study Of Colombia’S Obligations Under The Icescr, Sital Kalantry, Jocelyn Getgen, Steven A. Koh Mar 2009

Measuring State Compliance With The Right To Education Using Indicators: A Case Study Of Colombia’S Obligations Under The Icescr, Sital Kalantry, Jocelyn Getgen, Steven A. Koh

Cornell Law Faculty Working Papers

The right to education is often referred to as a “multiplier right” because its enjoyment enhances other human rights. It is enumerated in several international instruments, but it is codified in greatest detail in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Despite its importance, the right to education has received limited attention from scholars, practitioners, and international and regional human rights bodies as compared to other economic, social and cultural rights (ECSRs). In this Article, we propose a methodology that utilizes indicators to measure treaty compliance with the right to education. Indicators are essential to measuring compliance ...


Deriving Peremptory Norms From Sovereignty, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent Mar 2009

Deriving Peremptory Norms From Sovereignty, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


An Identity Crisis Of International Organizations, Sungjoon Cho Mar 2009

An Identity Crisis Of International Organizations, Sungjoon Cho

All Faculty Scholarship

An Identity Crisis of International Organizations Abstract International organizations (IOs) are ubiquitous. More than two hundred IOs touch our everyday lives, ranging banking to flu-shots. However, conventional political scientists seldom pay sufficient attention to IOs which they thoroughly deserve given their contemporary prominence. Because conventional international relations (IR) theories consider IOs as mere passive machineries, they hardly offer a satisfactory explanation on a distinctive mode of IOs’ institutional dynamic, in which a specific IO, as a separate and autonomous organic entity, grows, evolves and eventually makes sense of its own existence. This Essay offers a novel perspective which attempts to ...


Border Searches In The Age Of Terrorism, Robert M. Bloom Feb 2009

Border Searches In The Age Of Terrorism, Robert M. Bloom

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This article will first explore the history of border searches. It will look to the reorganization of the border enforcement apparatus resulting from 9/11 as well as the intersection of the Fourth Amendment and border searches generally. Then, it will analyze the Supreme Court's last statement on border searches in the Flores-Montano27 decision, including what impact this decision has had on the lower courts. Finally, the article will focus on Fourth Amendment cases involving terrorism concerns after 9/11, as a means of drawing some conclusions about the effect the emerging emphasis on terrorism and national security concerns ...


Protecting Against Plunder: The United States And The International Efforts Against Looting Of Antiquities, Asif Efrat Feb 2009

Protecting Against Plunder: The United States And The International Efforts Against Looting Of Antiquities, Asif Efrat

Cornell Law Faculty Working Papers

In 1970 UNESCO adopted a convention intended to stem the flow of looted antiquities from developing countries to collections in art-importing countries. The majority of art-importing countries, including Britain, Germany, and Japan, refused to join the Convention. Contrary to other art-importing countries, and reversing its own traditionally-liberal policy, the United States accepted the international regulation of antiquities and joined the UNESCO Convention. The article seeks to explain why the United States chose to establish controls on antiquities, to the benefit of foreign countries facing archaeological plunder and to the detriment of the US art market. I argue that the concern ...


The International Organization For Standardization: Private Voluntary Standards As Swords And Shields, David A. Wirth Feb 2009

The International Organization For Standardization: Private Voluntary Standards As Swords And Shields, David A. Wirth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Private voluntary standards such as the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO's) 14000 series have played an increasingly important role in encouraging corporations to adopt more sustainable business models on their own initiative and not in direct response to governmentally mandated requirements. ISO standards have a number of benefits, including promoting international uniformity; elevating environmental issues within an enterprise; promoting international trade; and providing a minimal level of environmental performance in countries with less than adequate regulatory infrastructure. Concerns about ISO standards include the relationship to public regulation; and ISO 14001's essentially procedural, as opposed to performance-based, character ...


Regional Minorities, Immigrants, And Migrants: The Reframing Of Minority Language Rights In Europe, Stella J. Burch Jan 2009

Regional Minorities, Immigrants, And Migrants: The Reframing Of Minority Language Rights In Europe, Stella J. Burch

Student Scholarship Papers

Scholarly debate about minority language rights in Europe is usually framed in terms of concern with either "regional" language minorities (such as Basque speakers in Spain) or concern with "immigrant" language minorities (such as Turkish speakers in Germany), with the interests of the two groups being seen as distinct, or even opposed. As a consequence, scholarship in this area has thus far focused upon the fact that a two-tier system of rights exists, with both nation state governments and trans-European institutions privileging "regional" groupings, rather than "immigrant” groups, with little exploration of the relationship between the rights of the two ...


Reason And Authority In The European Court Of Justice, Vlad F. Perju Jan 2009

Reason And Authority In The European Court Of Justice, Vlad F. Perju

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

This Article makes the case for a discursive turn in European law. Contrary to the prevailing view, politicizing the judicial discourse of the European Court of Justice would strengthen, more than undermine, the Court's authority. This argument is made with reference to the ECJ's reason giving practice, specifically to the relation between the form and content of its decisions. Allowing its members to write separate opinions will enable the Court to redefine its role on the European institutional and political stages The Article then answers doctrinal, institutional and juriscultural objections to its central thesis.


International Law, Human Rights And The Transformative Occupation Of Iraq, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2009

International Law, Human Rights And The Transformative Occupation Of Iraq, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter examines the project of transformative occupation undertaken by the United States and its allies following the invasion of Iraq in 2003. More specifically, it considers the Iraqi occupation in light of two competing sensibilities in international legal argument. On one view, which I term “legal formalism”, the purpose of international law is eclectic, intersubjective and value-pluralist: to create the conditions for peaceful coexistence between different political orders and ways of life. This view is commonly associated with the liberalism of the United Nations Charter which posits both the subject of international law and its liberty in formal terms ...


International Law In Crisis: A Qualitative Empirical Contribution To The Compliance Debate, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2009

International Law In Crisis: A Qualitative Empirical Contribution To The Compliance Debate, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 21, Professors Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner published The Limits of International Law, a potentially revolutionary book that employs rational choice theory to argue that international law is really just “politics” and does not render a “compliance pull” on State decisionmakers. Critics have pointed out that Goldsmith and Posner’s identification of the role of international law in each of their case studies is largely conjectural, and that what is needed is qualitative empirical data that identifies the international law-based arguments that were actually made and the policy-makers’ responses to ...


International Law And The Torture Memos, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2009

International Law And The Torture Memos, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article explores the influence of international law in the evolution of the Bush Administration's policies toward detainees in the global war on terror. The detainee case study provides a modern lens for evaluating Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner's hypothesis set forth in THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW that international law exerts no “compliance pull” on American policymakers in times of crisis.


Constitutional Displacement, Timothy Zick Jan 2009

Constitutional Displacement, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

This Article examines the intersection between territory and constitutional liberty. Territoriality, as defined by Robert Sack, is the attempt to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area. Territoriality affects constitutional liberty in profound ways. These effects have been apparent in certain infamous historical episodes, including the territoriality of racial segregation, the geographic exclusion and internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II, early state migratory exclusions, and isolation of the sick and mentally ill. Today, governments are resorting to territorial restrictions in an increasing number of circumstances, including detention of enemy ...


International Law In Domestic Courts: A Conflict Of Laws Approach, Karen Knop, Ralf Michaels, Annelise Riles Jan 2009

International Law In Domestic Courts: A Conflict Of Laws Approach, Karen Knop, Ralf Michaels, Annelise Riles

Cornell Law Faculty Working Papers

The relationship between international law and domestic law is rarely understood as a conflict of laws. Understanding it in this way opens up a parallel with the field of conflict of laws: the field for which the relationship between legal systems, especially the role of another system's jurisdiction, laws, and judgments vis-à-vis the domestic legal system, are exactly the bread-and-butter issues. We argue for such an approach to international law in domestic courts: an approach that we elaborate as "theory through technique."

In our view, conflicts should be seen broadly as the discipline that developed to deal with conflicts ...


Book Review: Henry J. Richardson Iii, The Origins Of African-American Interests In International Law, D. A. Jeremy Telman Jan 2009

Book Review: Henry J. Richardson Iii, The Origins Of African-American Interests In International Law, D. A. Jeremy Telman

Law Faculty Publications

This short review evaluates Professor Richardson's book both as a contribution to the history of the Atlantic slave trade and as contribution to critical race theory.

Professor Richardson has read innumerable historical monographs, works of legal and sociological theory, international law and critical race theory. Armed with this store of knowledge, he is able to recount a detailed narrative of African-American claims to, interests in and appeals to international law over approximately two centuries spanning, with occasional peeks both forward and backward in time, from the landing of the first African slaves at Jamestown in 1619 to the 1815 ...


Book Review Of Freedom From Poverty As A Human Right: Who Owes What To The Very Poor?, Michael Ashley Stein Jan 2009

Book Review Of Freedom From Poverty As A Human Right: Who Owes What To The Very Poor?, Michael Ashley Stein

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


States Of War: Defensive Force Among Nations (Reviewing George P. Fletcher & Jens David Ohlin, Defending Humanity: When Force Is Justified And Why (2008)), Guyora Binder Jan 2009

States Of War: Defensive Force Among Nations (Reviewing George P. Fletcher & Jens David Ohlin, Defending Humanity: When Force Is Justified And Why (2008)), Guyora Binder

Book Reviews

In "Defending Humanity: When Force is Justified and Why," George Fletcher and Jens Ohlin analogize international defensive force to individual self-defense. Based on this analogy, Fletcher and Ohlin justify a presumptive right on the part of every state to intervene against aggression, and a right of humanitarian intervention in support of national groups but not populations. They oppose reprisals, preemptive defense, and resistance to invading armies by irregular troops. This review essay argues that the relative weakness of the Security Council, the unequal power of states, and the contingency of international recognition on effective force all undermine the analogy between ...


Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of International Armed Conflict, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks Jan 2009

Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of International Armed Conflict, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks

Faculty Scholarship

The past several decades have seen a Copernican shift in the paradigm of armed conflict, which the traditional Law of International Armed Conflict (LOIAC) canon has not fully matched. Standing out in stark relief against the backdrop of relative inactivity in LOIAC, is the surfeit of activity in the field of international human rights law, which has become a dramatic new force in the ancient realm of international law. Human rights law, heretofore not formally part of the traditional juridico-military calculus, has gained ever increasing salience in that calculus. Indeed, human rights law has ramified in such a manner that ...