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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Fog Of Certainty, Robert B. Ahdieh Sep 2009

The Fog Of Certainty, Robert B. Ahdieh

Faculty Scholarship

In a recent essay in the Yale Law Journal, constitutional law scholar Michael Stokes Paulsen argues that “[t]he force of international law, as a body of law, upon the United States is . . . largely an illusion.” Rather than law, he suggests, international law is mere “policy and politics.”

For all the certainty with which this argument is advanced, it cannot survive close scrutiny. At its foundation, Professor Paulsen’s essay rests on a pair of fundamental misconceptions of the nature of law. Law is not reduced to mere policy, to begin, simply because it can be undone. Were that true ...


Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu Jul 2009

Book Review: The Iraq War And International Law, Maxwell O. Chibundu

Faculty Scholarship

A review of The Iraq War and International Law edited by Phil Shiner and Andrew Williams. Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2008.


Water Scarcity, Conflict, And Security In A Climate Change World: Challenges And Opportunities For International Law And Policy, Gabriel Eckstein Mar 2009

Water Scarcity, Conflict, And Security In A Climate Change World: Challenges And Opportunities For International Law And Policy, Gabriel Eckstein

Faculty Scholarship

Although climate change is expected to have major consequences that affect the global environment in its broadest sense, one of the earliest and most direct impacts will be on Earth’s fresh water systems. While some regions will experience increased precipitation, others will suffer serious scarcity. Among others, consequences are likely to include severe flooding, extreme droughts, and meandering border-rivers. This, in turn, will affect human migration patterns, population growths, agricultural activities, economic development, and the environment. This article explores the impact that climate change will have on regional and global freshwater resources and the resulting legal and policy implications ...


60 Years Of The Basic Law And Its Interpretation: An American Perspective, Peter E. Quint Jan 2009

60 Years Of The Basic Law And Its Interpretation: An American Perspective, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

In commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the German Basic Law (Constitution) , the author discusses certain aspects of the Basic Law, in comparison with the Constitution of the United States, and examines important developments in the jurisprudence if the German Constitutional Court interpreting the Basic Law.


Book Review: Fresh Perspectives On The "War On Terror", Katherine Vaughns Jan 2009

Book Review: Fresh Perspectives On The "War On Terror", Katherine Vaughns

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Whose Public? Which Law? Mapping The Internal/External Distinction In International Law, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2009

Whose Public? Which Law? Mapping The Internal/External Distinction In International Law, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter challenges and problematizes the convergence thesis between sovereignty and human rights which is argued to rest on only a partial understanding of the liberal tradition in international law, a position commonly referred to as “liberal anti-pluralism.” While relying on a contingent and thus contestable conception of individual autonomy, liberal anti-pluralist accounts do not in fact seek to challenge the rationale for public law or public reason itself. To the contrary, such accounts advance a vision of “universal” or “global” social order governed by a “neutral” public law which limits the freedom of its subjects pursuant to the single ...


The Universal Declaration And South African Constitutional Law: A Response To Justice Arthur Chaskalson, Peter E. Quint Jan 2009

The Universal Declaration And South African Constitutional Law: A Response To Justice Arthur Chaskalson, Peter E. Quint

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Universal Declaration And Developments In The Enforcement Of International Human Rights In Domestic Law, Michael P. Van Alstine Jan 2009

The Universal Declaration And Developments In The Enforcement Of International Human Rights In Domestic Law, Michael P. Van Alstine

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Law, Human Rights And The Transformative Occupation Of Iraq, Peter G. Danchin Jan 2009

International Law, Human Rights And The Transformative Occupation Of Iraq, Peter G. Danchin

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter examines the project of transformative occupation undertaken by the United States and its allies following the invasion of Iraq in 2003. More specifically, it considers the Iraqi occupation in light of two competing sensibilities in international legal argument. On one view, which I term “legal formalism”, the purpose of international law is eclectic, intersubjective and value-pluralist: to create the conditions for peaceful coexistence between different political orders and ways of life. This view is commonly associated with the liberalism of the United Nations Charter which posits both the subject of international law and its liberty in formal terms ...


Medellin, The Alien Tort Statute, And The Domestic Status Of International Law, David H. Moore Jan 2009

Medellin, The Alien Tort Statute, And The Domestic Status Of International Law, David H. Moore

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Law(Makers) Of The Land: The Doctrine Of Treaty Non-Self-Execution, David H. Moore Jan 2009

Law(Makers) Of The Land: The Doctrine Of Treaty Non-Self-Execution, David H. Moore

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


After Sosa: The Future Of Customary International Law In The United States, William S. Dodge Jan 2009

After Sosa: The Future Of Customary International Law In The United States, William S. Dodge

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Justice Roger Traynor Professorship Acceptance, John E. Noyes Jan 2009

Justice Roger Traynor Professorship Acceptance, John E. Noyes

Faculty Scholarship

Acceptance of John Noyes for the inaugural Roger J. Traynor Professor of Law.


The Interpretation Of Multilingual Statutes By The European Court Of Justice, Lawrence Solan Jan 2009

The Interpretation Of Multilingual Statutes By The European Court Of Justice, Lawrence Solan

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


International Health Care Convergence: The Benefits And Burdens Of Market-Driven Standardization, Nathan Cortez Jan 2009

International Health Care Convergence: The Benefits And Burdens Of Market-Driven Standardization, Nathan Cortez

Faculty Scholarship

For over thirty years, health scholars have debated whether health care policies are converging, or becoming more alike, internationally. Convergence theories have always been particularly appealing in health care. Most countries generally struggle with the same challenges: how to provide quality care, to as many people as possible, for a reasonable price. Moreover, modern scientific medicine has not only influenced how countries around the world provide and regulate health care, but has also driven rising patient expectations. These commonalities invite theories of convergence: If policymakers in different jurisdictions face similar challenges, why wouldn't they adopt roughly similar solutions?

In ...


Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of International Armed Conflict, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks Jan 2009

Human Rights And Military Decisions: Counterinsurgency And Trends In The Law Of International Armed Conflict, Dan E. Stigall, Christopher L. Blakesley, Chris Jenks

Faculty Scholarship

The past several decades have seen a Copernican shift in the paradigm of armed conflict, which the traditional Law of International Armed Conflict (LOIAC) canon has not fully matched. Standing out in stark relief against the backdrop of relative inactivity in LOIAC, is the surfeit of activity in the field of international human rights law, which has become a dramatic new force in the ancient realm of international law. Human rights law, heretofore not formally part of the traditional juridico-military calculus, has gained ever increasing salience in that calculus. Indeed, human rights law has ramified in such a manner that ...


Law From Above: Unmanned Aerial Systems, Use Of Force, And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Chris Jenks Jan 2009

Law From Above: Unmanned Aerial Systems, Use Of Force, And The Law Of Armed Conflict, Chris Jenks

Faculty Scholarship

The United States employing armed unmanned aerial systems (UAS) or “drones” against al qaeda and Taliban targets in northwest Pakistan continues to spur discussion and disagreement. Some label UAS “armed robotic killers,” while others describe them as providing a much greater degree of distinction between intended targets and the surrounding population and infrastructure, thus limiting civilian casualties and property damage. The overt disagreement as to whether the strikes are legal masks that the discussants are utilizing wholesale different methodologies, talking past each other in the process. The origin of this divergence is to what extent the law of armed conflict ...


Notice Otherwise Given: Will In Absentia Trials At The Special Tribunal For Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Chris Jenks Jan 2009

Notice Otherwise Given: Will In Absentia Trials At The Special Tribunal For Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Chris Jenks

Faculty Scholarship

On March 1, 2009, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) commenced operations in the Netherlands. The mandate of the STL is to try those allegedly responsible for the 2005 bombing in Beirut which killed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri. A collaborative effort between Lebanon and the United Nations, the STL is to be of “international character based on the highest standards of justice.” However, the STL’s in absentia trial provisions are based on a far different, and lower, standard. This article posits that the STL’s in absentia trial provisions violate human rights norms, indeed the U.N ...


Islands Of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing An Intellectual Property Rule Of Law In The Andean Community, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter, M. Florencia Guerzovich Jan 2009

Islands Of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing An Intellectual Property Rule Of Law In The Andean Community, Laurence R. Helfer, Karen J. Alter, M. Florencia Guerzovich

Faculty Scholarship

The Andean Community - a forty-year-old regional integration pact of small developing countries in South America - is widely viewed as a failure. In this Article, we show that the Andean Community has in fact achieved remarkable success within one part of its legal system. The Andean Tribunal of Justice (ATJ) is the world's third most active international court, with over 1400 rulings issued to date. Over 90% of those rulings concern intellectual property (IP). The ATJ has helped to establish IP as a rule of law island in the Andean Community where national judges, administrative officials, and private parties actively ...


Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, Ralf Michaels Jan 2009

Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Compulsory Licensing Of Patented Pharmaceutical Inventions: Evaluating The Options, Jerome H. Reichman Jan 2009

Compulsory Licensing Of Patented Pharmaceutical Inventions: Evaluating The Options, Jerome H. Reichman

Faculty Scholarship

In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to esential medicines can collaborate in ways that would avoid undermining incentives to innovation and other social costs attributed to compulsory licensing. It ends ...


Treaties As "Part Of Our Law", Ernest A. Young Jan 2009

Treaties As "Part Of Our Law", Ernest A. Young

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Shadow Unilateralism: Enforcing International Trade Law At The Wto, Rachel Brewster Jan 2009

Shadow Unilateralism: Enforcing International Trade Law At The Wto, Rachel Brewster

Faculty Scholarship

This short essay briefly traces the evolution of trade law enforcement from the the GATT to the WTO regime. The WTO's Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) is widely viewed as a major innovation from the GATT regime in that it subordinates unilateral enforcement of trade law to a rule-based system of multilateral enforcement. I recognize the successes of the WTO regime but the institution effective permits (if not encourages) the unilateral enforcement of trade law outside of the DSU framework Specifically, I examine how the DSU system only provides a prospective remedy - that is, the DSU permits retaliation only for ...


Unpacking The State’S Reputation, Rachel Brewster Jan 2009

Unpacking The State’S Reputation, Rachel Brewster

Faculty Scholarship

International law scholars debate when international law matters to states, how it matters, and whether we can improve compliance. One of the few areas of agreement is that fairly robust levels of compliance can be achieved by tapping into states’ concerns with their reputation. The logic is intuitively appealing: a state that violates international law develops a bad reputation, which leads other states to exclude the violator from future cooperative opportunities. Anticipating a loss of future gains, states will often comply with international rules that are not in their immediate interests. The level of compliance that reputation can sustain depends ...


Foreign Officials And Sovereign Immunity In U.S. Courts, Curtis A. Bradley Jan 2009

Foreign Officials And Sovereign Immunity In U.S. Courts, Curtis A. Bradley

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Mechanism Choice, Jonathan B. Wiener, Barak D. Richman Jan 2009

Mechanism Choice, Jonathan B. Wiener, Barak D. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews the literature on the selection of regulatory policy instruments, from both normative and positive perspectives. It first reviews the mechanism design literature to identify normative objectives in selecting among the menu or toolbox of policy instruments. The chapter then discusses the public choice and positive political theory literatures and the variety of models developed to attempt to predict the actual selection of alternative policy instruments. It begins with simpler early models focusing on interest group politics and proceeds to more complicated models that incorporate both supply and demand for policy, the role of policy entrepreneurs, behavioral and ...


Umdenken Für Die Unidroit - Prinzipien: Vom Rechtswahlstatut Zum Allgemeinen Teil Des Transnationalen Vertragsrechts [Rethinking The Unidroit Principles: From A Law To Be Chosen By The Parties Towards A General Part Of Transnational Contract Law], Ralf Michaels Jan 2009

Umdenken Für Die Unidroit - Prinzipien: Vom Rechtswahlstatut Zum Allgemeinen Teil Des Transnationalen Vertragsrechts [Rethinking The Unidroit Principles: From A Law To Be Chosen By The Parties Towards A General Part Of Transnational Contract Law], Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

The most talked-about purpose of the UNIDROIT Principles of International and Commercial Contracts (PICC) is their applicability as the law chosen by the parties. However, focusing on this purpose in isolation is erroneous. The PICC are not a good candidate for a chosen law - they are conceived not as a result of the exercise of freedom of contract, but instead as a framework to enable such exercise. Their real potential is to serve as objective law - as the general part of transnational contract law.

This is obvious in practice. Actually, choice of the PICC is widely possible. National courts accept ...


Dispute Systems Design: The United Nations Compensation Commission, Francis Mcgovern Jan 2009

Dispute Systems Design: The United Nations Compensation Commission, Francis Mcgovern

Faculty Scholarship

The Security Council of the United Nations established the United Nations Compensation Commission (“UNCC”) with its Resolution 687 on April 3, 1991.1 It was the first compensation system established under the authority of Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter and was designed to process and pay claims arising from the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the design of the UNCC from a variety of perspectives: its historical setting, the alternative design approaches that have been taken in other compensation contexts, the details of its design, and its role in ...


Historical Practice And The Contemporary Debate Over Customary International Law, Ernest A. Young Jan 2009

Historical Practice And The Contemporary Debate Over Customary International Law, Ernest A. Young

Faculty Scholarship

Response to: Anthony J. Bellia, Jr. & Bradford R. Clark, The Federal Common Law of Nations, 109 Colum. L. Rev. 1 (2009).

A.J. Bellia and Brad Clark have performed a valuable service for other scholars interested in foreign relations law and federal jurisdiction by collecting and illuminating—with their usual care and insight—the historical practice of both English and early American courts with respect to the law of nations. Their recent Article, The Federal Common Law of Nations, demonstrates that, while American courts have not generally treated customary international law (CIL) as supreme federal law, they have applied such law where necessary to vindicate the “perfect rights” of foreign nations. In so doing, American courts have protected the prerogatives of the political branches to “recognize foreign nations, conduct foreign relations, and decide momentous questions of war and peace.” Although Professors Bellia and Clark disavow any attempt “to settle all questions of how customary international law interacts with the
federal system,” they do suggest that their approach represents a middle ground between proponents of the “modern position” that CIL simply is federal common law and critics of that position, who insist that CIL may be applied by American courts only where it is incorporated into the domestic legal system through an affirmative act by the political branches.

This response makes three points. First, I quibble with the historical account offered by Professors Bellia and Clark on two minor, yet at least somewhat significant, grounds: The debate over reception of the common law at the federal Constitutional Convention shows greater early skepticism about judge-made common law than Bellia and Clark suggest; also, the jurisdictional provisions of Article III covering cases implicating foreign affairs were not intended fully to centralize power over such cases in federal courts because they left concurrent jurisdiction in the state courts. Second, I question the extent to which the Founding Era history is directly relevant to contemporary debates about how to treat CIL. Finally, I contend that what does the real work in the Bellia and Clark approach is simply constitutionally-grounded concerns about the separation of powers in foreign affairs cases, not anything about CIL per se. Their position thus reduces ...


The United States, Israel, And Unlawful Combatants, Curtis A. Bradley Jan 2009

The United States, Israel, And Unlawful Combatants, Curtis A. Bradley

Faculty Scholarship

This essay considers how members of a terrorist organization should be categorized under international law when the organization is engaged in an armed conflict with a nation. The proper categorization can have significant implications for the nation’s authority under both international and domestic law to subject members of a terrorist organization to military targeting and detention. As a result of judicial decisions, Israel ostensibly follows a two category approach, pursuant to which anyone who is not a lawful combatant, including a member of a terrorist organization, is a civilian. The United States, by contrast, currently follows a three category ...