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Full-Text Articles in Law

Structured Settlement Sales And Lead-Poisoned Sellers: Just Say No, Karen Czapanskiy Jan 2018

Structured Settlement Sales And Lead-Poisoned Sellers: Just Say No, Karen Czapanskiy

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Disclaiming Property, Michael Pappas Jan 2018

Disclaiming Property, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

Can Congress pick and choose when it must follow the Constitution? One would expect not, and yet the Supreme Court has allowed it to do so. In multiple statutory programs, Congress has disclaimed constitutional property protections for valuable interests that otherwise serve as property. The result is billions of dollars’ worth of “disclaimed property” that can be bought, sold, mortgaged, or leased, but that can also be revoked at any moment without due process or just compensation.

Disclaimed property already represents a great source of value, and property disclaimers are at the core of major recent policies ranging from natural ...


Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Enviromental Law In The World's Polar Regions, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert Percival Jan 2018

Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Enviromental Law In The World's Polar Regions, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert Percival

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


How Criminal Law Can Help Save The Environment, Rena I. Steinzor Jan 2016

How Criminal Law Can Help Save The Environment, Rena I. Steinzor

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Environmental Justice In Maryland, Environmental Law Clinic, Jane F. Barrett, Matthew Peters, Hilary Jacobs, Jason Rubinstein Sep 2015

Environmental Justice In Maryland, Environmental Law Clinic, Jane F. Barrett, Matthew Peters, Hilary Jacobs, Jason Rubinstein

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Defining Power Property Expectations, Michael Pappas Jan 2015

Defining Power Property Expectations, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

To date, most government efforts to promote distributed solar energy have involved incentivizing property owners to undertake voluntary installations. However, that approach is changing, as government actors move to increase distributed solar generation capacity not only through incentive programs, but also through requirements. Such a change from voluntary to mandatory measures represents a seismic shift in the approach to encouraging distributed solar generation, and it may raise objections about interference with property expectations.

The Comment addresses those concerns by exploring the nature of property expectations in the energy context and analyzing how courts and legislatures have balanced property expectations against ...


Distributed, Nega-, And Reclaimed: Setting Expectations In The "New" Resource Base, Michael Pappas Jan 2015

Distributed, Nega-, And Reclaimed: Setting Expectations In The "New" Resource Base, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

At this point in time, environmental law faces the task of drawing a budget for living within our resource means, and this budget will be tightly stretched. It must provide energy, water, food, and materials to a growing population; it must cope with the depletion of formerly abundant resources; and it must act both to mitigate climate impacts and adapt to the changes already manifesting. To do this, the budgeting must consider resources and uses that have previously been considered insignificant and that have not received attention in terms of ownership, allocation, or governance. Thus, the future of environmental law ...


Consequences For Cleanup: Epa Gets Serious About Weak Watershed Improvement Plans, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann Jul 2014

Consequences For Cleanup: Epa Gets Serious About Weak Watershed Improvement Plans, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann

Faculty Scholarship

In a landmark series of reports issued on June 26, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) put the seven jurisdictions that pollute the Chesapeake Bay on notice that their plans for reducing nitrogen, phosphorous, and sediment fall short of where they must be to make cleanup by 2025 a reality. By EPA’s reckoning, Pennsylvania and Delaware were furthest off the mark, but Maryland, New York, Virginia, and West Virginia face EPA action if they fail to substantially improve their plans. Of the seven jurisdictions, only Washington, D.C. escaped serious criticism.


Energy Versus Property, Michael Pappas Jan 2014

Energy Versus Property, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

This article is the first to detail the balance legislatures and courts have struck between private property rights and the compelling public interest in energy production. By examining how property rights have consistently yielded to energy development from colonial times to the most recent decisions involving hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”), it identifies a coherent energy/property balance that has shaped property expectations to accommodate energy needs. The article then applies this insight to current disputes pitting aggressive renewable energy policies— such as nuisance immunity or mandatory installations on private property— against fundamental property expectations— the right to exclude and the right ...


Presidential Power To Address Climate Change In An Era Of Legislative Gridlock, Robert V. Percival Jan 2014

Presidential Power To Address Climate Change In An Era Of Legislative Gridlock, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Risk, Uncertainty And Precaution: Lessons From The History Of Us Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival Jan 2014

Risk, Uncertainty And Precaution: Lessons From The History Of Us Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

Globalization and expanding world trade are creating new pressures to harmonize environmental standards. Countries increasingly are borrowing legal and regulatory policy innovations from one another, moving toward greater harmonization of regulatory policies. Regulatory policy generally seeks to prevent harm before it occurs, but the reality is that it usually has been more reactive than precautionary, responding only after harm has become manifest. As regulators seek to improve their responses to new and emerging environmental risks, it is useful to consider what lessons can be learned from past experience with regulatory policy. This chapter reviews controversies over regulatory policy through the ...


Global Environmental Law At A Crossroads: Introduction, Robert V. Percival, Jolene Lin, William Piermattei Jan 2014

Global Environmental Law At A Crossroads: Introduction, Robert V. Percival, Jolene Lin, William Piermattei

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Civil Society In Environmental Governance In The United States And China, Robert V. Percival, Zhao Huiyu Jan 2014

The Role Of Civil Society In Environmental Governance In The United States And China, Robert V. Percival, Zhao Huiyu

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Anti-Waste, Michael Pappas Jan 2014

Anti-Waste, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

It may be a bad idea to waste resources, but is it illegal? Legally speaking, what does “waste” even mean? Though the concept may appear completely subjective, this Article builds a framework for understanding how the law identifies and addresses waste.

Drawing upon property and natural resource doctrines, the Article finds that the law selects from a menu of five specific, and sometimes competing, societal values to define waste. The values are: 1) economic efficiency, 2) human flourishing, 3) concern for future generations, 4) stability and consistency, and 5) ecological concerns. The law recognizes waste in terms of one or ...


Falling Behind: Processing And Enforcing Permits For Animal Agriculture Operations In Maryland Is Lagging, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann Nov 2013

Falling Behind: Processing And Enforcing Permits For Animal Agriculture Operations In Maryland Is Lagging, Rena I. Steinzor, Anne Havemann

Faculty Scholarship

After decades of failed interstate agreements, the Chesapeake Bay is choking on too many nutrients. The estuary’s last, best chance of recovery is the Environmental Protection Agency's Total Maximum Daily Load (“TMDL”) program, also known as a pollution diet. To meet this deadline, all polluters, including large animal farms, will need to sharply reduce the pollutants they release into the Bay. The Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) must ensure that each Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (“CAFO”) has developed a facility-specific permit that details when and where manure is applied to fields and how waste is stored and ...


Escaping The Sporhase Maze: Protecting State Waters Within The Commerce Clause, Mark S. Davis, Michael Pappas Jan 2013

Escaping The Sporhase Maze: Protecting State Waters Within The Commerce Clause, Mark S. Davis, Michael Pappas

Faculty Scholarship

Eastern states, though they have enjoyed a history of relatively abundant water, increasingly face the need to conserve water, particularly to protect water-dependent ecosystems. At the same time, growing water demands, climate change, and an emerging water-oriented economy have intensified pressure for interstate water transfers. Thus, even traditionally wet states are seeking to protect or secure their water supplies. However, restrictions on water sales and exports risk running afoul of the Dormant Commerce Clause. This Article offers guidance for states, partciularly eastern states concerned with maintaining and improving water-dependent ecosystems, in seeking to restrict water exports while staying within the ...


Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Next 40 Years Of Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival Jan 2013

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Next 40 Years Of Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

The only certainty concerning predictions for the future of the environment is that most of them are likely to be wrong. This is illustrated by the fate of past predictions, such as those contained in Paul Ehrlich's Populations Bomb, Gregg Easterbrook's A Moment on the Earth, and Bjørn Lomborg's The Skeptical Environmentalist. While it is difficult to guess at the future of the environment, predictions concerning environmental law are even more hazardous because they turn in large part on the future of politics. After reviewing current political gridlock over environmental concerns, this Article considers contemporary forecasts of ...


Collaborating To Nowhere: The Imperative Of Government Accountability For Restoring The Chesapeake Bay, Rena I. Steinzor, Shana Jones Jan 2013

Collaborating To Nowhere: The Imperative Of Government Accountability For Restoring The Chesapeake Bay, Rena I. Steinzor, Shana Jones

Faculty Scholarship

This Article opens with an analysis of why the Chesapeake Bay Program will repeat its past failures unless a reliable mechanism for ensuring accountability is created. It then explains how the independent evaluator should be constructed to make possible the overall success of Bay restoration. Finally, it closes with a rebuttal of the arguments in favor of self--auditing and against independent review.


Human Rights And The Evolution Of Global Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival Jan 2013

Human Rights And The Evolution Of Global Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

Environmental problems that jeopardize the health of humans increasingly implicate concerns that have played an important role in the development of international human rights. While some have questioned the wisdom or effectiveness of focusing human rights concerns on environmental problems, it seems an inevitable response to the failure of many countries to protect their citizens adequately from harm caused by environmental degradation. This paper reviews efforts to apply human rights concerns to environmental problems. It describes how these developments illustrate the growth of a kind of “global environmental law” that blurs traditional distinctions between domestic and international law and public ...


Setting The Bar For "Injury" In Environmental Exposure Cases: How Low Can It Go?, John C. Cruden, Carla Burke, John Guttmann, Robert V. Percival Sep 2012

Setting The Bar For "Injury" In Environmental Exposure Cases: How Low Can It Go?, John C. Cruden, Carla Burke, John Guttmann, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

On May 16, 2012, ELI convened a panel of experts to provide an overview and analysis of the tension between regulatory and common-law standards for injury in the context of toxic tort litigation. The speakers discussed and debated emerging trends in toxic tort litigation, including claims for property damage or medical monitoring regarding exposure to environmental contamination that never exceeds applicable regulatory standards. The panel also analyzed recent court opinions on the bounds of "injury" in environmental contamination cases and the potential for plaintiffs to recover damages based upon relatively low concentrations of chemicals. Issues explored by the panel included ...


Agricultural Secrecy: Going Dark Down On The Farm: How Legalized Secrecy Gives Agribusiness A Federally Funded Free Ride, Rena I. Steinzor, Yee Huang Sep 2012

Agricultural Secrecy: Going Dark Down On The Farm: How Legalized Secrecy Gives Agribusiness A Federally Funded Free Ride, Rena I. Steinzor, Yee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

This briefing paper examines the agricultural secrecy granted by section 1619 of the 2008 Farm Bill, its implications for transparency and oversight, and its impact on other federal agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In an era of fiscal responsibility, tight budgets, and increasing pressure on the environment, the public has a right to know whether the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is making the best decisions about how to allocate public funds.

Each year, agricultural producers in the United States receive billions of dollars in federal payments: crop subsidies, crop insurance, conservation payments, disaster ...


Fairness In The Bay: Environmental Justice And Nutrient Trading, Rena I. Steinzor, Robert R.M. Verchick, Nicholas W. Vidargas, Yee Huang Aug 2012

Fairness In The Bay: Environmental Justice And Nutrient Trading, Rena I. Steinzor, Robert R.M. Verchick, Nicholas W. Vidargas, Yee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania and other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, with support from the Environmental Protection Agency, are working toward developing water quality trading programs intended to help meet federal pollution limits for the Bay. This white paper from the Center for Progressive Reform warns that even if a trading system succeeds in reducing overall pollution in the Bay, it might still have a dire effect on low-income and minority communities in the Bay region.

If trading programs are not carefully designed and monitored, trading can cause localized concentrations of nutrients and accompanying contaminants in local waters, posing a ...


Manure In The Bay: A Report On Industrial Animal Agriculture In Maryland And Pennsylvania, Rena I. Steinzor, Yee Huang Jun 2012

Manure In The Bay: A Report On Industrial Animal Agriculture In Maryland And Pennsylvania, Rena I. Steinzor, Yee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

This report provides a substantive and detailed look at the concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and other animal feeding operations (AFO) programs in Maryland and Pennsylvania, as well as a general overview of the federal CAFO program. The information in this report was gathered through publicly available resources as well as a series of interviews with agency officials and other individuals who work with the animal agricultural sector. This report identifies concrete and practical recommendations for improving how the waste generated by animal industrial agriculture is managed and controlled by EPA, the Maryland Department of Environment (MDE), and the Pennsylvania ...


Water Quality Trading In The Chesapeake Bay, Rena I. Steinzor, Nicholas W. Vidargas, Shana Campbell Jones, Yee Huang May 2012

Water Quality Trading In The Chesapeake Bay, Rena I. Steinzor, Nicholas W. Vidargas, Shana Campbell Jones, Yee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

In May 2009, President Obama issued an Executive Order on Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration, declaring the Bay a national treasure and signaling that EPA will play a strong role in leading Bay cleanup. The order marked a dramatic departure, offering the promise of federal leadership on Bay cleanup. The following year, EPA issued a Chesapeake Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), a pollution budget for Bay states. Faced with a federal commitment, the states have begun work on complying with the TMDL. One Bay-wide approach under consideration is a market-based initiative, water quality trading, that would allow polluters to trade ...


Of Coal, Climate And Carp: Reconsidering The Common Law Of Interstate Nuisance, Robert V. Percival Mar 2012

Of Coal, Climate And Carp: Reconsidering The Common Law Of Interstate Nuisance, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

This paper argues that the common law of interstate nuisance remains an essential tool despite the rise of the modern regulatory state. In the rare cases when existing regulatory authorities fail to address emerging environmental problems, federal common law can serve as a backstop. When federal regulatory authorities are capable of addressing transboundary problems, but fail to do so, common law actions based on the law of source states remain a viable means of redress for states suffering significant harm from such pollution. Reconnecting the law of interstate nuisance to its historical roots, the paper concludes that the common law ...


Cercla In A Global Context, Robert V. Percival, Katherine H. Cooper, Matthew M. Gravens Jan 2012

Cercla In A Global Context, Robert V. Percival, Katherine H. Cooper, Matthew M. Gravens

Faculty Scholarship

The article first reviews the essential features of CERCLA and how they have evolved over time through legislative amendments and judicial interpretation. The article then compares CERCLA's approach to that embodied in the European Union's 2004 Directive on Environmental Liability with Regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage ("ELD:). It then reviews the laws adopted by various countries, including EU members, to respond to releases of hazardous substances. The article then discusses several case studies of how different countries handled incidents of environmental contamination. It concludes by summarizing the comparative law of environmental remediation and its ...


The Case For Abolishing Centralized White House Regulatory Review, Rena I. Steinzor Jan 2012

The Case For Abolishing Centralized White House Regulatory Review, Rena I. Steinzor

Faculty Scholarship

A series of catastrophic regulatory failures have focused attention on theweakened condition of regulatory agencies assigned to protect public health, worker and consumer safety, and the environment. The destructive convergence of funding shortfalls, political attacks, and outmoded legal authority have set the stage for ineffective enforcement, unsupervised industry self-regulation, and a slew of devastating and preventable catastrophes. From the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico to the worst mining disaster in forty years at the Big Branch mine in West Virginia, the signs of regulatory dysfunction abound. Many stakeholders expected that President Barack Obama would recognize and ameliorate ...


Evaluating Rules And How We Measure Their Effects, Rena I. Steinzor, Michael Patoka Jan 2012

Evaluating Rules And How We Measure Their Effects, Rena I. Steinzor, Michael Patoka

Faculty Scholarship

The Center for Progres­sive Reform undertook an empirical study of the Office of Information of Regulatory Affairs, the White House office that reviews every significant regulation issue by Executive Branch agencies. The study assembled an unprecedented portrait of its behav­ior during the decade from October 16, 2001, when notices of meetings with outside parties were first available on the Internet, until June 1, 2011. OIRA conducted 6,194 separate reviews of regulatory submissions, holding 1,080 meetings that involved 5,759 ap­pearances by outside par­ticipants. Both the final report and the database we assembled are available ...


The End Game Of Deregulation: Myopic Risk Management And The Next Catastrophe, Thomas O. Mcgarity, Rena I. Steinzor Jan 2012

The End Game Of Deregulation: Myopic Risk Management And The Next Catastrophe, Thomas O. Mcgarity, Rena I. Steinzor

Faculty Scholarship

On December 22, 2008, the contents of an enormous impoundment containing coal-ash slurry from the Tennessee Valley Authority’s (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant poured into the Emory River. The proximate cause of the spill was the bursting of a poorly reinforced dike holding back a pit of sludge that towered 80 feet above the river and 40 feet above an adjacent road. The volume and force of the spill were so large that 1.1 billion gallons of the inky mess flowed across the river, inundating 300 acres of land in a layer four to five feet deep, uprooting ...


Back To Basics: An Agenda For The Maryland General Assembly To Protect The Environment, Rena I. Steinzor, Lee Huang Oct 2011

Back To Basics: An Agenda For The Maryland General Assembly To Protect The Environment, Rena I. Steinzor, Lee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

Maryland has a long-held reputation as a regional and national leader in environmental protection. But in some areas, especially enforcement, that reputation warrants scrutiny. For example, Maryland charges less than Pennsylvania and Virginia for some pollutant discharge permits, and the state does not assess permit fees for municipalities despite the resources required to administer those permits. The penalties for violating the Clean Water Act have remained chronically below the level allowed under federal law. Maryland law does not require MDE to penalize polluters for the full amount of the economic gain they achieved by flouting the law, unlike laws in ...