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Governing By Guidance: Civil Rights Agencies And The Emergence Of Language Rights, Ming Hsu Chen Jan 2014

Governing By Guidance: Civil Rights Agencies And The Emergence Of Language Rights, Ming Hsu Chen

Articles

On the fiftieth anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, this Article asks how federal civil rights laws evolved to incorporate the needs of non-English speakers following landmark immigration reform (the 1965 Hart-Cellar Act) that led to unprecedented migration from Asia and Latin America. Based on a comparative study of the emergence of language rights in schools and workplaces from 1965 to 1980, the Article demonstrates that regulatory agencies used nonbinding guidances to interpret the undefined statutory term "national origin discrimination" during their implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Their efforts facilitated the creation of language rights ...


[Dis-]Informing The People's Discretion: Judicial Deference Under The National Security Exemption Of The Freedom Of Information Act, Susan Nevelow Mart, Tom Ginsburg Jan 2014

[Dis-]Informing The People's Discretion: Judicial Deference Under The National Security Exemption Of The Freedom Of Information Act, Susan Nevelow Mart, Tom Ginsburg

Articles

As noted by President Obama's recent Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies, pervasive state surveillance has never been more feasible. There has been an inexorable rise in the size and reach of the national security bureaucracy since it was created after World War II, as we have gone through the Cold War and the War on Terror. No one doubts that our national security bureaucracies need to gain intelligence and keep some of it secret. But the consensus of decades of experts, both insiders and outsiders, is that there is rampant overclassfication by government agencies. From its inception ...


Language Rights As A Legacy Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Ming Hsu Chen Jan 2014

Language Rights As A Legacy Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964, Ming Hsu Chen

Articles

The fiftieth anniversary of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 offers an important opportunity to reflect on an earlier moment when civil rights evolved to accommodate new waves of immigration. This essay seeks to explain how civil rights laws evolved to include rights for immigrants and non-English speakers. More specifically, it seeks to explain how policy entrepreneurs in agencies read an affirmative right to language access.


The Administrative State's Passive Virtues, Sharon B. Jacobs Jan 2014

The Administrative State's Passive Virtues, Sharon B. Jacobs

Articles

Fifty years ago, Alexander Bickel famousy suggested that courts use tools like standing, ripeness, and the political question doctrine to avoid reaching the merits of difficult cases. Yet despite the increasingly central role of administrative agencies in government, there have been no efforts to date to apply Bickel's insights to the bureaucracy. This Article remedies that deficit. The Article provides a three-part taxonomy of administrative restraint and offers case studies from federal agencies such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Fish and Wildlife Service. It argues that agencies sometimes use restraint strategically for ...


Trans-Substantivity Beyond Procedure, Suzette M. Malveaux Jan 2014

Trans-Substantivity Beyond Procedure, Suzette M. Malveaux

Articles

No abstract provided.


A System Of Men And Not Of Laws: What Due Process Tells Us About The Deficiencies In Institutional Review Boards, Greer Donley Jan 2014

A System Of Men And Not Of Laws: What Due Process Tells Us About The Deficiencies In Institutional Review Boards, Greer Donley

Articles

Governmental regulation of human subjects research involves unique agency action. It delegates power to non-expert committees, Institutional Review Boards, to decide whether research protocols are "ethical" according to vague federal regulations. Without IRB approval, the protocol cannot be investigated. The empirical evidence regarding this system demonstrates that IRBs render deeply inconsistent and inaccurate outcomes. This Article argues that the lack of due process in the IRB system is to blame for such arbitrary agency action. By juxtaposing the levels of process required for IRB approval or research with FDA new drug approval--agency action involving similar interests--this Article highlights that IRBs ...


Big (Gay) Love: Has The Irs Legalized Polygamy?, Anthony C. Infanti Jan 2014

Big (Gay) Love: Has The Irs Legalized Polygamy?, Anthony C. Infanti

Articles

Within days in December, a federal judge in Utah made news by loosening that state’s criminal prohibition against polygamy and the Attorney General of North Dakota made news by opining that a party to a same-sex marriage could enter into a different-sex marriage in that state without first obtaining a divorce or annulment. Both of these opinions raised the specter of legalized plural marriage. What discussions of these opinions missed, however, is the possibility that the IRS might already have legalized plural marriage in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision last June in United States ...