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Full-Text Articles in Law

Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Aug 1996

Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

Controversy over intellectual property rights in the results of large-scale cDNA sequencing raises intriguing questions about the roles of the public and private sectors in genomics research, and about who stands to benefit (and who stands to lose) from the private appropriation of genomic information. While the US Patent and Trademark Office has rejected patent applications on cDNA fragments of unknown function from the National Institutes of Health, private firms have pursued three distinct strategies for exploiting unpatented cDNA sequence information: exclusive licensing, non-exclusive licensing and dedication to the public domain.


Doctrine Of Equivalents After Hilton Davis: A Comparative Law Analysis, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 1996

Doctrine Of Equivalents After Hilton Davis: A Comparative Law Analysis, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

This Article will address a number of major topics. First, it discusses the Federal Circuit's renewed interest in Graver Tank and the merger of the infringement test with the patentability test established by the Supreme Court in Graham v. John Deere Co. Then, this Article responds to the dissenting judges in Hilton Davis who emphasized the danger of uncertainty that stems from the in-principle application of the doctrine of equivalents. This response explains that the application of the doctrine does not increase the uncertainty in determining infringement but, rather, encourages clear, definitive claim drafting. It then examines the relationship ...


Does A Cultural Barrier To Intellectual Property Trade Exist? The Japanese Example, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 1996

Does A Cultural Barrier To Intellectual Property Trade Exist? The Japanese Example, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

What is the so-called "cultural barrier to intellectual property trade?" No definition for this phrase readily came to me when I began exploring the topic. Japanese intellectual property scholars and professionals strongly suspect that their U.S. counterparts, who find institutional or economic explanations for discrepancies between European and American business customs, nevertheless tend to attribute the differences between Japanese and American business practices to cultural differences. Three popular arguments offered to substantiate this "cultural barrier to intellectual property trade" theory are: (1) the application of the concepts of competition and monopoly to intangibles such as technology and ideas is ...


Norms And Property In The Middle Kingdom, Glenn R. Butterton Jan 1996

Norms And Property In The Middle Kingdom, Glenn R. Butterton

Articles

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property At The Public-Private Divide: The Case Of Large-Scale Cdna Sequencing, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1996

Intellectual Property At The Public-Private Divide: The Case Of Large-Scale Cdna Sequencing, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

The Human Genome Project provides fertile ground for studying the role of intellectual property at the wavering boundary between public and private research science. It involves a major commitment of both public and private research funds in an area that is of significant interest both to research scientists working in university and government laboratories and to commercial firms. It thus provides a wealth of new scientific discoveries that are simultaneously potential candidates for commercial development and inputs into further research. Its obvious implications for human health raise the stakes of getting the balance between private property and public access right ...


Public Research And Private Development: Patents And Technology Transfer In Government-Sponsored Research, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1996

Public Research And Private Development: Patents And Technology Transfer In Government-Sponsored Research, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

This article revisits the logical and empirical basis for current government patent policy in order to shed light on the competing interests at stake and to begin to assess how the system is operating in practice. Such an inquiry is justified in part by the significance of federally-sponsored research and development to the overall U.S. research effort. Although the share of national expenditures for research and development borne by the federal government has declined since 1980, federal funding in 1995 still accounted for approximately thirty-six percent of total national outlays for research and development' and nearly fifty-eight percent of ...