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Full-Text Articles in Law

Tax Constraints On Indexed Options, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Tax Constraints On Indexed Options, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

Indexed stock option grants reward executives for outperforming a benchmark, such as the market as a whole or competitors in the same industry. These options offer superior incentives by diminishing the influence of factors beyond an executive's control, such as general market and industry conditions. Yet indexed options are almost never used. Professor Saul Levmore seeks to explain this puzzle with norms. The main point of this comment on his Article is that tax plays a larger role in this puzzle than Professor Levmore acknowledges, although tax is not a complete explanation. The tax appeal of traditional options is ...


Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, the government has enacted a series of narrow tax reforms targeting specific planning strategies. Sometimes these reforms stop the targeted planning, but sometimes they merely prompt a new, more wasteful variation. The difference often lies in so-called frictions, which are constraints on tax planning other than the tax law, such as fees, accounting or regulatory treatment, credit risk, and the like. While frictions are important, reformers often lack key information, and legal academics should help provide it. This Article offers general observations about frictions that deter end runs. Most promising are strong "discontinuous" frictions that impose significant ...


Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

The government often uses narrow tax reforms to target specific planning strategies. Sometimes the targeted transaction is stopped. But in other cases, taxpayers press on, tweaking the deal just enough to sidestep the reform. The difference often lies in transaction costs, financial accounting, and other 'frictions, " which are constraints on tax planning external to the tax law.

This Article contributes a methodology for determining whether frictions will block end runs, and illustrates the effect of frictions by comparing the constructive sale rule of section 1259 with the constructive ownership rule of section 1260. These reforms use the same statutory language ...


The David R. Tillinghast Lecture: Taxing International Income: Inadequate Principles, Outdated Concepts, And Unsatisfactory Policies, Michael J. Graetz Jan 2001

The David R. Tillinghast Lecture: Taxing International Income: Inadequate Principles, Outdated Concepts, And Unsatisfactory Policies, Michael J. Graetz

Faculty Scholarship

It is a pleasure to be here today to deliver the first David R. Tillinghast Lecture of the 21st century, a lecture honoring a man who has done much to shape and stimulate our thinking about the international tax world of the 20th.

Our nation's system for taxing international income today is largely a creature of the period 1918-1928, a time when the income tax was itself in childhood. From the inception of the income tax (1913 for individuals, 1909 for corporations) until 1918, foreign taxes were deducted like any other business expense. In 1918, the foreign tax credit ...