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Death Of Copyright, Paul Gugliuzza Dec 2019

Death Of Copyright, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

The four primary bodies of intellectual property law—patent law, copyright law, trademark law, and the law of trade secrets—address the question of duration in different ways. Trade secrets have no fixed duration; the law protects against misappropriation as long as the relevant information remains secret. Trademark protection lasts as long as the mark retains its capacity to distinguish the goods or services it is attached to. In patent law—my primary area of scholarship—duration is fixed, finite, and generally straightforward to determine: you get twenty years from the date you file your patent application. Copyright duration, by ...


The Uncopyrightability Of Edicts Of Government, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell Oct 2019

The Uncopyrightability Of Edicts Of Government, Shyamkrishna Balganesh, Peter S. Menell

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This amicus brief filed in the Supreme Court appeal of Georgia, et al., v. Public.Resource.Org.,explores the interplay of copyright law and the edicts of government doctrine. The “edicts of government” doctrine was first validated by the U.S. Supreme Court in a series of nineteenth century cases. Wheaton v. Peters, 33 U.S. (8 Pet.) 591 (1834); Banks v. Manchester, 128 U.S. 244 (1888); Callaghan v. Meyers, 128 U.S. 617 (1888). While the doctrine has never been directly recognized in the express wording of the copyright statute, it is nevertheless firmly rooted in foundational copyright ...


Knowledge Commons (2019), Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Katherine J. Strandburg Sep 2019

Knowledge Commons (2019), Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Katherine J. Strandburg

Book Chapters

This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of the knowledge commons research framework. Knowledge commons refers to an institutional approach (commons) to governing the production, use, management, and/or preservation of a particular type of resource (knowledge). The research framework supplies a template for interrogating the details of knowledge commons institutions on a case study basis, generating qualitative data that may be used to support comparative analysis.


Dancing On The Grave Of Copyright?, Anupam Chander, Madhavi Sunder Aug 2019

Dancing On The Grave Of Copyright?, Anupam Chander, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The quarter century since Barlow’s writing allows us to assess his prophecy. The economy moved in the very direction that Barlow anticipated—from an economy focused on the ownership of things to an economy based on services and experiences. In high-income countries, services now account for three-quarters of the gross domestic product.

But intellectual property proved more resilient and adaptable than Barlow predicted. Intellectual property law both offered exceptions where necessary, while simultaneously expanding to cover new forms of creativity and activities. In this short essay, we argue that, for good or ill, intellectual property has reconfigured itself for ...


Review Of "Rights And Reproductions: The Handbook For Cultural Institutions" (2nd Ed.), Georgia Westbrook Jun 2019

Review Of "Rights And Reproductions: The Handbook For Cultural Institutions" (2nd Ed.), Georgia Westbrook

School of Information Studies - Post-doc and Student Scholarship

The second edition of Rights and Reproductions: The Handbook for Cultural Institutions provides an updated look at intellectual property, related laws, and appropriate use for cultural institutions. The authors provide a robust and clear explanation of relevant issues and serves a wide range of users employing the text as a reference work.


Copyright: A Powerful Tool To Protect, Preserve, And Promote Your Research, Paul Royster, Sue A. Gardner Apr 2019

Copyright: A Powerful Tool To Protect, Preserve, And Promote Your Research, Paul Royster, Sue A. Gardner

Library Conference Presentations and Speeches

Copyright begins at “birth”

You can also register.

The holder of copyright controls the ability of others to distribute: reproductions, derivatives, translations, performance

Length of term = until you die + 70 years

Licensing and contracts

Permissions

Publisher contracts

Creative Commons licenses

Gold Open Access/APCs

Predatory journals

"Can I use this {image / quote / video clip / ...} in my {lecture / course materials / dissertation / ...}” ?

Public domain (= no copyright)

Educational use = Not Infringement

Plagiarism vs. infringement

Fair Use (1): Re-using copyrighted materials in your own work--legally

Fair use (2): The 4 Factors

Who owns UNL content?

Who owns UNL courses?

Green Open access

Most commercial ...


Tried And True: Fair Use Tales For The Telling, Sarah E. Mccleskey, Courtney L. Selby Mar 2019

Tried And True: Fair Use Tales For The Telling, Sarah E. Mccleskey, Courtney L. Selby

Hofstra Law Faculty Scholarship

On Thursday, March 1, 2018, the Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication hosted “Tried and True: Fair Use Tales for the Telling,” a one-day program celebrating Harvard’s Fifth Anniversary of Fair Use Week. Leading fair use scholars and practitioners shared their stories and engaged in lively discussion about the powerful and flexible fair use provision of the Copyright Act and its applications. Topics included treatment of the fair use doctrine in recent jurisprudence, conflicts over the use of visual works in remixes and mash-ups, academic work and social commentary, filmmaking, controlled digital lending practices in libraries, software preservation, and ...


Tried And True: Fair Use Tales For The Telling, Sarah E. Mccleskey, Courtney Selby Mar 2019

Tried And True: Fair Use Tales For The Telling, Sarah E. Mccleskey, Courtney Selby

Faculty Publications

On Thursday, March 1, 2018, the Harvard Library Office for Scholarly Communication hosted “Tried and True: Fair Use Tales for the Telling,” a one-day program celebrating Harvard’s Fifth Anniversary of Fair Use Week. Leading fair use scholars and practitioners shared their stories and engaged in lively discussion about the powerful and flexible fair use provision of the Copyright Act and its applications. Topics included treatment of the fair use doctrine in recent jurisprudence, conflicts over the use of visual works in remixes and mash-ups, academic work and social commentary, filmmaking, controlled digital lending practices in libraries, software preservation, and ...


The Supreme Court Bar At The Bar Of Patents, Paul Gugliuzza Mar 2019

The Supreme Court Bar At The Bar Of Patents, Paul Gugliuzza

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past two decades, a few dozen lawyers have come to dominate practice before the U.S. Supreme Court. By many accounts, these elite lawyers—whose clients are often among the largest corporations in the world—have spurred the Court to hear more cases that businesses care about and to decide those cases in favor of their clients. The Supreme Court’s recent case law on antitrust, arbitration, punitive damages, class actions, and more provides copious examples.

Though it is often overlooked in discussions of the emergent Supreme Court bar, patent law is another area in which the Court ...


Does Trips Stop International Ip Free-Riders, Sam F. Halabi Jan 2019

Does Trips Stop International Ip Free-Riders, Sam F. Halabi

Faculty Publications

Innovation policy-a relatively new phrase for an old set of top-down competitiveness approaches (e.g. "industrial policy," "science policy," "research policy," and "technology policy")-is necessarily a combination of centralized investment, structure of private-sector incentives, and public policy priorities.This combination has always been unwieldy, multivariate, and politically charged. As a result, constituencies favoring one or other approaches (e.g. longer patent protection, more funding of public universities and research infrastructure, tariff or non-tariff import measures) have lacked a unifying framework through which to analyze shared problems. In Innovation Policy Pluralism, Daniel J. Hemel and Lisa Larrimore Ouellette provide that ...


Intellectual Property: A Beacon For Reform Of Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel J. Gervais Jan 2019

Intellectual Property: A Beacon For Reform Of Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel J. Gervais

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Investor-state dispute-settlement (ISDS) clauses give multinational investors (corporations) a right to sue a state in a binding proceeding before an independent arbitration tribunal. This jurisgenerative right to file a claim in an international tribunal with mandatory jurisdiction is generally reserved to States. ISDS is a mechanism meant to protect the private property of multinational investors against certain acts of public authorities.

Intellectual Property differs from the more traditional private (property) law interests that ISDS aims to protect. IP incorporates public policy objectives such as innovation, access to information or public health that are reflected in limitations and exceptions to the ...


Attacking Innovation, Jeffrey A. Maine Jan 2019

Attacking Innovation, Jeffrey A. Maine

Faculty Publications

Economists generally agree that innovation is important to economic growth and that government support for innovation is necessary. Historically, the U.S. government has supported innovation in a variety of ways: (1) a strong legal system for patents; (2) direct support through research performed by government agencies, grants, loans, and loan guarantees; and (3) indirect support through various tax incentives for private firms. In recent years, however, we have seen a weakening of the U.S. patent system, a decline in direct funding of research, and a weakening of tax policy tools used to encourage new innovation. These disruptive changes ...


The Federal Circuit As An Institution, Ryan G. Vacca Jan 2019

The Federal Circuit As An Institution, Ryan G. Vacca

Law Faculty Scholarship

The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a unique institution. Unlike other circuit courts, the Federal Circuit’s jurisdiction is bound by subject area rather than geography, and it was created to address a unique set of problems specific to patent law. These characteristics have affected its institutional development and made the court one of the most frequently studied appellate courts. This chapter examines this development and describes the evolving qualities that have helped the Federal Circuit distinguish itself, for better or worse, as an institution.

This chapter begins with an overview of the concerns existing before creation ...


Intellectual Property And Competition, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jan 2019

Intellectual Property And Competition, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A legal system that relies on private property rights to promote economic development must consider that profits can come from two different sources. First, both competition under constant technology and innovation promote economic growth by granting many of the returns to the successful developer. Competition and innovation both increase output, whether measured by quantity or quality. Second, however, profits can come from practices that reduce output, in some cases by reducing quantity, or in others by reducing innovation.

IP rights and competition policy were traditionally regarded as in conflict. IP rights create monopoly, which was thought to be inimical to ...


Derivative Works And Making Sense Of The Maxim That 'Others Are Free To Copy The Original. They Are Not Free To Copy The Copy.', David E. Shipley Jan 2019

Derivative Works And Making Sense Of The Maxim That 'Others Are Free To Copy The Original. They Are Not Free To Copy The Copy.', David E. Shipley

Scholarly Works

This is a paper about some of the most entertaining and challenging cases in America’s copyright law jurisprudence concerning derivative works as copyrightable subject matter, and the closely related right to prepare derivative works. The cases are entertaining because they involve very familiar works of authorship, and they are challenging because the rulings are often difficult to reconcile due to the fact that the courts are grappling with copyright’s elusive originality standard as applied to derivative works as well the copyright owner’s right to prepare derivative works. Instead of attempting to say something ‘original’ about originality, my ...


Law's Semantic Self-Portrait: Discerning Doctrine With Co-Citation Networks And Keywords, Joseph S. Miller Jan 2019

Law's Semantic Self-Portrait: Discerning Doctrine With Co-Citation Networks And Keywords, Joseph S. Miller

Scholarly Works

An apex court’s body of cases has an internal texture, continually augmented by recent citations to earlier, topically related cases. How can we best describe that texture? The citation network shows a path. Specifically, what past Supreme Court cases do more recent Supreme Court cases tend to cite together, as if a topical pair? Using a web of those oft-cited pairs, what noun phrases appear in a given cluster of cases more often, relative to the rate at which those phrases appear in writings more generally? To answer these questions is to map, in detail, a body of decisional ...


A Reconsideration Of Copyright's Term, Kristelia A. García, Justin Mccrary Jan 2019

A Reconsideration Of Copyright's Term, Kristelia A. García, Justin Mccrary

Articles

For well over a century, legislators, courts, lawyers, and scholars have spent significant time and energy debating the optimal duration of copyright protection. While there is general consensus that copyright’s term is of legal and economic significance, arguments both for and against a lengthy term are often impressionistic. Utilizing music industry sales data not previously available for academic analysis, this Article fills an important evidentiary gap in the literature. Using recorded music as a case study, we determine that most copyrighted music earns the majority of its lifetime revenue in the first five to ten years following its initial ...


Comparative Analysis Of Innovation Failures And Institutions In Context, Mark Mckenna Jan 2019

Comparative Analysis Of Innovation Failures And Institutions In Context, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

Many different legal and non-legal institutions govern and therefore shape knowledge production. It is tempting, given the various types of knowledge, knowledge producers, and systems with and within which knowledge and knowledge producers and users interact, to look for reductionist shortcuts — in general but especially in the context of comparative institutional analysis. The temptation should be resisted for it leads to either what Harold Demsetz called the Nirvana Fallacy or what Elinor Ostrom critiqued as myopic allegories.

We suggest that comparative institutional analysis must be accompanied by comparative failure analysis, by which we mean rigorous and contextual comparative analysis of ...


The Genius Of Common Law Intellectual Property, Shyamkrishna Balganesh Jan 2019

The Genius Of Common Law Intellectual Property, Shyamkrishna Balganesh

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Among Richard Epstein’s influential contributions to legal scholarship over the years is his writing on common law intellectual property. In it, we see Epstein’s attempt to meld the innate logic of the common law’s conceptual structure with the realities of the modern information economy. Common law intellectual property refers to different judge made causes of action that create forms of exclusive rights and privileges in intangibles, interferences with which are then rendered enforceable through private liability. In this Essay, I examine Epstein’s writing on two such doctrines: “hot news misappropriation” and “cyber-trespass”, which embraces several important ...


Property And Equity In Trademark Law, Mark Mckenna Jan 2019

Property And Equity In Trademark Law, Mark Mckenna

Journal Articles

This essay, delivered as the Nies Lecture at Marquette Law School, focuses on changes in the doctrinal structure of trademark law over the course of the last century — specifically with respect to the relationship between trademark law’s limits and the broader common law of unfair competition. Changes in that relationship, I will argue, meaningfully increased trademark law's emphasis on property — what the plaintiff owns — and deemphasized legal rules that focused on the defendant’s conduct.


Panel 2: Art Law And Blockchain, Tonya M. Evans, Derek Fincham, Katya Fisher, Jeanne L. Schroeder Jan 2019

Panel 2: Art Law And Blockchain, Tonya M. Evans, Derek Fincham, Katya Fisher, Jeanne L. Schroeder

Law Faculty Scholarship

Panel presentation on Art Law and Blockchain at 2019 AELJ Spring Symposium: Digital Art & Blockchain.


Technical Standards Meet Administrative Law: A Teaching Guide On Incorporation By Reference, Emily S. Bremer Jan 2019

Technical Standards Meet Administrative Law: A Teaching Guide On Incorporation By Reference, Emily S. Bremer

Journal Articles

When an agency incorporates by reference, it promulgates a rule that identifies—but does not reprint—material already published elsewhere. The incorporated materials thus become binding law without actually being printed in the agency's regulations. Sometimes the incorporated materials are privately developed technical standards, which are often copyrighted and available only for a fee. This restriction on access undermines transparency and public participation in the rulemaking process. Finding a solution is challenging because the problem is multidimensional, implicating public policy in the areas of administrative law, federal standards law and policy, and copyright.

This teaching guide is part of ...


The Football As Intellectual Property Object, Michael J. Madison Jan 2019

The Football As Intellectual Property Object, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

The histories of technology and culture are filled with innovations that emerged and took root by being shared widely, only to be succeeded by eras of growth framed by intellectual property. The Internet is a modern example. The football, also known as the pelota, ballon, bola, balón, and soccer ball, is another, older, and broader one. The football lies at the core of football. Intersections between the football and intellectual property law are relatively few in number, but the football supplies a focal object through which the great themes of intellectual property have shaped the game: origins; innovation and standardization ...


Rethinking Copyright And Personhood, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2019

Rethinking Copyright And Personhood, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

One of the primary theoretical justifications for copyright is the role that creative works play in helping develop an individual’s sense of personhood and self-actualization. Typically ascribed to the writings of Immanuel Kant and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, personhood-based theories of copyright serve as the foundation for the moral rights prominent in European copyright law and mandated by the leading intellectual property treaty, which give authors inalienable control over aspects of their works after they have been created. The conventional wisdom about the relationship between personhood and copyright suffers from two fatal flaws that have gone largely unappreciated. First ...


Biobanks As Knowledge Institutions, Michael J. Madison Jan 2019

Biobanks As Knowledge Institutions, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

This chapter describes biobanks as institutions for collection, preservation, curation, and production of knowledge and information, in both material and immaterial forms. That characterization calls for research and comparative analysis of the broad diversity of specific biobanks, using a standardized research framework. Such a framework is identified and described here, as the knowledge commons framework. The chapter describes applications of the framework to biobanks to date and suggests directions for future research.


Everything Old Is New Again: Does The '.Sucks' Gtld Change The Regulatory Paradigm In North America?, Jacqueline D. Lipton Jan 2019

Everything Old Is New Again: Does The '.Sucks' Gtld Change The Regulatory Paradigm In North America?, Jacqueline D. Lipton

Articles

In 2012, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (“ICANN”) took the unprecedented step of opening up the generic Top Level Domain (“gTLD”) space for entities who wanted to run registries for any new alphanumeric string “to the right of the dot” in a domain name. After a number of years of vetting applications, the first round of new gTLDs was released in 2013, and those gTLDs began to come online shortly thereafter. One of the more contentious of these gTLDs was “.sucks” which came online in 2015. The original application for the “.sucks” registry was somewhat contentious with ...


Control Over Contemporary Photography: A Tangle Of Copyright, Right Of Publicity, And The First Amendment, Jessica Silbey Jan 2019

Control Over Contemporary Photography: A Tangle Of Copyright, Right Of Publicity, And The First Amendment, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

Professional photographers who make photographs of people negotiate a tense relationship between their own creative freedoms and the right of their subjects to control their images. This negotiation formally takes place over the terrain of copyright, right of publicity, and the First Amendment. Informally, photographers describe implied understandings and practice norms guiding their relationship with subjects, infrequently memorialized in short, boilerplate contractual releases. This short essay explores these formal and informal practices described by contemporary professional photographers. Although the evidence for this essay comes from professional photographic practice culled from interviews with contemporary photographers, the analysis of the evidence speaks ...


Justifying Copyright In The Age Of Digital Reproduction: The Case Of Photographers, Jessica Silbey Jan 2019

Justifying Copyright In The Age Of Digital Reproduction: The Case Of Photographers, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores the justification for copyright from two sources: seminal court cases and accounts from photographic authors. It takes as its premise that copyright protection requires justification, not only because creative work is frequently made and disseminated without reliance on copyright, but because, in the age of digital technology, practices of creative production and dissemination have sufficiently changed to question the existing contours of the forty-year-old Copyright Act. Why read the photographers’ stories alongside the court cases? Each present contested views of copyright’s relation to creativity. At times, the photographers’ accounts and the case law strengthen and reinforce ...


From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2019

From Venetian Glass To Contemporary Intellectual Property: Revisiting Tailored Patent Regimes (Book Review), Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

This piece reviews Stefania Fusco's “Murano Glass Vase" and "Lessons from the Past." In Murano Glass Vase, Fusco recounts the history of the glassmaking industry in Venice, framing it as the natural experiment from which the patent system sprang into the world. Fusco emphasizes the mix of exclusionary rights and trade secrecy that formed the backbone of Venetian innovation policy against the backdrop of a heavily regulated and protectionist economy. In “Lessons from the Past,” Fusco draws on original research performed at the Venetian State Archives to further the Murano narrative by looking at how the Venetian government fueled ...


Health Care Costs And The Arc Of Innovation, Neel U. Sukhatme, Maxwell Gregg Bloche Jan 2019

Health Care Costs And The Arc Of Innovation, Neel U. Sukhatme, Maxwell Gregg Bloche

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Health care costs continue their inexorable rise, threatening America’s long-term fiscal stability, competitiveness, and standard of living. Over the past half-century, efforts to rein in spending have uniformly failed. In this Article, we explain why, breaking with standard accounts of regulatory and market dysfunction. We point instead to the nexus of economics, mutual empathy, and social expectations that drives medical innovation and locks in low-value technologies. We show how law reflects and reinforces this nexus and how and why health-policy-makers avert their gaze.

Next, we propose to circumvent these barriers instead of surmounting them. Rather than targeting today’s ...