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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Bright Idea From The Black Canyon: Federal Judicial Review Of Reserved Water Right Settlements, Reed D. Benson Dec 2009

A Bright Idea From The Black Canyon: Federal Judicial Review Of Reserved Water Right Settlements, Reed D. Benson

Faculty Scholarship

Under the reserved water rights doctrine, lands the federal government has designated for a particular purpose have rights to sufficient water to fulfill that purpose. Reserved water rights are also known as Winters rights after the doctrine's foundational case, in which the United States Supreme Court held that Congress must have intended to reserve sufficient water to irrigate an Indian reservation although the treaty establishing that reservation said nothing about water.


The Status And Evolution Of Laws And Policies Regulating Privately Owned Tigers In The United States, Philip J. Nyhus, Michael Ambrogi, Caitlin Dufraine, Alan Shoemaker, Ronald L. Tilson Jul 2009

The Status And Evolution Of Laws And Policies Regulating Privately Owned Tigers In The United States, Philip J. Nyhus, Michael Ambrogi, Caitlin Dufraine, Alan Shoemaker, Ronald L. Tilson

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Dairies In New Mexico: The Environmental Implications Of A New Industry, Denise D. Fort, Anthony Edwards Jun 2009

Dairies In New Mexico: The Environmental Implications Of A New Industry, Denise D. Fort, Anthony Edwards

Faculty Scholarship

The dairy industry, at first blush, might seem to be an odd growth industry for New Mexico, but the last decade has seen an extraordinary expansion of the industry in the state. The presence of the industry has consequences for the state in several domains, including water quantity and water quality, as well as economics, animal welfare and state finances. This article is an attempt to characterize these implications for water policy and to solicit insights from those who are familiar with the industry.


Adapting Governance To Climate Change: Managing Uncertainty Through A Learning Infrastructure, Alejandro E. Camacho Jan 2009

Adapting Governance To Climate Change: Managing Uncertainty Through A Learning Infrastructure, Alejandro E. Camacho

Faculty Scholarship

Though legislatures and agencies are considering how to prevent further climate change, some adverse effects from a warming climate are already inevitable. Adapting to these effects is essential, but regulators and scholars have largely neglected this need. This Article evaluates the capacity of natural resource governance to cope with the effects of climate change, and provides a framework for Congress to help it do so.

The Article identifies unprecedented uncertainty as the paramount impediment raised by climate change, and demonstrates how existing fragmented governance is poorly adapted to deal with this challenge. Drawing on lessons from prior regulatory experiments, it ...


Regulatory Dysfunction: How Insufficient Resources, Outdated Laws, And Political Interference Cripple The 'Protector Agencies', Sidney A. Shapiro, Rena I. Steinzor, Matthew Shudtz Jan 2009

Regulatory Dysfunction: How Insufficient Resources, Outdated Laws, And Political Interference Cripple The 'Protector Agencies', Sidney A. Shapiro, Rena I. Steinzor, Matthew Shudtz

Faculty Scholarship

In the last several years, dramatic failures of the nation’s food safety system have sickened or killed tens of thousands of Americans, and caused billions of dollars of damages for producers and distributors of everything from fresh vegetables to granola bars and hamburger meat. In each case, the outbreak of food-borne illness triggered what can only be described as a frantic scramble by health officials to discover its source. Inevitably, the wrong lead is followed or a recall is too late or too narrow to prevent further illnesses, and the government has to defend itself against withering criticism. Americans ...


The Economic Theory Of Nuisance Law And Implications For Environmental Regulation, Keith Hylton Jan 2009

The Economic Theory Of Nuisance Law And Implications For Environmental Regulation, Keith Hylton

Faculty Scholarship

I explore the economic structure of nuisance law as a mechanism for regulating environmental interferences and propose a modernized enforcement regime. The modern regime would retain public enforcement primarily in identifying environmental harms and as a backstop for private enforcement.


Carbon Into Gold: Forest Carbon Offsets, Climate Change Adaptation, And International Law, David Takacs Jan 2009

Carbon Into Gold: Forest Carbon Offsets, Climate Change Adaptation, And International Law, David Takacs

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Global Warming And The Problem Of Policy Innovation: Lessons From The Early Environmental Movement, Christopher H. Schroeder Jan 2009

Global Warming And The Problem Of Policy Innovation: Lessons From The Early Environmental Movement, Christopher H. Schroeder

Faculty Scholarship

When it comes to influencing government decisions, special interests have some built-in advantages over the general public interest. When the individual members of special interest groups have a good deal to gain or lose as a result of government action, special interests can organize more effectively, and generate benefits for elected officials, such as campaign contributions and other forms of political support. They will seek to use those advantages to influence government decisions favorable to them. The public choice theory of government decision making sometimes comes close to elevating this point into a universal law, suggesting that the general public ...


Who’S Number One? The Most Significant Cases In Environmental Law, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl Jan 2009

Who’S Number One? The Most Significant Cases In Environmental Law, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl

Faculty Scholarship

What do environmental lawyers consider the most significant environmental cases? In 2001, Jim Salzman conducted a survey of the envlawprofs listserve for the "Most Excellent" environmental law cases in the field, tabulating the top cases for law profs and for practicing attorneys. Given the significant decisions over the eight years, we thought it would be useful to conduct the survey again, this time using a dedicated website and surveying both the envlawprofs listserve and members of the ABA's Section on Environment, Energy and Resources. We enjoyed a high level of participation, with over 440 responses from across the nation ...


A Policy Maker’S Guide To Designing Payments For Ecosystem Services, James Salzman Jan 2009

A Policy Maker’S Guide To Designing Payments For Ecosystem Services, James Salzman

Faculty Scholarship

Over the past five years, there has been increasing interest around the globe in payment schemes for the provision of ecosystem services, such as water purification, carbon sequestration, flood control, etc. Written for an Asian Development Bank project in China, this report provides a user-friendly guide to designing payments for the provision of ecosystem services. Part I explains the different types of ecosystem services, different ways of assessing their value, and why they are traditionally under-protected by law and policy. This is followed by an analysis of when payments for services are a preferable approach to other policy instruments. Part ...


Organophosphates, Friend And Foe: The Promise Of Medical Monitoring For Farm Workers And Their Families, Adriane J. Busby, Gabriel Eckstein Jan 2009

Organophosphates, Friend And Foe: The Promise Of Medical Monitoring For Farm Workers And Their Families, Adriane J. Busby, Gabriel Eckstein

Faculty Scholarship

Millions of farm workers nation-wide who load, mix and/or apply pesticides are exposed to incredible amounts of pesticides on a daily basis. Various inefficiencies and inconsistencies in the regulatory system - including insufficient illness reporting data systems, lack of regulatory compliance and enforcement, and inadequate data and information on the chronic effects of exposure and overexposure to various pesticides - increase the likelihood that these workers will continue to be exposed to dangerous amounts of pesticides.

This Article assesses the existing mechanisms designed to protect farm workers from occupational exposure to pesticides and identifies and analyzes some of the shortcomings of ...


Water Scarcity, Conflict, And Security In A Climate Change World: Challenges And Opportunities For International Law And Policy, Gabriel Eckstein Jan 2009

Water Scarcity, Conflict, And Security In A Climate Change World: Challenges And Opportunities For International Law And Policy, Gabriel Eckstein

Faculty Scholarship

Although climate change is expected to have major consequences that affect the global environment in its broadest sense, one of the earliest and most direct impacts will be on Earth’s fresh water systems. While some regions will experience increased precipitation, others will suffer serious scarcity. Among others, consequences are likely to include severe flooding, extreme droughts, and meandering border-rivers. This, in turn, will affect human migration patterns, population growths, agricultural activities, economic development, and the environment. This article explores the impact that climate change will have on regional and global freshwater resources and the resulting legal and policy implications ...


Implementing The New Ecosystem Services Mandate: A Catalyst For Advancing Science And Policy, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl, Iris Goodman Jan 2009

Implementing The New Ecosystem Services Mandate: A Catalyst For Advancing Science And Policy, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl, Iris Goodman

Faculty Scholarship

On April 10, 2008, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly published final regulations defining standards and procedures for authorizing compensatory mitigation of impacts to aquatic resources the Corps permits under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (Section 404). Prior to the rule, the Section 404 compensatory mitigation program had been administered under a mish-mash of guidances, inter-agency memoranda, and other policy documents issued over the span of 17 years. A growing tide of policy and science scholarship criticized the program's administration as not accounting for the potential redistribution of ecosystem ...


The Silver Anniversary Of The United States’ Exclusive Economic Zone: Twenty-Five Years Of Ocean Use And Abuse, And The Possibility Of A Blue Water Public Trust Doctrine, Mary Turnipseed, Stephen E. Roady, Raphael Sagarin, Larry B. Crowder Jan 2009

The Silver Anniversary Of The United States’ Exclusive Economic Zone: Twenty-Five Years Of Ocean Use And Abuse, And The Possibility Of A Blue Water Public Trust Doctrine, Mary Turnipseed, Stephen E. Roady, Raphael Sagarin, Larry B. Crowder

Faculty Scholarship

Sustainably managing marine ecosystems has proved nearly impossible, with few success stories. Ecosystem management failures largely stem from the traditional sector-by-sector, issue-by-issue approach to managing ocean-borne activities—an approach that is fundamentally unable to keep pace with the dynamics of coupled human, ecologi cal and oceanographic systems. In the United States today there are over twenty federal agencies and thirty-five coastal states and territories operating under dozens of statutory authorities shaping coastal and ocean policy. Among marine ecologists and policy experts there is an emerging consensus that a major overhaul in U.S. ocean governance is necessary. This Article suggests ...


Implementing The New Ecosystem Services Mandate Of The Section 404 Compensatory Mitigation Program - A Catalyst For Advancing Science And Policy, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl, Iris Goodman Jan 2009

Implementing The New Ecosystem Services Mandate Of The Section 404 Compensatory Mitigation Program - A Catalyst For Advancing Science And Policy, James Salzman, J.B. Ruhl, Iris Goodman

Faculty Scholarship

On April 10, 2008, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly published final regulations defining standards and procedures for authorizing compensatory mitigation of impacts to aquatic resources the Corps permits under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (Section 404). Prior to the rule, the Section 404 compensatory mitigation program had been administered under a mish-mash of guidances, inter-agency memoranda, and other policy documents issued over the span of 17 years. A growing tide of policy and science scholarship criticized the program's administration as not accounting for the potential redistribution of ecosystem ...


A Return To Common Sense: Protecting Health, Safety, And The Environment Through 'Pragmatic Regulatory Impact Analysis', Rena I. Steinzor, Amy Sinden, Sidney A. Shapiro, James Goodwin Jan 2009

A Return To Common Sense: Protecting Health, Safety, And The Environment Through 'Pragmatic Regulatory Impact Analysis', Rena I. Steinzor, Amy Sinden, Sidney A. Shapiro, James Goodwin

Faculty Scholarship

Health and safety regulations have a more powerful impact on the quality of life in America than any other affirmative decision the government makes, except perhaps decisions to go to war or pull in the social safety net. To a great extent, the purity of the food we eat and all the medicines we take, the quality of the air we breathe and the water we drink, the safety of industrial workplaces, and the preservation of the myriad natural systems that support life as we know it are dependent on how effectively government polices the side effects of manufacturing. Yet ...


The Hidden Human And Environmental Costs Of Regulatory Delay, Catherine O'Neill, Amy Sinden, Rena I. Steinzor, James Goodwin, Ling-Yee Huang Jan 2009

The Hidden Human And Environmental Costs Of Regulatory Delay, Catherine O'Neill, Amy Sinden, Rena I. Steinzor, James Goodwin, Ling-Yee Huang

Faculty Scholarship

Each year dozens of workers are killed, thousands of children harmed, and millions of dollars wasted because of unjustifiable delays in federal regulatory action. Such delays in regulatory action have become commonplace, part of the wallpaper of Washington’s regulatory process for the protector agencies—the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), EPA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and OSHA. Despite its significance, the problem of regulatory delay and the costs it generates has been virtually ignored in the debate over the general wisdom of the U.S. regulatory system over the last ...


The Globalization Of Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival Jan 2009

The Globalization Of Environmental Law, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

Legal systems across the globe are responding to environmental concerns in surprising new ways. As nations upgrade their environmental standards, some are transplanting law and regulatory policy innovations derived from the experience of other countries, including nations with very different legal and cultural traditions. New national, regional, and international initiatives have been undertaken both by governments and private organizations. Greater cross-border collaboration between government officials, nongovernmental organizations, multinational corporations and other entities is shaping environmental policy in ways that blur traditional private/public/and domestic/international distinctions. The result has been the emergence of a kind of “global environmental law ...


The Emergence Of Global Environmental Law, Tseming Yang, Robert V. Percival Jan 2009

The Emergence Of Global Environmental Law, Tseming Yang, Robert V. Percival

Faculty Scholarship

With the global growth of public concern about environmental issues over the last several decades, environmental legal norms have become increasingly internationalized. This development has been reflected both in the surge of international environmental agreements as well as the growth and increased sophistication of national environmental legal systems around the world. The result is the emergence of a set of legal principles and norms regarding the environment, such that one can arguably describe it as a body of law. After exploring the diverse forces that are contributing to the emergence of what we call “global environmental law,” this Article considers ...


Environmental Impact Assessment In Post-Colonial Societies: Reflections On The Proposed Expansion Of The Panama Canal, Carmen Gonzalez Jan 2009

Environmental Impact Assessment In Post-Colonial Societies: Reflections On The Proposed Expansion Of The Panama Canal, Carmen Gonzalez

Faculty Scholarship

Post-colonial societies endowed with abundant natural resources often under-perform economically when these resources are exploited as economic enclaves lacking significant linkages to other sectors of the economy. The Panama Canal, a symbol of Panamanian identity and a reminder of Panama's lengthy colonial history, has historically functioned as an economic enclave akin to the mineral extraction and industrial agriculture enclaves prevalent throughout the developing world. Based on a case study of the contentious decision to expand the Panama Canal, this article examines the ways in which the colonial legacy distorts the development planning process, and discusses strategies that might be ...


Burden Of Proof In Environmental Disputes In The Wto: Legal Aspects, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis Jan 2009

Burden Of Proof In Environmental Disputes In The Wto: Legal Aspects, Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis

Faculty Scholarship

This paper discusses allocation of burden of proof in environmental disputes in the WTO system. Besides laying down the natural principles that (i) the complainant carries the burden to (ii) make a prima facie case that its claim holds, WTO adjudicating bodies have said little of more general nature. The paper therefore examines the case law of relevance to environmental policies, to establish the rules concerning burden of proof that are likely to be applied in such disputes. Evaluating this case law, the paper makes two observations,: First, in cases submitted under the GATTWTO, adjudicating bodies have committed errors regarding ...


On Capturing The Possible Significance Of Institutional Design And Ethos, Peter L. Strauss Jan 2009

On Capturing The Possible Significance Of Institutional Design And Ethos, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

At a recent conference, a new judge from one of the federal courts of appeal – for the United States, the front line in judicial control of administrative action-made a plea to the lawyers in attendance. Please, he urged, in briefing and arguing cases reviewing agency actions, help us judges to understand their broader contexts. So often, he complained, the briefs and arguments are limited to the particular small issues of the case. We get little sense of the broad context in which it arises – the agency responsibilities in their largest sense, the institutional issues that may be at stake, how ...


Chevron'S Two Steps, Kenneth A. Bamberger, Peter L. Strauss Jan 2009

Chevron'S Two Steps, Kenneth A. Bamberger, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

The framework for judicial review of administrative interpretations of regulatory statutes set forth in the landmark Chevron U.S.A. v. Natural Resources Defense Council decision prescribes two analytic inquiries, and for good reason. The familiar two-step analysis is best understood as a framework for allocating interpretive authority in the administrative state; it separates questions of statutory implementation assigned to independent judicial judgment (Step One) from questions regarding which the courts role is limited to oversight of agency decisionmaking (Step Two).

The boundary between a reviewing court's decision and oversight roles rests squarely on the question of statutory ambiguity ...


Improving The Odds Of Government Accountability In The Disaster-Prone Era: Using The 9/11 Fund Factors To Remedy The Problem Of Toxic Katrina Trailers, Olympia Duhart Jan 2009

Improving The Odds Of Government Accountability In The Disaster-Prone Era: Using The 9/11 Fund Factors To Remedy The Problem Of Toxic Katrina Trailers, Olympia Duhart

Faculty Scholarship

This article analyzes the dangers surrounding the toxicity levels in the trailers issued to Katrina survivors by FEMA, and identifies serious medical complications stemming from the temporary homes. Lack of government oversight in the process led to the distribution of formaldehyde-laced trailers that cost the government more than $2 billion and continue to poison residents years after the storm. Furthermore, the failures connected to disaster relief are even more disturbing in this disaster-prone era. More importantly, this paper also proposes the creation of a Toxic Trailer Fund to compensate residents of toxic FEMA trailers. Using the factors implicitly established by ...