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Ceo Side Payments In Mergers And Acquisitions, Brian J. Broughman Jan 2017

Ceo Side Payments In Mergers And Acquisitions, Brian J. Broughman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In addition to golden parachutes, CEOs often negotiate for personal side-payments in connection with the sale of their firm. Side-payments differ from golden parachutes in that they are negotiated ex post in connection with a specific acquisition proposal, whereas golden parachutes are part of the executive’s employment agreement negotiated when she is hired. While side-payments may benefit shareholders by countering managerial resistance to an efficient sale, they can also be used to redistribute merger proceeds to management. The current article highlights an overlooked distinction between pre-merger golden parachutes and merger side-payments. Similar to a legislative rider attached to a ...


Delaware's Familiarity, Brian J. Broughman, Darian M. Ibrahim Jan 2015

Delaware's Familiarity, Brian J. Broughman, Darian M. Ibrahim

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Why do corporations choose to incorporate in Delaware over other states? The existing literature primarily falls into two camps — the “race-to-the-top” and the “race-to-the-bottom” — both of which credit Delaware’s success to the quality of its corporate law and the expertise of its judges. We consider an alternative explanation for Delaware’s continued success: familiarity. After decades of dominance, business parties have become increasingly familiar with Delaware law. Using data from a sample of startups financed by venture capital, we find that firms domicile in Delaware as much for familiarity reasons as for its substantive features. The Article finishes by ...


When Two Worlds Collide: The Interface Between Competition Law And Data Protection, Fred H. Cate, Christopher Kuner, Christopher Millard, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson, Orla Lynskey Jan 2014

When Two Worlds Collide: The Interface Between Competition Law And Data Protection, Fred H. Cate, Christopher Kuner, Christopher Millard, Dan Jerker B. Svantesson, Orla Lynskey

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Carrots And Sticks: How Vcs Induce Entrepreneurial Teams To Sell Startups, Brian J. Broughman, Jesse M. Fried Jan 2013

Carrots And Sticks: How Vcs Induce Entrepreneurial Teams To Sell Startups, Brian J. Broughman, Jesse M. Fried

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Venture capitalists (VCs) usually exit their investments in a startup via a trade sale. But the entrepreneurial team – the startup’s founder, other executives, and common shareholders – may resist a trade sale. Such resistance is likely to be particularly intense when the sale price is low relative to VCs’ liquidation preferences. Using a hand-collected dataset of Silicon Valley firms, we investigate how VCs overcome such resistance. We find, in our sample, that VCs give bribes (carrots) to the entrepreneurial team in 45% of trade sales; in these sales, carrots total an average of 9% of deal value. The overt use ...


Do Vcs Use Inside Rounds To Dilute Founders? Some Evidence From Silicon Valley, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried Jan 2012

Do Vcs Use Inside Rounds To Dilute Founders? Some Evidence From Silicon Valley, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In the bank-borrower setting, a firm's existing lender may exploit its positional advantage to extract rents from the firm in subsequent financings. Analogously, a startup's existing venture capital investors (VCs) may dilute the founder through a follow-on financing from these same VCs (an “inside” round) at an artificially low valuation. Using a hand-collected dataset of Silicon Valley startup firms, we find little evidence that VCs use inside rounds to dilute founders. Instead, our findings suggest that inside rounds are generally used as “backstop financing” for startups that cannot attract new money, and these rounds are conducted at relatively ...


Promoting Employee Voice In The American Economy: A Call For Comprehensive Reform, Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt Jan 2011

Promoting Employee Voice In The American Economy: A Call For Comprehensive Reform, Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt

Articles by Maurer Faculty

It has become apparent that there are serious deficiencies in the American model of production. Our model of corporate governance has recently come under intense scrutiny in the academic literature and the popular press. There are increasing concerns that American corporations are too focused on short-run profits and stock prices, at the expense of long-term strategies and investments that would benefit the long-run value of the firm, employees, and the American economy at large. In the pursuit of short-run shareholder interests, American corporations have bestowed on senior executives enormous compensation packages that seem increasingly divorced from any notion of rationality ...


A Tisket, A Tasket: Basketing And Corporate Tax Shelters, Leandra Lederman Jan 2011

A Tisket, A Tasket: Basketing And Corporate Tax Shelters, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In an income tax system that comported with the economic, or Haig-Simons, definition of income, deductible expenses would not face source-based limitations. A true Haig-Simons income tax system therefore would not take the schedular approach of sorting different types of expenses and losses into distinct conceptual “baskets” containing corresponding types of income. Practical realities often require departing from the Haig-Simons norm, however. The U.S. federal income tax system does require individuals to basket a number of types of expenses and losses. For example, individuals’ passive activity losses can only be deducted from passive income gains. By contrast, most corporations ...


Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2011

Insider Trading, Congressional Officials, And Duties Of Entrustment, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article refutes what has become the conventional wisdom that insider trading by members of Congress and legislative staffers is “totally legal” because such congressional officials are immune from federal insider trading law. It argues that this well-worn claim is rooted in twin misconceptions based on: (1) a lack of regard for the broad and sweeping duties of entrustment which attach to public office and (2) an unduly restrictive view of Supreme Court precedents, which have interpreted Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act to impose liability whenever a person trades securities on the basis of material nonpublic information in ...


The Sec Staff's "Cybersecurity Disclosure" Guidance: Will It Help Investors Or Cyber-Thieves More?, Sarah Jane Hughes, Roland L. Trope Jan 2011

The Sec Staff's "Cybersecurity Disclosure" Guidance: Will It Help Investors Or Cyber-Thieves More?, Sarah Jane Hughes, Roland L. Trope

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Ifc's New Africa, Latin America, And Caribbean Fund: Its Worrisome Start, And How To Fix It, Christiana Ochoa, Patrick J. Keenan Jan 2010

The Ifc's New Africa, Latin America, And Caribbean Fund: Its Worrisome Start, And How To Fix It, Christiana Ochoa, Patrick J. Keenan

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In April 2010 the International Finance Corporation announced the creation of the African, Latin American, and Caribbean fund, a new co-investment vehicle funded largely with commitments from sovereign wealth and pension funds. The fund's objective was to draw on the IFC and the World Bank's strengths in emerging markets to identify and support enterprises that might not otherwise have come to the attention of large investors and thereby help strengthen the private sector and alleviate poverty in some of the world's poorest countries. Unfortunately the fund has, so far, proven a disappointment. It has invested only in ...


The Public Control Of Corporate Power: Revisiting The 1909 U.S. Corporate Tax From A Comparative Perspective, Ajay K. Mehrotra Jan 2010

The Public Control Of Corporate Power: Revisiting The 1909 U.S. Corporate Tax From A Comparative Perspective, Ajay K. Mehrotra

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The origins of U.S. corporate taxation are often associated with the 1909 corporate excise tax. Scholars who have investigated the beginnings of this levy have mainly focused on the legislative history of the 1909 corporate tax to argue that it was either an expression of the Progressive Era impulse to regulate large-scale corporations or an attempt to use corporations as remittance devices to collect taxes aimed at wealthy shareholders. This Article broadens the conventional historical accounts of the emergence of American corporate taxation by revisiting the 1909 U.S. corporate tax from a comparative perspective. The aim is to ...


Renegotiation Of Cash Flow Rights In The Sale Of Vc-Backed Firms, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried Jan 2010

Renegotiation Of Cash Flow Rights In The Sale Of Vc-Backed Firms, Brian Broughman, Jesse Fried

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Incomplete contracting theory suggests that VC cash flow rights - including liquidation preferences - may be subject to renegotiation. Using a hand-collected dataset of sales of Silicon Valley firms, we find common shareholders do sometimes receive payment before VCs' liquidation preferences are satisfied. However, such deviations tend to be small. We also find that renegotiation is more likely when governance arrangements, including the firm's choice of corporate law, give common shareholders power to impede the sale. Our study provides support for incomplete contracting theory, improves understanding of VC exits, and suggests that choice of corporate law matters in private firms.


Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum Jan 2010

Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Independent Directors In Startup Firms, Brian Broughman Jan 2010

The Role Of Independent Directors In Startup Firms, Brian Broughman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Article develops a new theory to explain the widespread use of independent directors in the governance of startup firms. Privately held startups often assign a tie-breaking board seat to a third-party independent director. This practice cannot be explained by the existing corporate governance literature, which relies on diffuse ownership and passive investment-features unique to the publicly traded firm. To develop an alternative theory, I model a financing contract between an entrepreneur and a venture capital investor. I show that allocating a tie- breaking vote to an unbiased thirdparty can prevent opportunistic behavior that would occur ifthe firm were controlled ...


An Empirical Analysis Of Lateral Lawyer Trends From 2000 To 2007: The Emerging Equilibrium For Corporate Law Firms, William D. Henderson, Leonard Bierman Jan 2009

An Empirical Analysis Of Lateral Lawyer Trends From 2000 To 2007: The Emerging Equilibrium For Corporate Law Firms, William D. Henderson, Leonard Bierman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Criminalization Of Corporate Law: The Impact Of Criminal Sanctions On Corporate Misconduct, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2007

Criminalization Of Corporate Law: The Impact Of Criminal Sanctions On Corporate Misconduct, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


From Insull To Enron: Corporate (Re)Regulation After The Rise And Fall Of Two Energy Icons, William D. Henderson, Richard D. Cudahy Jan 2005

From Insull To Enron: Corporate (Re)Regulation After The Rise And Fall Of Two Energy Icons, William D. Henderson, Richard D. Cudahy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

For most Americans, the collapse of the Enron Corporation is without doubt the most memorable corporate event of their generation. Remarkably, few people are aware that the New Deal regulatory framework - which Congress recently reformed and toughened to in response to the Enron debacle - was itself erected in the wake of a strikingly similar corporate crash. In late 1931 and early 1932, the country looked on in horror as Samuel Insull's mighty and seemingly invulnerable electric utility holding company empire collapsed without warning, wiping out the holdings of over 1 million investors, most of whom believed that they had ...


Playing Peekaboo With Constitutional Law: The Pcaob And Its Public/Private Status, Donna M. Nagy Jan 2005

Playing Peekaboo With Constitutional Law: The Pcaob And Its Public/Private Status, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Article is the first to consider the constitutional status of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB - pronounced by some as peekaboo). Congress created the PCAOB in 2002 to regulate the accounting profession in response to scandals at Enron, WorldCom, and other public companies. The Article argues that notwithstanding the PCAOB's congressional designation as a nonprofit corporation in the private sector, its governmental creation, governmental objectives, governmental powers, and governmentally appointed board members render it a public (or state) actor for purposes of constitutional law. The Article also analyzes the PCAOB from a policy perspective, and argues that ...


The Entrepreneurship Effect: An Accidental Externality In The Federal Income Tax, Leandra Lederman Jan 2004

The Entrepreneurship Effect: An Accidental Externality In The Federal Income Tax, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Case law and commentators sometimes speak as if all income-producing activities are taxed similarly. However, that simply is not true for individuals. Although the expenses and losses of business activities generally are deductible from income of any source and net losses can be carried to other tax years, individuals' investment expenses and losses generally are deductible only from investment income. Although many of the provisions restricting investment-related deductions were enacted at different times, and each one has its own rationale, the combined effect of these provisions on individual investors is a systematic preference for business losses over investment losses.

Economists ...


When Clients Do Bad Things: The Lawyer's Response To Corporate Wrongdoing, Craig M. Bradley Jan 2003

When Clients Do Bad Things: The Lawyer's Response To Corporate Wrongdoing, Craig M. Bradley

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The high profile meltdowns of Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, Adelphia, Global Crossing and other well-known companies have focused attention on the responsibilities of corporate gatekeepers, including attorneys, to deter or expose fraudulent conduct by their clients and associated persons. Attorneys have been the subject of investigation and criticism by Congress' and federal regulators for failing to adequately respond to their clients' fraudulent (and, possibly, criminal) conduct. The lawyer who learns that his or her client or persons acting on its behalf are engaged in a course of fraudulent or criminal conduct which threatens economic losses to non-client third parties faces both ...


The "Possession Vs. Use" Debate In The Context Of Securities Trading By Traditional Insiders: Why Silence Can Never Be Golden, Donna M. Nagy Jan 1999

The "Possession Vs. Use" Debate In The Context Of Securities Trading By Traditional Insiders: Why Silence Can Never Be Golden, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Traditional insiders occupy a very special position in the scheme of federal securities regulation. However, in a misguided quest for a single answer to the possession vs. use debate, courts, commentators, and even the SEC have tended to marginalize the significant differences between traditional insiders and other securities traders who may possess material nonpublic information. In the aftermath of the circuit court decisions in United States v. Smith and Securities and Exchange Commission v. Adler, courts and the SEC should follow a categorical approach in addressing the possession vs. use question, and should recognize that silence can never be golden ...


Reframing The Misappropriation Theory Of Insider Trading Liability: A Post-O'Hagan Suggestion, Donna M. Nagy Jan 1998

Reframing The Misappropriation Theory Of Insider Trading Liability: A Post-O'Hagan Suggestion, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

For almost two decades, the United States Supreme Court was silent as to the validity of the so-called 'fraud on the source" misappropriation theory of insider trading liability. This changed in June 1997 when the theory received a resounding endorsement from the Court in United States v. O'Hagan.

Critics of O'Hagan have argued that the Court's decision reaches too far. However, this Article contends that the Court actually endorsed a theory that does not reach far enough. By analyzing and critiquing the reasoning of the majority opinion in O'Hagan, this Article demonstrates that the Court's ...


Breakfast With Yasser Arafat: Personal Reflections On The Peace Process, David Fidler Jan 1996

Breakfast With Yasser Arafat: Personal Reflections On The Peace Process, David Fidler

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Populist And Economic V. Feudal: Approaches To Industry Self-Regulation In The United States And England, Robert H. Heidt Jan 1989

Populist And Economic V. Feudal: Approaches To Industry Self-Regulation In The United States And England, Robert H. Heidt

Articles by Maurer Faculty

English and American courts treat industry self-regulation very differently. American courts have been generally slow to acknowledge the legitimacy of self-regulation. Once they accept the need for some degree of self-regulation, however, the American courts, under the growing influence of the Chicago school, have become increasingly willing to uphold the regulation on the grounds of economic efficiency. The English courts have had less difficulty recognizing the legitimate role industry self-regulation plays. In determining the reasonableness of the regulatory scheme, however, the English courts adopt a protectionist approach which favours the status quo within the industry. These distinctions, the author argues ...


The Changing Face Of American Corporate Law Practice, John Flood Jan 1988

The Changing Face Of American Corporate Law Practice, John Flood

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The professions of the 1980s are completely different from the situation in the 1930s. They are now subject to the norms of business rather than the standards of professionalism.1 It is part of the purpose of this article to show that the practice of law has become a business like any other business activity. As a result of this trans formation, the norms and standards so often identified with the professions have eroded.

In the next part of the article, I outline some of the demographic changes that have taken place in the legal profession and the reasons for ...


Mandatory Disclosure For Municipal Securities: Issues In Implementation, Ann Judith Gellis Jan 1987

Mandatory Disclosure For Municipal Securities: Issues In Implementation, Ann Judith Gellis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Industry Self-Regulation And The Useless Concept "Group Boycott", Robert Heidt Jan 1986

Industry Self-Regulation And The Useless Concept "Group Boycott", Robert Heidt

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Empirical Research And The Shareholder Derivative Suit: Toward A Better-Informed Debate, Bryant G. Garth, Ilene H. Nagel, Sheldon J. Plager Jan 1985

Empirical Research And The Shareholder Derivative Suit: Toward A Better-Informed Debate, Bryant G. Garth, Ilene H. Nagel, Sheldon J. Plager

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Transnational Legal Practice And Professional Ideology, Bryant G. Garth Jan 1985

Transnational Legal Practice And Professional Ideology, Bryant G. Garth

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Not-For-Profit Corporations In Indiana, John T. Baker Jan 1985

Regulation Of Not-For-Profit Corporations In Indiana, John T. Baker

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.