Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Law

Tiny Things With A Huge Impact: The International Regulation Of Nanomaterials, Dario Picecchi May 2018

Tiny Things With A Huge Impact: The International Regulation Of Nanomaterials, Dario Picecchi

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Mounting evidence demonstrates that nanotechnology and nanomaterials impose severe environmental risks. To minimize these risks, the usage and handling of certain nanomaterials could be addressed under existing treaties such as the Rotterdam Convention, the Stockholm Convention, and the Basel Convention. However, even if existing treaties govern the handling of certain nanomaterials, no treaty effectively regulates all the specific challenges that nanomaterials pose to the global environment. Consequently, a completely new regulatory instrument is required. An international organization could take responsibility for developing and promoting such a nanospecific international legal framework. By incorporating the precautionary principle, a technology transfer, research cooperation ...


Assessing The Climate Impacts Of U.S. Trade Agreements, Matthew C. Porterfield, Kevin P. Gallagher, Judith Claire Schachter Nov 2017

Assessing The Climate Impacts Of U.S. Trade Agreements, Matthew C. Porterfield, Kevin P. Gallagher, Judith Claire Schachter

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Meeting the ambitious goals of the Paris Agreement will require the United States and other major greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters to integrate climate change considerations into all relevant areas of economic policy. The United States, however, has conspicuously failed to do so with regard to international trade negotiations. International trade agreements tend to increase GHG emissions due to the economic effects of trade liberalization, including increases in the scale of economic activity and changes in the composition of the affected economies. Trade agreements can also affect climate change in less quantifiable but potentially more significant ways by restricting the ability ...


International Law In The Anthropocene: Responding To The Geoengineering Challenge, Karen N. Scott Jan 2013

International Law In The Anthropocene: Responding To The Geoengineering Challenge, Karen N. Scott

Michigan Journal of International Law

From The Odyssey to The Tempest and beyond, the control and deliberate manipulation of the weather constitutes an enduring and universal theme in myth and literature. In the twenty-first century, it is scientists and engineers rather than authors and artists who dream of weather and climate control, and their story, as described by James Rodger Fleming, "is not, in essence, a heroic saga about new scientific discoveries that can save the planet, as many of the participants claim, but a tragicomedy of overreaching, hubris, and self-delusion." This notwithstanding, the argument that we should deliberately manipulate earth systems and natural processes ...


Biopiracy And Beyond: A Consideration Of Socio-Cultural Conflicts With Global Patent Policies, Cynthia M. Ho May 2006

Biopiracy And Beyond: A Consideration Of Socio-Cultural Conflicts With Global Patent Policies, Cynthia M. Ho

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article provides afresh and multi-dimensioned approach to a long-standing claim of biopiracy patents made by developing countries and communities. The basic principles of patent law and policy are first established to provide a foundation from which to evaluate the claim that genetic resources and traditional knowledge from developing countries are being misappropriated in a variety of ways that are loosely referred to as biopiracy. The Article distinguishes rhetoric from reality in examining biopiracy allegations from the perspective of national patent laws, as well as international agreements. In addition, the Article explains the underlying conflicts, misconceptions, and historical biases that ...


The Universal Declaration On Bioethics And Human Rights: Promoting International Discussion On The Morality Of Non-Therapeutic Research On Children, Anna Gercas Jan 2006

The Universal Declaration On Bioethics And Human Rights: Promoting International Discussion On The Morality Of Non-Therapeutic Research On Children, Anna Gercas

Michigan Journal of International Law

After describing the Declaration and its drafting history, this Note will summarize several international, national, and regional guidelines regarding children as research subjects. The Note then argues for a prohibition of non-therapeutic research on children and concludes that international human rights law offers the most appropriate basis for the development of regulations on human experimentation.


Prescriptive Treaties In Global Warming: Applying The Factors Leading To The Montreal Protocol, Jasmine Abdel-Khalik Jan 2001

Prescriptive Treaties In Global Warming: Applying The Factors Leading To The Montreal Protocol, Jasmine Abdel-Khalik

Michigan Journal of International Law

In order to combat the ever-increasing problem of global warming, developing nations need technology that will limit emissions while allowing for economic growth. This paper will first examine the problem of global warming. In Part II, the paper will explore the reasons developing nations currently are unable to reduce their emissions. In Part III, the paper will look at the factors leading to the success of the Montreal Protocol and examine the global warming debate in light of these factors.


World Trade And The Environment: The Cafe Case, Eric Phillips Jan 1996

World Trade And The Environment: The Cafe Case, Eric Phillips

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note examines the CAFE case in the context of the debate over trade and the environment. It argues that the panel decision has aspects that support the notion that the international trading system can be compatible with efforts to protect the environment, and also has aspects that demonstrate that these do indeed clash, limiting efforts to protect the environment. Part I of this Note describes the CAFE law and places it in the context of domestic and international efforts to prevent global warming. Part II examines the panel's decision, arguing that the panel acted well within the scope ...


Protecting Biodiversity: Recognizing International Intellectual Property Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, Rebecca L. Margulies Jan 1993

Protecting Biodiversity: Recognizing International Intellectual Property Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, Rebecca L. Margulies

Michigan Journal of International Law

Accelerating deforestation in many tropical countries with the concomitant loss of plant species diversity incites increasing international concern. Until very recently, international environmental law tended to regard natural plant species as a "common heritage," a universal resource immune to private property claims. This common heritage approach to the problem of biodiversity loss has left the majority of plant species in a jurisprudential void, unprotected by property rights and subject to conflicting claims by countries with divergent goals. Unrelieved economic pressures force impoverished peoples in species-rich developing nations to resort to activities that ravage the forests, and the tragedy of biodiversity ...


International Regulation And Control Of The Production And Use Of Chemicals And Pesticides: Perspectives For A Convention, Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz Jan 1992

International Regulation And Control Of The Production And Use Of Chemicals And Pesticides: Perspectives For A Convention, Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz

Michigan Journal of International Law

A wide variety of instruments and mechanisms for the regulation and control of chemicals and pesticides is already available internationally. What is missing is an analysis that attempts to systematize the different approaches, to create transparency, to define where they overlap, and to discover prospective deficiencies and shortcomings. In order to accomplish this task, this article covers legally binding rules as well as recommendations and codes - the international soft law. The overall purpose is to outline a framework for future international regulation of chemicals and pesticides and to propose an international convention as a possible solution.


Restrictions On Trade In Communication And Information Services, Geza Feketekuty, Jonathan David Aronson Jan 1984

Restrictions On Trade In Communication And Information Services, Geza Feketekuty, Jonathan David Aronson

Michigan Journal of International Law

Section one highlights some of the changes that the revolution in information exchange is producing. It also argues that transborder data flows could help facilitate international economic adjustment. Section two analyzes the types of reasons used to justify policy measures that inhibit the integration of the world communication network or prevent information from flowing across national borders. It also discusses the implication of restrictions on transborder data flows for the world trading system and for world economic growth. The final section discusses strategies for halting the proliferation of barriers to trade in communication and information services and for reducing existing ...


The Space Warc: International Accommodations For Satellite Communications, Martin A. Rothblatt Jan 1984

The Space Warc: International Accommodations For Satellite Communications, Martin A. Rothblatt

Michigan Journal of International Law

Communication satellites in geostationary orbit have the marvelous ability to permit information exchange across very large distances. These satellites can accomplish this feat because they are high enough above the earth's surface to be in the "line-of-sight" of microwave transmitters and receivers many thousands of miles apart. Although communication satellites were first used to relay information between continents, by the end of the 1970s they were being used increasingly to transmit information within large countries. This more recent usage, known as "domestic satellite service," is an attractive substitute for lengthy terrestrial microwave or cable networks.


Some Conflicting Trends In Satellite Telecommunications, David M. Leive Jan 1984

Some Conflicting Trends In Satellite Telecommunications, David M. Leive

Michigan Journal of International Law

Two broad trends are evident today in international satellite telecommunications. The first is a trend towards greater international regulation of the natural resources involved, the radio frequency spectrum and the geostationary satellite orbit. The second is a trend towards international and regional groupings in the provision of communications services among countries. Other articles in this volume discuss various aspects of one or the other of these trends, such as the 1985/1988 Space WARC, and regional satellite developments in Europe. Consequently, no attempt is made here to analyze the two trends fully. The principal point of this paper is to ...


Steps Toward A European Agreement On Satellite Broadcasting, Frits W. Hondius Jan 1984

Steps Toward A European Agreement On Satellite Broadcasting, Frits W. Hondius

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article is a progress report, written at the beginning of 1983. It is about the unfolding of a new communications medium, satellite broadcasting, in Europe. It is very probable that by the time of publication, many new developments will have taken place. However, this analysis may still be helpful later on to allow those responsible for the development and use of this powerful new channel of communication to know what the expectations and apprehensions were in 1983. Feedback from history is indispensable to builders of the future, provided that someone is willing to commit to paper a record of ...


Legal Framework Of Communications Programs In The European Space Agency, W. M. Thiebaut Jan 1984

Legal Framework Of Communications Programs In The European Space Agency, W. M. Thiebaut

Michigan Journal of International Law

The establishment of the ESC gave Europe the necessary impetus to start applications programs. In 1968, the third ESC ministerial meeting at Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany, unequivocally assigned space applications to ESRO, created the Committee of Senior Officials as an advisory board, and allocated a small budget for studies on application satellites. The Committee of Senior Officials set up a working group specifically to study possible European involvement in communication satellite programs. This working group consisted not only of representatives of the ESC and the space organizations ELDO and ESRO but also of the potential users of the ...


Major Legal Issues Arising From The Use Of The Geostationary Orbit, Stephen Gorove Jan 1984

Major Legal Issues Arising From The Use Of The Geostationary Orbit, Stephen Gorove

Michigan Journal of International Law

The remarkable scientific and technological developments of the past three decades have resulted in the increasing use of the "geostationary orbit.” Advances in the technology of broadcasting, meteorological reconnaissance, tracking and data relay from orbital satellites, for example, have greatly enlarged its importance. The growing number of geostationary satellites and the anticipated increases in their use have evoked widespread concerns among many less-developed countries (LDCs) about the early preemption of available orbital positions by more developed nations. Attention has focused on the question of the maximum number of satellites that can be accommodated in the orbit. Although estimates have varied ...


Eutelsat: Europe's Satellite Telecommunications, Simone Courteix Jan 1984

Eutelsat: Europe's Satellite Telecommunications, Simone Courteix

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the 1950s long distance telephone communication by wire or Herz circuit was extremely limited and usually very expensive. In 1956, the installation of the first transatlantic telephone cable, TAT 1, signaled the beginning of the present era in intercontinental telecommunications. However, it soon became apparent that underwater cables would not meet the ever-increasing demand for communications created by expanding global economic activity. At the same time, radio communications also experienced growing demand, and suffered from overcrowded frequencies. It was therefore natural that the first application of telecommunications technology in space focused on the improvement of intercontinental circuits.


Current Issues In Remote Sensing, I. H. Ph. Diederiks-Verschoor Jan 1984

Current Issues In Remote Sensing, I. H. Ph. Diederiks-Verschoor

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this article certain problems surrounding Satellite remote sensing (SRS) will be addressed with particular emphasis on their legal implications. Aspects of air law as they affect remote sensing will not be discussed in any detail, nor will it be necessary to refer to the vexing problem of determining the satisfactory boundary between the airspace and outer space. This fundamental problem is still in dispute and under constant review, both in scholarly circles and in the United Nations; and the world community may consider itself fortunate that the issue has not prevented a number of important international agreements on space ...


Direct Television Broadcasting And The Quest For Communication Equality, Howard C. Anawalt Jan 1984

Direct Television Broadcasting And The Quest For Communication Equality, Howard C. Anawalt

Michigan Journal of International Law

In the immediate past modem communication means such as efficient telephone and television systems have been viewed as the luxuries of well developed economies. Rapid advances in the field of communications and computer technologies have changed this basic outlook. Now, it is possible to use these technologies as tools of economic growth in both developed and developing countries. This is primarily because cost has gone down while efficiency has gone up. A recent article concerning small computers demonstrates the point. "If the aircraft industry had developed as spectacularly as the computer industry over the past twenty-five years, a Boeing 767 ...


The Political Economy Of Orbit Spectrum Leasing, Harvey Levin Jan 1984

The Political Economy Of Orbit Spectrum Leasing, Harvey Levin

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article will propose several plans for allocating a common resource of the earth-the international orbit spectrum--among nations through mechanisms designed to introduce market incentives. The rights to orbital "parking places" are so defined as to permit their subdivision, recombination, and assignment in lease markets. The lease market approach accommodates the interests of both developed countries (DCs), who have the technology and domestic demand to establish satellite systems today, and less-developed countries (LDCs), who seek long-range planning to guarantee them access to the orbit spectrum at a time in the future when they, too, possess the capability and need. In ...


Stein: Impact Of New Weapons Technology On International Law: Selected Aspects, Egon Schwelb Dec 1972

Stein: Impact Of New Weapons Technology On International Law: Selected Aspects, Egon Schwelb

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Impact of New Weapons Technology on International Law: Selected Aspects by Eric Stein


Boskey & Willrich: Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects; And Willrich: Civil Nuclear Power And International Security, Charles N. Van Doren Dec 1972

Boskey & Willrich: Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects; And Willrich: Civil Nuclear Power And International Security, Charles N. Van Doren

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Nuclear Proliferation: Prospects for Control edited by Bennett Boskey and Mason Willrich, and Civil Nuclear Power and International Security edited by Mason Willrich