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University of Michigan Law School

1993

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Articles 1 - 30 of 189

Full-Text Articles in Law

Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper Dec 1993

Ugly: An Inquiry Into The Problem Of Racial Gerrymandering Under The Voting Rights Act, Daniel D. Polsby, Robert D. Popper

Michigan Law Review

In the discussion that follows, we focus on the case of congressional districting rather than on districting in general. Although we proceed in this manner for the sake of clarity, it is also true that no single, all-purpose normative theory of electoral mechanics will cover every case of democratic representation, from county commissions to mosquito control districts to sovereign legislatures. We do not claim that one can generalize our argument to every sort of election to which the VRA might apply. Yet we think our argument does approximate a theory of general application.


Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi Dec 1993

Expressive Harms, "Bizarre Districts," And Voting Rights: Evaluating Election-District Appearances After Shaw V. Reno, Richard H. Pildes, Richard G. Niemi

Michigan Law Review

This article attempts to define the constitutional principles that characterize Shaw and to suggest how those principles might be applied in a consistent, meaningful way. Part I, in which we argue that Shaw must be understood to rest on a distinctive conception of the kinds of harms against which the Constitution protects, is the theoretical heart of the article. We call these expressive harms, as opposed to more familiar, material harms. In Part II, we briefly survey the history of previous, largely unsuccessful, efforts in other legal contexts to give principled content to these kinds of harms in redistricting. Parts ...


Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff Dec 1993

Race And Redistricting: Drawing Constitutional Lines After Shaw V. Reno, T. Alexander Aleinikoff, Samuel Isaacharoff

Michigan Law Review

Shaw is no doubt a major opinion that attempts to define limits on the use of racial or ethnic classifications in electoral redistricting. The main thrust of this article is to assess the critical question of whether Shaw renders unconstitutional the type of race-conscious realignment of electoral configurations that have given meaning to the voting rights reforms of the past two decades. In making this assessment, we try to ascertain exactly how the Court has limited the use of race-conscious districting, and we try to determine whether there is any jurisprudential coherence to the Court's latest confrontation with the ...


Removal And The Eleventh Amendment: The Case For District Court Remand Discretion To Avoid A Bifurcated Suit, Mitchell N. Berman Dec 1993

Removal And The Eleventh Amendment: The Case For District Court Remand Discretion To Avoid A Bifurcated Suit, Mitchell N. Berman

Michigan Law Review

This Note concludes that the Sixth Circuit was half right: when a civil action names both state and private defendants - what this Note terms a "mixed case" - and when the claims against private defendants arise under federal law, the district court must grant removal of the case8 and must remand the claims against the state defendant. However, this Note also observes that the Fifth Circuit probably achieved the better result. After defendants have removed a mixed case to federal court and the district court has remanded the barred claims, the dual court systems and the parties will usually benefit from ...


An Intent-Based Approach To The Acceptance Of Benefits Doctrine In The Federal Courts, Benson K. Friedman Dec 1993

An Intent-Based Approach To The Acceptance Of Benefits Doctrine In The Federal Courts, Benson K. Friedman

Michigan Law Review

This Note discusses the question of when federal courts should allow a party who accepts payment of a judgment subsequently to appeal the deficiency of the award. Part I examines the discrepancies currently existing in the acceptance of benefits doctrine as applied by the federal courts. Part II analogizes this issue to the law of implied-in-fact contracts and argues that accepting the benefits of a judgment should not prevent an appeal unless circumstances clearly indicate a mutual intent to settle all claims and thereby terminate litigation. Part III contends that, under the doctrine expressed in Erie Railroad v. Tompkins, federal ...


Vol. 44, No. 6, November 22, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1993

Vol. 44, No. 6, November 22, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•'Boycott Colorado' Efforts Continue •Student Senate Responds to Racism Charges •LSSS Election Debacle Provides Instructive Lesson •Are Law Students 'Hissing' to be Clever in Class? •Excessive Posting Mars Halls of Academe •Alumnus Decries Moot Court Board Decision •Voluntary Imprisonment: The Life of a Prison Guard •The Docket •Catsup Please! Tater Tots Overrun Phid House •Study Hints for the Efficient Student •TV, Movies Offer Widely Divergent Choices •1st Annual Most Annoying Law Students Awards •Law in the Raw


Vol. 44, No. 5, November 8, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Nov 1993

Vol. 44, No. 5, November 8, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Moot Court Disqualifies 13 late Teams •An Interview with Patricia White •Journal of Gender & Law Approaches First Issues •Student Access LSSS of Botching First-Year Elections •The Docket •The Mailbag: Advice for the Lovelorn •The Lewdicrous and Profane: How 3Ls Kill Time


Allocating The Burden Of Proof To Effectuate The Preservation And Federalism Goals Of The Coastal Zone Management Act, Martin J. Lalonde Nov 1993

Allocating The Burden Of Proof To Effectuate The Preservation And Federalism Goals Of The Coastal Zone Management Act, Martin J. Lalonde

Michigan Law Review

Primarily due to policy considerations, this Note argues that courts should allocate to the federal agency proposing an activity that may affect the coastal zone the burden of proving consistency with a state CMP. This allocation effectuates Congress's intent to vest states with primary control to preserve the coastal zone. Part I provides a general background of the Act's consistency requirement for federally conducted activities. Part II examines the various factors that courts traditionally consider when allocating burdens of proof in litigation. Part III evaluates these factors as applied to the consistency issue under the CZMA. Part IV ...


Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter Nov 1993

Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter

Michigan Law Review

In this article, we take an approach fundamentally different from that of the labor law commentators. We start from a broader perspective than is common: successorship is as important an issue for corporate law as it is for labor law. Given that the two principal inputs to the firm are labor and capital, it would be surprising if the laws for labor law successorship were completely different from the laws for corporate law successorship. To the extent that differences exist, those differences should hinge upon differences between the employees' and the creditors' relationships with the firm.


Bankruptcy Policymaking In An Imperfect World, Elizabeth Warren Nov 1993

Bankruptcy Policymaking In An Imperfect World, Elizabeth Warren

Michigan Law Review

This essay is about bankruptcy policy. It attempts to articulate a comprehensive statement about the various and competing goals that underlie the bankruptcy system. The essay offers both a positive observation, drawn from the Code and its operation, and a normative evaluation, designed to outline the difficult value judgments that comprise the bankruptcy system. It also serves warning: before commentators propose any sweeping changes or policymakers take seriously any suggestions to scrap the system, they must consider the impact of such proposals on a number of competing normative goals.


Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos Nov 1993

Three Mistakes About Interpretation, Paul Campos

Michigan Law Review

The single most important word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." The single most confusing word in modem constitutional theory is "interpretation." What accounts for this unhappy state of affairs?

I will try to show that Barry Friedman's assertions, as well as others that are but rephrasings of the same basic ideas, are not the common sense truths that so many constitutional theorists assume them to be, but are instead the products of an extraordinarily confused and ultimately incoherent set of assumptions regarding the interpretation of language.


Knowledge About Legal Sanctions, Stephen Mcg. Bundy, Einer Elhauge Nov 1993

Knowledge About Legal Sanctions, Stephen Mcg. Bundy, Einer Elhauge

Michigan Law Review

Ironically, the dictum that "ignorance of the law is no excuse" itself illustrates selective transmission because, despite the widespread dissemination of this maxim to the public, ignorance of the law often is a permissible defense in actual adjudication. The divergence between the maxim and reality is a form of selective transmission that encourages individuals to learn the law, which improves their behavior, but avoids any injustice that would arise from punishing uninformed individuals for conduct they reasonably believed was lawful. We aim to offer a more systematic account of whether and when knowledge about legal sanctions, and restrictions on the ...


The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham Nov 1993

The Constitution, The Legislature, And Unfair Surprise: Toward A Reliance-Based Approach To The Contract Clause, Robert A. Graham

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that the Court should return to a reliance-based approach to Contract Clause challenges, fashioned loosely along the same lines as the HRID. Although it does not advocate that the Court revivify the rules created by the early decisions, the Note proposes that the Court look to the private parties' expectations and, more specifically, to the reasonableness of those expectations in deciding the clause's applicability to a particular case. Part I provides a brief history of the Contract Clause and its development. This Part follows the clause from the Constitutional Convention through the 1980s to illustrate the ...


Vol. 44, No. 4, October 25, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1993

Vol. 44, No. 4, October 25, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•More Than 1 in 4 3Ls Without Offers •Placement Office Hires Public Interest Director •Let's Hope Search for New Dean is Not a Farce •Search Committee Seeks Student Input on Bollinger's Replacement •Want a Public Interest Job? Search Yourself •ACLU Pits Itself Against Student Freedom, Learning •3L Entrepreneur Provides Letter Service for Job Seekers •Crossword •A Dogfight with J.J. White •Third-Year Makes Use of Kamisar in Summer Job •Detroit Residents Receive Aid from Student Clinic •Nirvana: The Beatles of the '90s? •The Lewdicrous and Profane •The Docket •More Tips on Interviewing, Costume Hints •Alice in Chains: The ...


Vol. 44, No. 3, October 11, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Oct 1993

Vol. 44, No. 3, October 11, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Survey: Some Claim Sex Harassment •Computer Lab Undergoes Improvements •Temper Hope for Mid-East Peace Process •The Bad, the Worse and the Ugly •Oktoberfest Raises Funds for Loan Forgiveness •New Curve will Help Most Only Slightly •Interview with a Defensive Prosecutor •The Docket •How to and Not to Interview for a Job •Law in the Raw


Bankruptcy Courts And Stare Decisis: The Need For Restructuring, Jeffrey J. Brookner Oct 1993

Bankruptcy Courts And Stare Decisis: The Need For Restructuring, Jeffrey J. Brookner

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Part I of this Note provides background by summarizing the rules of stare decisis. Part II refutes the contention that the present court structure allows bankruptcy judges not to follow domestic district court precedent. Part II asserts that, in pursuit of legitimate ends, bankruptcy judges have employed illegitimate means. Finally, Part II contends that bankruptcy judges are better equipped to make bankruptcy decisions than district judges. Part III concludes that the bankruptcy system should be restructured to allow bankruptcy judges to make decisions without being constrained by district court precedent or appeals. Such reform could achieve the substantive goals desired ...


War And P.E.A.C.E.: A Preliminary Report And A Model Statute On An Interdisciplinary Educational Program For Divorcing And Separating Parents, Andrew Schepard Oct 1993

War And P.E.A.C.E.: A Preliminary Report And A Model Statute On An Interdisciplinary Educational Program For Divorcing And Separating Parents, Andrew Schepard

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article is a report on P.E.A.C.E. (Parent Education and Custody Effectiveness), an interdisciplinary attempt to create a parent education program in New York. P.E.A.C.E. is an educational program that provides information to parents on three topics: the legal process for determining custody and child support; the effects of divorce and separation on adults; and the effects of divorce and separation on children, and how parents can help children cope with this difficult transition. P.E.A.C.E. is education-nothing more. It is not mediation or therapy. Parents do not talk ...


Excuses, Excuses: Neutral Explanations Under Batson V. Kentucky, Michael J. Raphael, Edward J. Ungvarsky Oct 1993

Excuses, Excuses: Neutral Explanations Under Batson V. Kentucky, Michael J. Raphael, Edward J. Ungvarsky

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The legal struggle for racial justice in the United States has always been in part a struggle to determine how best to achieve racial equality. In 1986, in Batson v. Kentucky, the United States Supreme Court attempted to curb racial discrimination in the use of peremptory challenges to strike potential members of a jury. The Court mandated procedures for determining whether a prosecutor had struck members of the venire because of their race. The procedures furnished in Batson are quite general, however, and lower courts have used a variety of standards in implementing them. This Article examines how lower courts ...


Lawyers At The Prison Gates: Organizational Structure And Corrections Advocacy, Susan P. Sturm Oct 1993

Lawyers At The Prison Gates: Organizational Structure And Corrections Advocacy, Susan P. Sturm

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article attempts to fill the gaps in the discussion of public interest advocacy by exploring the roles of various legal organizations in providing representation to inmates challenging the conditions and practices in prisons, jails, and juvenile justice institutions. It is an outgrowth of a study conducted for the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation on the extent and quality of representation in corrections litigation. It puts forward an organizational change model of public interest advocacy as the most promising strategy for legal representation in the corrections area. It then identifies the major organizational providers of representation, assesses where they fall on ...


Nothing Lasts Forever: Toward A Coherent Theory In American Preservation Law, Kathryn R.L. Rand Oct 1993

Nothing Lasts Forever: Toward A Coherent Theory In American Preservation Law, Kathryn R.L. Rand

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Part I of this Note examines Grégoire's liberty-based theory of preservation and discusses the three rationales that underlie his theory. Part II examines the development of preservation law in the United States, following it through three stages: patriotic inspiration, aesthetic merit, and community. Part III examines Italy's experience with preservation in order to identify and discuss several problems inherent in preservation law. Part IV suggests preservation rationales for courts and legislators to consider and identifies problems for them to avoid.


Eleonora V. Eckert, Kent D. Syverud, Gregory P. Magarian, Christina B. Whitman, Rodney D. Martin Oct 1993

Eleonora V. Eckert, Kent D. Syverud, Gregory P. Magarian, Christina B. Whitman, Rodney D. Martin

Michigan Law Review

Tributes to Eleonora V. Eckert


Life-Cycle Justice: Accommodating Just Cause And Employment At Will, Stuart J. Schwab Oct 1993

Life-Cycle Justice: Accommodating Just Cause And Employment At Will, Stuart J. Schwab

Michigan Law Review

The goal of this article is to articulate a coherent framework for understanding the default rules for employment termination. While most observers see chaos here, I find a certain logic in the leading cases. The courts have been boldest when job protection is most appropriate, and they have hesitated precisely when at will plays its most useful role.


Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein Oct 1993

Article Ii Revisionism, Cass R. Sunstein

Michigan Law Review

One of the most striking developments of the last decade has been the new use of Article II in public law adjudication. Article II is a prominent feature not only of cases involving the creation of federal institutions that are independent of the President, but also of new disputes involving reviewability, scope of review, and standing.

Professor Krent and Mr. Shenkman have performed a valuable service in spelling out the argument that Article II, rather than Article III, justifies constitutional limits on legislative grants of standing. Indeed, on several important matters, we are very much in agreement. In this brief ...


Postconviction Review Of Jury Discrimination: Measuring The Effects Of Juror Race On Jury Decisions, Nancy J. King Oct 1993

Postconviction Review Of Jury Discrimination: Measuring The Effects Of Juror Race On Jury Decisions, Nancy J. King

Michigan Law Review

In Part I, I review the empirical evidence concerning the effect of jury discrimination on jury decisions. Using the work of social and cognitive psychologists, I argue that the influence of jury discrimination on jury decisions is real and can be measured by judges in certain circumstances. The empirical studies suggest criteria that courts could use to identify the cases in which jury discrimination is most likely to affect the verdict. I also refute the argument that white judges can never predict the behavior of jurors of racial backgrounds different than their own and conclude that judicial estimates of the ...


The Constitutionality Of Employer-Accessible Child Abuse Registries: Due Process Implications Of Governmental Occupational Blacklisting, Michael R. Phillips Oct 1993

The Constitutionality Of Employer-Accessible Child Abuse Registries: Due Process Implications Of Governmental Occupational Blacklisting, Michael R. Phillips

Michigan Law Review

This Note discusses the due process implications of permitting employer access to state child abuse registries when disclosure affects registry members' employment.


Vol. 44, No. 2, September 27, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School Sep 1993

Vol. 44, No. 2, September 27, 1993, University Of Michigan Law School

Res Gestae

•Student Seek Support for Boycott •First-Time Professors Join Law Faculty •Students Deserve to Have Exams Read •Lawyer-Bashing Reaches New Heights, Takes New Forms •Colorado Boycott Inappropriate for Law School •QLSA Asks for Support in Boycott of Colorado •Melon, Harvey Tell Musical Tales of Angst •Outside the Classroom: Lounging by the Pooley •The Docket •Fashion Hints for the Novice Law Student •Law in the Raw


The Disjunction Between Judge Edwards And Professor Priest, Louis H. Pollak Aug 1993

The Disjunction Between Judge Edwards And Professor Priest, Louis H. Pollak

Michigan Law Review

With characteristic vigor, Judge Harry Edwards, in his essay The Growing Disjunction Between Legal Education and the Legal Profession, has censured the law schools and, secondarily, the bar, for what he sees as profoundly disturbing trends pulling academics and practitioners farther and farther apart. Judge Edwards' censure is not proffered off the cuff. He has carefully polled his former law clerks on their perceptions of their law school years and of their postclerkship professional experiences - whether in private practice, in government, or in teaching. In the text and footnotes of his essay, Judge Edwards quotes his law clerks' responses in ...


Stewardship, Donald B. Ayer Aug 1993

Stewardship, Donald B. Ayer

Michigan Law Review

While I agree with much that Judge Edwards has proposed, I thus submit that his formulations of the problem are partial - a bit like those of the blind men examining different parts of the elephant. The law's current unhappiness is only partly described as that of law schools and practicing lawyers going in different directions, of law practice becoming too commercial, or of law schools failing to serve the needs of the practicing lawyers and judges with practical teaching and scholarship. All of these observations, while correct as far as they go, miss the root of the problem, which ...


Commentary On Judge Edwards' "Growing Disjunction Between Legal Education And The Legal Profession", James L. Oakes Aug 1993

Commentary On Judge Edwards' "Growing Disjunction Between Legal Education And The Legal Profession", James L. Oakes

Michigan Law Review

Perhaps this little piece should be entitled Grace Notes rather than Commentary because I agree with so much of what Judge Edwards had to say in the Michigan Law Review. When I first read his piece, I have to say I was quite skeptical of his methodology, namely, running a survey past a group of former law clerks who, by virtue of their own super achievement, primarily in so-called elite law schools, quite easily could have ethereal points of view. But in typical Edwardsian fashion, the judge made appropriate disclaimers, and the clerks' comments seemed to me, for the most ...


The Deprofessionalization Of Legal Teaching And Scholarship, Richard A. Posner Aug 1993

The Deprofessionalization Of Legal Teaching And Scholarship, Richard A. Posner

Michigan Law Review

The editors have asked me to comment on Judge Edwards' double-barreled blast at legal education and the practice of law. This I am happy to do. It is an important article, stating with refreshing bluntness concerns that are widely felt but have never I think been so forcefully, so arrestingly expressed. Nevertheless I have deep disagreements with it.