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2011

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Vehicle Miles Tax: The Unintended Consequences Of Paying As You Drive, Gregory A. Lush Dec 2011

The Vehicle Miles Tax: The Unintended Consequences Of Paying As You Drive, Gregory A. Lush

Gregory A. Lush

No abstract provided.


The Vehicle Miles Tax: The Unintended Consequences Of Paying As You Drive, Gregory A. Lush Dec 2011

The Vehicle Miles Tax: The Unintended Consequences Of Paying As You Drive, Gregory A. Lush

Gregory A. Lush

3. A Vehicle Miles Tax Reduces Manufacturer Incentives to Build Electric Vehicles

It follows that if consumers have few incentives to buy electric vehicles, manufacturers will have less of an incentive to make them. If electric cars were not in demand, then why would anyone make them and try to sell them? In a market that is finding electric vehicles to be a tough sell, we need to encourage the sale and production of electric vehicles as much as possible. The effect of enacting a mileage-based tax will be the attrition of automakers producing electric vehicles, furthering the nation’s ...


Quem Defende A Constituição?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Quem Defende A Constituição?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A fase actual de ataque à Constituição parece ser a de legislar sem lhe prestar atenção, esperando que ninguém se lembre que existe, e ninguém levante questões de inconstitucionalidade. 2012 vai ser um ano em que se vão tirar as teimas sobre quem defende e quem não defende a Constituição. Feliz Ano Novo, com controlo da Constitucionalidade!


A Constituição Laboral Em Alto Risco, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

A Constituição Laboral Em Alto Risco, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A Constituição labora está a ser vítima de graves ataques. Já quase se pode ler o texto da nossa Constituição como se fora uma utopia de um país distante. Arriscamo-nos, por este caminho, a ter uma constituição nominal ou semântica, não normativa, não efectiva. E contudo ainda existe o texto, ainda existe o princípio da proibição do retrocesso, ainda existe um Tribunal Constitucional.


Inconstitucionalidade Da Abolição De Feriados, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Inconstitucionalidade Da Abolição De Feriados, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Feriados celebrando datas essenciais do Estado ou da República são símbolos nacionais. Como tais, são matéria constitucional (materialmente constitucional) ainda que não constante do texto da Constituição. Abolir feriados destes, para mais sem sequer prévia discussão nacional, além de denotar um desprezo profundo pela cultura e pela História... é inconstitucional.


De Keynes Aos Desafios Futuros, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

De Keynes Aos Desafios Futuros, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Keynes anda esquecido pelos economistas da moda. É pena, porque o resultado, catastrófico, das políticas neoliberais está à vista. Entretanto, reflecte-se sobre como a velha esquerda moderada se deixou contaminar pelo vírus do neoliberalismo (e a velha direita social também, e mais ainda), havendo porém novas teorias e propostas no horizonte, como o capitalismo humanista, no Brasil e em Espanha, e a "next left", no Reino Unido. Será possível uma confluência coerente e frutuosa dos que não querem, de uns e de outros lados, um mundo só baseado na ganância e na aniquilação do mais fraco? É o grande desafio ...


The Anti-Injunction Act And The Individual Mandate, Steve R. Johnson Dec 2011

The Anti-Injunction Act And The Individual Mandate, Steve R. Johnson

Scholarly Publications

The Supreme Court will soon consider challenges to constitutionality of the so-called individual mandate portion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA). It is important for the nation that the Court render a decision on the merits. This could be derailed, however, were the Court to dispose of the case by holding that the Anti-Injunction Act (AIA) and the Declaratory Judgment Act (DJA) preclude pre-enforcement review. Disposition on those grounds would subject the federal government, states, businesses, and individuals to years of additional uncertainty, inconvenience, and expense.

Fortunately, that threat to resolution on the merits can ...


Antitrust's "Jurisdictional" Reach Abroad, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2011

Antitrust's "Jurisdictional" Reach Abroad, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In its Arbaugh decision the Supreme Court insisted that a federal statute’s limitation on reach be regarded as “jurisdictional” only if the legislature was clear that this is what it had in mind. The Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvement Act (FTAIA) presents a puzzle in this regard, because Congress seems to have been quite clear about what it had in mind; it simply failed to use the correct set of buzzwords in the statute itself, and well before Arbaugh assessed this requirement.

Even if the FTAIA is to be regarded as non-jurisdictional, the constitutional extraterritorial reach of the Sherman Act ...


Constituição, Polícia Da Dívida?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Constituição, Polícia Da Dívida?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Depois de em Portugal, Espanha e Alemanha (pelo menos) se falar há algum bom tempo no assunto – não sabemos de onde surgiu a primeira inspiração, mas tanto monta – , no início de Dezembro de 2011 veio da União Europeia a magna necessidade, logo secundada pelo Primeiro-ministro português, de introduzir expressamente na Constituição (já vamos ver que poderá não ser tanto assim) limites ao endividamento do Estado. Vamos fazer mais uma revisão constitucional ?


Referendar Estados De Excepção, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Referendar Estados De Excepção, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

O valor do referendo, nas nossas democracias de espectáculo e demagogia, é muito discutível. Há porém casos extremos em que pode ser útil e até imprescindível. Numa crise como a presente, comandada por mercados sem rosto, é preciso dar voz ao Povo. A questão está em saber se ele falará por meios juridicamente previstos, e constitucionalmente regulados, ou se virá a tomar a Palavra por vias menos convencionais, embora sempre com relevância constitucional... Perante tais desafios, não é legítima a abstenção do constitucionalista, que não é um estrito tabelião do Direito Público.


Overview Of The Core Changes In The New Ethiopian Urban Land Leasehold Legislation, Belachew M. Fikre Dec 2011

Overview Of The Core Changes In The New Ethiopian Urban Land Leasehold Legislation, Belachew M. Fikre

Belachew M Fikre

Rural land administration has shown a significant improvement, inter alia, due to the implementation of the possession certification process. Whether or not this process of certification would bring the desired goal of 'sustainably conserving and developing natural resources and pass over to the coming generation through the development and implementation of a sustainable rural land use planning' is yet to be seen. This progress in the rural land administration is not matched by the urban land holding system. It is rather perplexing that the total houses in Addis Ababa without title deeds are more than the ones with title deeds ...


When Does F*** Not Mean F***?: Fcc V. Fox Television Stations And A Call For Protecting Emotive Speech, W. Wat Hopkins Dec 2011

When Does F*** Not Mean F***?: Fcc V. Fox Television Stations And A Call For Protecting Emotive Speech, W. Wat Hopkins

Federal Communications Law Journal

The Supreme Court of the United States does not always deal cogently with nontraditional language. The most recent example is FCC v. Fox Television Stations, in which the Justices became sidetracked into attempting to define the f-word and then to determine whether, when used as a fleeting expletive rather than repeatedly, the word is indecent for broadcast purposes. The Court would do well to avoid definitions and heed Justice John Marshall Harlan's advice in Cohen v. California to provide protection for the emotive, as well as the cognitive, element of speech


Antitrust Review Of The At&T/Tmobile Transaction, Allen P. Grunes, Maurice E. Stucke Dec 2011

Antitrust Review Of The At&T/Tmobile Transaction, Allen P. Grunes, Maurice E. Stucke

Federal Communications Law Journal

In August 2011, the United States brought a landmark antitrust lawsuit to prevent the merger of two of the nation's four largest mobile wireless telecommunications services providers, AT&T Inc. and T-Mobile USA, Inc. But why are so many elected officials asking the Obama administration to intercede in the Department of Justice's lawsuit to force a settlement? Why are they approving a merger that would likely lead to higher prices, fewer jobs, less innovation, and higher taxes for their constituents? Does it have anything to do with the money they are receiving from AT&T and T-Mobile? This ...


Spectrum Reallocation And The National Broadband Plan, Jeffrey A. Eisenach Dec 2011

Spectrum Reallocation And The National Broadband Plan, Jeffrey A. Eisenach

Federal Communications Law Journal

Of the several significant changes in United States telecommunications policy proposed by the National Broadband Plan, none are more substantial than its proposals for spectrum policy. In particular, the Plan proposes to reallocate 500 MHz of spectrum from broadcast television, mobile satellite, government and other current uses to "mobile broadband" through the use of innovative "incentive auctions" and other voluntary, market-oriented mechanisms. The Plan's spectrum proposals have the potential to be a major step forward in the decades-long, bipartisan effort to replace "command-and-control" spectrum allocation with a more flexible, dynamic and market-oriented approach. Considerable work remains to be done ...


The "Strong Medicine" Of The Overbreadth Doctrine: When Statutory Exceptions Are No More Than A Placebo, Christopher A. Pierce Dec 2011

The "Strong Medicine" Of The Overbreadth Doctrine: When Statutory Exceptions Are No More Than A Placebo, Christopher A. Pierce

Federal Communications Law Journal

In United States v. Stevens, the United States Supreme Court invalidated a federal statute criminalizing the interstate sale and distribution of depictions of animal cruelty on First Amendment grounds. While Stevens demonstrates the Court's reluctance to create a new category of speech outside of First Amendment protection, Stevens also stands for the proposition that borrowing the exceptions clause from the Court's obscenity standard will not adequately protect a statute from invalidation as overbroad. This Note discusses the use of the obscenity standard's exceptions clause in nonobscenity statutes and the Court's treatment of the exceptions clause in ...


Putting A Price On Dirt: The Need For Better-Defined Limits On Government Fees For Use Of The Public Right-Of- Way Under Section 253 Of The Telecommunications Act Of 1996, Thomas W. Snyder, William Fitzsimmons Dec 2011

Putting A Price On Dirt: The Need For Better-Defined Limits On Government Fees For Use Of The Public Right-Of- Way Under Section 253 Of The Telecommunications Act Of 1996, Thomas W. Snyder, William Fitzsimmons

Federal Communications Law Journal

This Article addresses the enactment and inconsistent application of Section 253 of Telecommunications Act of 1996 ("FTA"). Most courts initially held that Section 253 imposed strong limitations on local governments seeking to charge fees to telecommunications carriers for use of the public rights-of-way ("PROW') by generally limiting the fees to management costs. Unfortunately, recent cases allowed local governments broad latitude in charging PROW fees to generate revenue, even where the fees are used to subsidize other government services. These "revenue-generating" fees are dangerous to the development of competition and the deployment of Internet services, which were the two primary goals ...


Statewide Cable Franchising: Expand Nationwide Or Cut The Cord?, James G. Parker Dec 2011

Statewide Cable Franchising: Expand Nationwide Or Cut The Cord?, James G. Parker

Federal Communications Law Journal

In the name of increasing competition in the cable television market, Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996. While this eliminated the barriers to entry using federal law, it did not change the nature of municipality-based cable system monopolies. In an effort to expand competition more quickly and efficiently, the phone companies (Verizon and AT&T) successfully supported legislation in at least twenty-five states that permits a single state application to compete statewide. This Note explores the varying approaches taken in the laws passed to date, analyzes the outcomes flowing from those implemented plans, and provides recommendations of the best ...


Are You Ready For Some Football?: How Antitrust Laws Can Be Used To Break Up Directv's Exclusive Right To Telecast Nfl's Sunday Ticket Package, Ariel Y. Bublick Dec 2011

Are You Ready For Some Football?: How Antitrust Laws Can Be Used To Break Up Directv's Exclusive Right To Telecast Nfl's Sunday Ticket Package, Ariel Y. Bublick

Federal Communications Law Journal

There is almost no question that football has become modem America's pastime. Football has never been more popular, and every Sunday people are clamoring to watch as many games as possible. The Sunday Ticket package allows viewers to watch any National Football League ("NFL") game being played at any given time. However, the NFL has only granted DirecTV the right to air the Sunday Ticket package, denying this excellent service to a majority of television viewers. By limiting the reach of the Sunday Ticket package, the NFL may be in violation of antitrust laws. This Note begins by explaining ...


The Prosecution's Duty Of Disclosure In Singapore: Muhammad Bin Kadar V Public Prosecutor [2011] 3 Slr 1205, Siyuan Chen Dec 2011

The Prosecution's Duty Of Disclosure In Singapore: Muhammad Bin Kadar V Public Prosecutor [2011] 3 Slr 1205, Siyuan Chen

Research Collection School Of Law

The Court of Appeal (CA) judgment in Muhammad bin Kadar v Public Prosecutor created quite a stir in Singapore. The case pertained to a murder involving two suspects, and its resolution took almost six years, with many twists and turns as to the actual facts. The CA attributed the confusion in part to questionable practices adopted by the police and the prosecution at various points in the proceedings, and reserved strong words for them in its judgment. It also established new requirements for the prosecution regarding its duty to the court to disclose relevant material not favourable to the case ...


Desafios Constitucionais, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2011

Desafios Constitucionais, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

É preciso empreender um contra-ataque constitucional. Não podem os democratas e amigos do Regime saído do 25 de Abril e do sistema político consagrado na Constituição de 76 entrincheirar-se na esperança da mera defesa do que ainda resta de cumprimento da Constituição para além dos formalismos políticos. Os juristas e os constitucionalistas têm especial responsabilidades, mas a todos deve ser dado participar, na medida das suas possibilidades. É preciso mais democracia, mais separação dos poderes, melhor aplicação da Constituição, e mais constitucionalização de todo o Direito. E não diuturna confiscação de direitos. O futuro passa pela Constituição, por muito que ...


The Gratuities Debate And Campaign Reform – How Strong Is The Link?, George D. Brown Nov 2011

The Gratuities Debate And Campaign Reform – How Strong Is The Link?, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

The federal gratuities statute, 18 USC § 201(c), continues to be a source of confusion and contention. The confusion stems largely from problems of draftsmanship within the statute, as well as uncertainty concerning the relationship of the gratuities offense to bribery. Both offenses are contained in the same statute; the former is often seen as a lesser-included offense variety of the latter. The controversy stems from broader concerns about whether the receipt of gratuities by public officials, even from those they regulate, should be a crime. The argument that such conduct should not be criminalized can be traced to, and ...


Should Federalism Shield Corruption?—Mail Fraud, State Law And Post-Lopez Analysis, George D. Brown Nov 2011

Should Federalism Shield Corruption?—Mail Fraud, State Law And Post-Lopez Analysis, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

In this Article, Professor Brown examines the issues that federal prosecutions of state and local officials pose. The analysis focuses on prosecutions under the mail fraud statute and considers the general debate over the proper scope of federal criminal law. Professor Brodin addresses the question of whether a re-examination of mail fraud would focus on constitutional or statutory issues and by utilizing the Supreme Court case United States v. Lopez examines the question of internal limits on the mail fraud statute.


Direito E Poder Em Nietzsche, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2011

Direito E Poder Em Nietzsche, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A crítica impiedosa e fria de Nietzsche ao Direito moderno, aos direitos, à democracia e a vários esteios da nossa actual civilização ajudar-nos-à certamente a compreender melhor a situação de ataque mais subtil, politicamente correto e hipócrita que se vive já a essa "Weltanschauung", e poderá vir a agravar-se. Nietzsche fala claro, e profeticamente. Só que, felizmente, as profecias (ao menos as políticas: mas parece até que todas) podem ser contrariadas pelas vontade das pessoas. E os piores vaticínios poderão sê-lo se tivermos vontade de preservar a democracia, a liberdade, os direitos, e o Direito moderno, aprofundando-os e não deixando-os ...


The President, The Environment, And Foreign Policy: The Globalization Of Environmental Politics, David A. Wirth Nov 2011

The President, The Environment, And Foreign Policy: The Globalization Of Environmental Politics, David A. Wirth

David A. Wirth

By comparison with domestic environmental issues, international environmental diplomacy is distinguished by the far greater role of the Executive Branch, and in particular the President, in making law. This essay explores the legal consequences of the President's dual role in international environmental diplomacy: his duty faithfully to execute statutory mandates adopted by Congress while also serving as the Nation's chief diplomat and negotiator of international agreements with foreign powers. The piece discusses the legal and policy dynamics surrounding two concrete examples affecting domestic and international environmental policy, in which Presidential power assumes dramatically different forms: (1) climate change ...


A Bridle, A Prod And A Big Stick: An Evaluation Of Class Actions, Shareholder Proposals And The Ultra Vires Doctrine As Methods For Controlling Corporate Behavior, Adam Sulkowski, Kent Greenfield Nov 2011

A Bridle, A Prod And A Big Stick: An Evaluation Of Class Actions, Shareholder Proposals And The Ultra Vires Doctrine As Methods For Controlling Corporate Behavior, Adam Sulkowski, Kent Greenfield

Kent Greenfield

Written for the recent conference at St. John’s University Law School on “People of Color, Women, and the Public Corporation,” this paper evaluates recently applied methods of influencing corporate behavior on employment practices and recommends that a dormant legal doctrine be revitalized and added to the “tool box” of activists and concerned shareholders. The methods of influencing corporate behavior that are evaluated include class action lawsuits and shareholder proposals to amend corporate policy. In both contexts, there are procedural hurdles to achieving success. Even when success is achieved, there are limits to the actual changes in organizational behavior that ...


The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2011

The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

This article considers the problems raised by a federal law--the “REAL ID Act”--that seeks to preclude judicial review of discretionary immigration law decisions. Discretion, the flexible shock absorber of the administrative state, must be respected by our legal system. However, as Justice Felix Frankfurter once wrote, discretion is, “only to be respected when it is conscious of the traditions which surround it and of the limits which an informed conscience sets to its exercise.” The article suggests that judicial construction of the REAL ID Act will plumb the deep meaning of this qualification. The new law states, essentially, that ...


Criminalizing The Undocumented: Ironic Boundaries Of The Post-September 11th ‘Pale Of Law.’, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2011

Criminalizing The Undocumented: Ironic Boundaries Of The Post-September 11th ‘Pale Of Law.’, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

The general hypothesis put forth in this Article is that well-accepted historical matrices are increasingly inadequate to address the complex issues raised by various U.S. government practices in the so-called “war on terrorism.” The Article describes certain stresses that have recently built upon two major legal dichotomies: the citizen/non-citizen and criminal/civil lines. Professor Kanstroom reviews the use of the citizen/non-citizen dichotomies as part of the post-September 11th enforcement regime and considers the increasing convergence between the immigration and criminal justice systems. Professor Kanstroom concludes by suggesting the potential emergence of a disturbing new legal system, which ...


Deportation And Justice: A Constitutional Dialogue, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2011

Deportation And Justice: A Constitutional Dialogue, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

Recent statutory changes to the United States immigration law have resulted in a large increase in the number of lawful permanent resident noncitizens who are deported because of prior criminal conduct. Now, deportation is often a virtually automatic consequence of conviction for an increasingly minor array of crimes including possessory drug offenses and shoplifting. Under current statutory law, permanent resident noncitizens may be deported for crimes that were not grounds for deportation when they were committed and there may be no possibiilty of mercy or humanitarian relief. This Dialogue explores arguments for and against this system. Specifically, it examines the ...


30 = 20: ‘Understanding’ Maximum Sentence Enhancements, Frank R. Herrmann S.J. Nov 2011

30 = 20: ‘Understanding’ Maximum Sentence Enhancements, Frank R. Herrmann S.J.

Frank R. Herrmann, S.J.

In this article, Professor Herrmann argues that the due process protections of a criminal trial should apply to aggravating factors that under current “maximum-enhancing statutes” allow judges to impose lengthier punishments in the sentencing phase. Part I considers the Supreme Court's rationale for refusing to apply full due process safeguards to all types of sentencing schemes. This background will reveal the unique quality of maximum-enhancing statutes and establish why the due process protections of a criminal trial should apply to sentencing under maximum-enhancing statutes. Part I, therefore, undertakes to explain courts' rationales to deny criminal defendants full criminal due ...


Election Law And Government Ethics, Christopher R. Nolen, Jeff Palmore Nov 2011

Election Law And Government Ethics, Christopher R. Nolen, Jeff Palmore

University of Richmond Law Review

The last two years have produced modest "tweaks" to Virginia'selection laws. Most notably, 2011 ushered in the decennial tradition of reapportionment and redistricting. This article surveys developments in Virginia election law for 2010 and 2011 and focuses on those statutory developments that have significance or general applicability to the implementation of Virginia's election laws. Consequently, not every election-related bill approved bythe General Assembly is discussed.