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Full-Text Articles in Law

Prosecuting The Executive, Tiffany R. Murphy Mar 2019

Prosecuting The Executive, Tiffany R. Murphy

San Diego Law Review

A special counsel is appointed to investigate and potentially prosecute any criminal activity involving those in the Executive Branch. When an attorney general makes such a decision, the individual should consider not only the scope of the appointment but whether the special counsel will protect the fundamental rules of law upon which the Constitution rests; no one person is above the law. Recent history illustrates the abuses of the special prosecutor’s role where it was used as a political weapon or for low level officials. Instead, a special counsel should be used only when the crisis is severe enough ...


The Case For Varying Standards Of Proof, Gustavo Ribeiro Mar 2019

The Case For Varying Standards Of Proof, Gustavo Ribeiro

San Diego Law Review

This Article defends a system with a greater variation in the number of standards of proof than we currently have as both normatively and descriptively valuable. Standards of proof are mechanisms for allocating the risk of factual error between parties. For example, the heightened “beyond a reasonable doubt” standard in criminal cases reflects an aspiration for a legal system erring more in favor of mistaken acquittals than mistaken convictions. Surprisingly, we then assign the same standard to very different cases under the justification that we accept, or should accept, the same error-distribution for those cases. This Article argues that, however ...


The Punishment Should Fit The Crime—Not The Prior Convictions Of The Person That Committed The Crime: An Argument For Less Impact Being Accorded To Previous Convictions, Mirko Bagaric Jun 2014

The Punishment Should Fit The Crime—Not The Prior Convictions Of The Person That Committed The Crime: An Argument For Less Impact Being Accorded To Previous Convictions, Mirko Bagaric

San Diego Law Review

The seriousness of the offense is the main consideration that should determine the severity of criminal punishment. This cardinal sentencing principle is undermined by the reality that often the criminal history of the offender is the most decisive sentencing consideration. Recidivists are frequently sent to imprisonment for long periods for crimes, which, when committed by first-time offenders, are dealt with by a bond, probation, or a fine. This makes sentencing more about an individual’s profile than the harm caused by the offender and has contributed to a large increase in prison numbers. Intuitively, it feels right to punish repeat ...


A Modern King Solomon’S Dilemma: Why State Legislatures Should Give Courts The Discretion To Find That A Child Has More Than Two Legal Parents, Ann E. Kinsey Mar 2014

A Modern King Solomon’S Dilemma: Why State Legislatures Should Give Courts The Discretion To Find That A Child Has More Than Two Legal Parents, Ann E. Kinsey

San Diego Law Review

This Comment reviews the current state of parental rights and proposes statutory clarifications that would provide courts with the power to find that a child has more than two legal parents. Part II provides background information on the decline of the traditional family. The Part reviews how the law of parentage has progressed over time and provides an overview of the laws of several states and Canada that provide rights to, and impose duties on, a third parent. Part III discusses California Senate Bill 1476, which, had Governor Jerry Brown signed it into law in 2012, would have given California ...


Should Public Law Accommodate The Claims Of Conscience?, William A. Galston Mar 2014

Should Public Law Accommodate The Claims Of Conscience?, William A. Galston

San Diego Law Review

In the end, it seems to me, the matter boils down to a single issue. Many individuals consider themselves bound by two sources of authority, public law and conscience, whose demands do not always coincide. Is the state prepared to take cognizance of this fact, and if so, how should it respond? Unlike other regimes, liberal democracies should not find these questions unduly challenging. To be a liberal state is to recognize limits on the legitimate scope of public authority; to be a liberal democracy is to recognize limits on the authority of the people and on the writ of ...


Overseas Lawful Permanent Resident Terrorists: The Novel Approach For Revoking Their Lpr Status, Daniel Pines Mar 2014

Overseas Lawful Permanent Resident Terrorists: The Novel Approach For Revoking Their Lpr Status, Daniel Pines

San Diego Law Review

This Article seeks to break the silence by examining the issue of overseas LPRs and offering a mechanism by which the U.S. government could take affirmative action to file cases in immigration courts to strip out-of-status LPR terrorists of their LPR status. As the United States legally can, and routinely does, revoke the LPR status of out-of-status LPRs who appear at U.S. borders, the United States could also take away such status for those who have resorted to terror, without having to wait—perhaps in vain—for them to appear on the United States’ doorstep. The purpose of ...


National Geographics: Toward A “Federalism Function” Of American Tort Law, Riaz Tejani Mar 2014

National Geographics: Toward A “Federalism Function” Of American Tort Law, Riaz Tejani

San Diego Law Review

This Article will situate the federalism function among existing scholarly frameworks and assess the “contoured” approach to federal and state power balancing across the existing subject matter of torts. Part II will assess conflicting characterizations of tort law as on one hand “private” and on the other “public” law. Part III will define and explain competing functions of tort law with an eye to whether federalism fits the common criteria of these coexisting objectives, goals, purposes, and methods for adjudication. In Part IV, the Article will explore historical and contemporary roles of federalism to understand why this process becomes so ...


False Speech: Quagmire?, Christopher P. Guzelian Mar 2014

False Speech: Quagmire?, Christopher P. Guzelian

San Diego Law Review

Recently decided cases in several Federal Courts of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court show that First Amendment false speech case law is contradictory and unpredictable. This Article gives examples and concludes that legal liability for false speech will continue to be arbitrary and even susceptible to intentionally unjust decisionmaking if judges and juries individually and collectively disregard or downplay the necessity of an honest search for truth under the guise of tolerance and evenhandedness. If Americans wish to avoid an anything-goes “quagmire” about truth, they must—despite inevitable resistance in a civilization increasingly rife with skeptics—undergo transformations ...


The Role Of The Federal Judge In The Constitutional Structure: An Originalist Perspective, Diarmuid F. O'Scannlain Aug 2013

The Role Of The Federal Judge In The Constitutional Structure: An Originalist Perspective, Diarmuid F. O'Scannlain

San Diego Law Review

Join me now in examining some of the structural features of our Constitution. And let’s do so by focusing upon cases that have come before my court—the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, the second highest federal court in the land, inferior only to the Supreme Court of the United States. My goal is to present, in modest outline, an originalist perspective on the federal judge’s role, particularly my role as a circuit judge, in the constitutional order.


Holmes, Cardozo, And The Legal Realists: Early Incarnations Of Legal Pragmatism And Enterprise Liability, Edmund Ursin Aug 2013

Holmes, Cardozo, And The Legal Realists: Early Incarnations Of Legal Pragmatism And Enterprise Liability, Edmund Ursin

San Diego Law Review

The theory of enterprise liability is associated with the tort lawmaking of the liberal California Supreme Court of the 1960s and 1970s. Legal pragmatism, in turn, is associated with the conservative jurist Richard Posner. This Article explains that early incarnations of each can be found in the works of four giants in American law: Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Judge—later Justice—Benjamin Cardozo, and the Legal Realists Leon Green and Karl Llewellyn. As will be seen, these scholars and judges shared a common view of the lawmaking role of courts. Stated simply, this shared view was that judges are lawmakers ...


“Unmistakably Clear” Coercion: Finding A Balance Between Judicial Review Of The Spending Power And Optimal Federalism, Dale B. Thompson Aug 2013

“Unmistakably Clear” Coercion: Finding A Balance Between Judicial Review Of The Spending Power And Optimal Federalism, Dale B. Thompson

San Diego Law Review

This Article proposes a new tier of scrutiny, “unmistakably clear,” for conducting judicial review of congressional authority under the Spending Clause. Under this standard, a condition would be unconstitutional only if it is unmistakably clear that it is coercive. In order to develop this proposal, this Article traces the debate over the spending power from the Federalist Papers up through the decision in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, finding strong arguments for granting significant deference to Congress’s Spending Clause authority. Careful analysis of the opinions in the case yields not only the name for the new standard ...


Reasonable Persons, Reasonable Circumstances, Christopher Jackson Aug 2013

Reasonable Persons, Reasonable Circumstances, Christopher Jackson

San Diego Law Review

The reasonable person test is a common thread that runs through the fabric of Anglo-American law. It has become such a common trope in legal discourse that it scarcely receives much attention in its own right. This Article analyzes one facet of the test that will yield significant benefits in understanding the subject as a whole: how we ought to go about determining which circumstances are relevant to the reasonable person inquiry. The Article will argue that the circumstances that ought to be part of the test will vary based on one’s underlying theoretical commitments: the reasonable person test ...


Joyless Life And Lifeless Joy: The Recovery Of Hedonic Damages By Plaintiffs In A Persistent Vegetative State, Alexandra Preece Aug 2013

Joyless Life And Lifeless Joy: The Recovery Of Hedonic Damages By Plaintiffs In A Persistent Vegetative State, Alexandra Preece

San Diego Law Review

This Comment focuses on the potential injustice to patients in a persistent vegetative state and the proper manner in which to handle these cases. Based on tort principles underlying the justification for the award of damages to plaintiffs, including deterrence and compensation, plaintiffs in a persistent vegetative state should be entitled to damages for loss of enjoyment of life. To allow for these awards, courts must separate loss of enjoyment of life from pain and suffering, thereby allowing vegetative plaintiffs who cannot prove that they are in pain to recover hedonic damages from their wrongdoers. Part II discusses the effects ...


Is Freedom Of Expression A Universal Right?, Larry Alexander Aug 2013

Is Freedom Of Expression A Universal Right?, Larry Alexander

San Diego Law Review

The title of my Essay asks a question. If one were to go by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights —or by John Rawls’s A Theory of Justice and other quotidian works of liberal political and moral philosophy—the answer to the question is a resounding “yes.” Indeed, in the constellation of cherished liberal rights, freedom of expression is surely one of the brightest, if not the brightest, of its stars.


A Class Act? Social Class Affirmative Action And Higher Education, Maimon Schwarzschild Jun 2013

A Class Act? Social Class Affirmative Action And Higher Education, Maimon Schwarzschild

San Diego Law Review

Comparing class preferences with racial preferences helps to point up some of the reasons for the allure of class preferences but also points up some of the problems. A crucial consideration is the question of who is to receive class preference. For example, what about immigrants and their children? In general, social class is difficult to define, and this very difficulty would confer great discretion and power on faculties and academic administrators who undertake to bestow class preferences: discretion that would be open to abuse for political, ideological, and other ends. Finally, there is the question of whether preferential treatment ...


The Spatial: A Forgotten Dimension Of Property, Paul Babie Jun 2013

The Spatial: A Forgotten Dimension Of Property, Paul Babie

San Diego Law Review

This Article explores, such a spatial turn in the case of property theory requires further elaboration and exploration. First, analytically, the spatial turn can be used to reassemble what we already know about property to recognize expressly the spatial dimension of property, thus revealing what has always been there but which has rarely been named and discussed: property emerges from, exists in, and is replicated through space. Second, and equally important, normatively, revealing the spatial dimension adds context to the social understanding of property and thereby allows us to see and encourage further exploration of the role of property as ...


Hedge Fund Manager Registration Under The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal Jun 2013

Hedge Fund Manager Registration Under The Dodd-Frank Act, Wulf A. Kaal

San Diego Law Review

Part I of this Article introduces the issue of hedge fund registration and the tension between regulators and the hedge fund industry regarding the appropriate level of regulatory oversight. After a short introduction of historical attempts to register hedge fund managers, Part II describes the legal requirements in the Dodd-Frank Act pertaining to hedge fund managers. Over fifty years of low-level regulatory oversight for the hedge fund industry came to an end with the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act. Part III outlines the methodological approach of the survey study. It introduces the survey instrument, data sources, sampling, coding, and coding ...


Rights Come With Responsibilities: Personal Jurisdiction In The Age Of Corporate Personhood, Roger M. Michalski Mar 2013

Rights Come With Responsibilities: Personal Jurisdiction In The Age Of Corporate Personhood, Roger M. Michalski

San Diego Law Review

This Article aims to reconnect corporate rights and obligations. It argues that courts must consider the availability and exercise of corporate rights when determining whether the corporation is amenable to suit in the forum. To make this novel argument, this Article begins by documenting the rise of corporate personhood, recently culminating in Citizens United v. FEC. Part II shows how the evolution of corporations now allows for the treatment of corporations as entities that can have political rights and political obligations. Part III argues that personal jurisdiction doctrine and scholarship has not acknowledged the rise of corporate personhood. Consequently, it ...


Disparate Impact: Fairness Or Efficiency?, Larry Alexandre Mar 2013

Disparate Impact: Fairness Or Efficiency?, Larry Alexandre

San Diego Law Review

Here is a stylized, simplified account of the disparate impact branch of discrimination law. Employer (E) uses certain criteria—which I shall call “the test”—to determine whom to employ. Those who qualify under the test may be disproportionately of a certain race, sex, national origin, or religion. I shall call those races, sexes, et cetera, that are disproportionately qualified under the test “the preferred,” and those races, sexes, et cetera, that are disproportionately unqualified under the test “the dispreferred.” In a disparate impact discrimination case—and again, I am simplifying somewhat, though immaterially—an employee candidate (C) who is ...


Left To Their Own (Security) Devices: The Need For The California Legislature To Define Deeds Of Trust And Update California Civil Code Section 2932.5 In Accordance With The Modern Lien Theory, Joahua Norton Mar 2013

Left To Their Own (Security) Devices: The Need For The California Legislature To Define Deeds Of Trust And Update California Civil Code Section 2932.5 In Accordance With The Modern Lien Theory, Joahua Norton

San Diego Law Review

This Comment introduces how deeds of trust were developed to allow the lender to avoid the judicial process by engaging in a nonjudicial foreclosure. This Part also explains that the confusion in the courts arose because deeds of trust are not defined in the statutes that govern them. Part III describes the early understanding of deeds of trust in California common law under the title theory and how California courts have increasingly rejected the title theory in favor of the lien theory. Part IV introduces the rise of a private alternative to public recording of assignments of deeds of trust ...


Transition Relief For Tax Reform’S Third Rail: Reforming The Home Mortgage Interest Deduction After The Housing Market Crash, Nicholaus W. Norvell Dec 2012

Transition Relief For Tax Reform’S Third Rail: Reforming The Home Mortgage Interest Deduction After The Housing Market Crash, Nicholaus W. Norvell

San Diego Law Review

This Comment argues that Congress should—in this order of preference—eliminate the mortgage interest deduction, replace it with a credit, or substantially modify it, and that Congress can adopt any of these policies without substantial short-term fallout in the housing market. Part II of this Comment examines how the mortgage interest deduction works, its history, and its intended benefits. Part III scrutinizes the deduction’s inability to achieve its primary objective—increasing homeownership—and examines its negative effects on housing prices, household indebtedness, the environment, and wealth disparity. Accordingly, this Part argues that Congress should reform the deduction, discusses ...


A Lockean Theory Of Intellectual Property Revisited, Adam D. Moore Dec 2012

A Lockean Theory Of Intellectual Property Revisited, Adam D. Moore

San Diego Law Review

The primary, and perhaps sole, function of government according to Locke was to secure and protect the lives, liberties, and property of individuals who consented, explicitly or tacitly, to a specific political union. The question that I will address in this Article, and one that I took up over fifteen years ago, is: should we consider intellectual works to be the proper subjects of Lockean property claims? My answer then and now is “yes,” with the acknowledgement that such a view may require substantial revisions to Anglo-American systems of intellectual property. I will argue that intellectual property rights are no ...


Toward A Lockean Moral Justification Of Legal Protection Of Intellectual Property, Kenneth Einar Himma Dec 2012

Toward A Lockean Moral Justification Of Legal Protection Of Intellectual Property, Kenneth Einar Himma

San Diego Law Review

This Article attempts to provide the beginnings of a viable moral justification for recognizing and providing legal protection of intellectual property. The argument follows a line of arguments that is fairly characterized as “inspired” by John Locke’s attempt to justify legal protection of what he took to be a natural, objective, moral right to material property. That is to say, it is Lockean in spirit in the following sense: Locke grounds his argument for original acquisition in the idea that a person is justified in acquiring something from the commons in virtue of an investment he makes of something ...


Traditional Knowledge, Cultural Expression, And The Siren’S Call Of Property, Justin Hughes Dec 2012

Traditional Knowledge, Cultural Expression, And The Siren’S Call Of Property, Justin Hughes

San Diego Law Review

Discussions on international legal norms for the protection of TK/TCE have, in their contemporary form, been ongoing since the late 1990s. In that time, our understanding of key issues for a workable system—subject matter, beneficiaries, rights, or protections—have advanced little, if at all. Indeed, as Michael Brown has observed, “vexing questions of origins and boundaries . . . are commonly swept under the rug in public discussions.” Yet even if all those questions were settled, we also need a clear justification or justifications for a new form of intellectual property on the world stage.


The Relationship Between Foundations And Principles In Ip Law, Robert P. Merges Dec 2012

The Relationship Between Foundations And Principles In Ip Law, Robert P. Merges

San Diego Law Review

In my book Justifying Intellectual Property (JIP), I wrote about what I call the “foundations” of the field of intellectual property (IP) law. I tried to distinguish between a foundational level of discourse and another level, the level of basic principles. In the San Diego conference at which my book was discussed—and in several other settings as well—the most frequent and persistent line of questioning about my book centered on the relationship between these two levels. That is what this brief Article is about.


Managing The Intellectual Property Sprawl, Shubha Ghosh Dec 2012

Managing The Intellectual Property Sprawl, Shubha Ghosh

San Diego Law Review

Professor Merges, despite the centrality of creative persons to his argument, organizes a set of ideas that are conducive to refocusing intellectual property law on users. I present this user-focused argument in this Article through the following five Parts. Part II explains my suggested approach to questions about the design of intellectual property law—an approach based on the new institutional economics and the work of Ronald Coase. Part II also addresses objections to this approach. Part III identifies the user in Professor Merges’s high-level principles grounded in Locke, Kant, and Rawls. Part IV follows this argument with a ...


The Judicialization Of International Atrocity Crimes: The Kharkov Trial Of 1943, Michael J. Bazyler, Kellyanne Rose Gold Nov 2012

The Judicialization Of International Atrocity Crimes: The Kharkov Trial Of 1943, Michael J. Bazyler, Kellyanne Rose Gold

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article analyzes the Kharkov trial, the first trial of Nazi war criminals undertaken by any Allied Power, as well as the first trial of the Holocaust. It is written on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Kharkov trial. Part II, as background, describes the Holocaust as experienced in Kharkov, Ukraine. Part III discusses the trial that took place in Kharkov: the defendants, the prosecution, the setting, and the testimony. Part IV looks at the Kharkov trial as a typical Stalinist “show trial,” where guilt has been predetermined and a trial is used merely as a show to ...


Clarifying The Normative Dimension Of Legal Realism: The Example Of Holmes's The Path Of The Law, Edmund Ursin Jun 2012

Clarifying The Normative Dimension Of Legal Realism: The Example Of Holmes's The Path Of The Law, Edmund Ursin

San Diego Law Review

In a recently published article, I examined the Legal Realism found in Leon Green's and Karl Llewellyn's tort scholarship. Brian Leiter had previously presented an insightful "philosophical reconstruction" of Legal Realism. In articulating what he sees as the descriptive and normative aspects of Legal Realism, Leiter drew most of his examples from the field of commercial law, which was the main focus of Llewellyn's scholarship. In this context he wrote that most Legal Realists made a descriptive claim about judicial decisions or, more specifically, decisions of appellate courts. Stated in its most succinct form, this descriptive claim ...


The Missing Normative Dimension In Brian Leiter's "Reconstructed" Legal Realism, Edmund Ursin Feb 2012

The Missing Normative Dimension In Brian Leiter's "Reconstructed" Legal Realism, Edmund Ursin

San Diego Law Review

Legal Realism has undergone a revitalization in academia. In a series of articles over the past decade and a half, and in a 2007 book, Brian Leiter has offered a "philosophical reconstruction" of Legal Realism... In the forthcoming Article, I will seek to clarify further the normative dimension of Legal Realism. I will suggest that it is a mistake to divide Legal Realists into quietist camps. This is because these terms refer to two distinct phenomena. Nonquetism in a view of the lawmaking role: judges are legislators-they make law and policy plays a role in their lawmaking. Quietism reflects a ...


Deconceptualizing Artists' Rights, Steven G. Gey Feb 2012

Deconceptualizing Artists' Rights, Steven G. Gey

San Diego Law Review

During the last three decades, visual artists and their supporters have convinced several states and the federal government to enact legislation protecting the moral rights of artists. This effort culminated in the federal government’s enactment of the Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990. These statutes protect various aspects of art, including most importantly artistic integrity, which gives artists the right to prevent the intentional distortion, mutilation, or other modification of an artistic work if the modification would damage the artist’s reputation. These statutes have recently come under attack, surprisingly, from within the art community itself. Professor Amy Adler ...