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2019

Theses/Dissertations

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Investigation Of Long Term Pillar Stability In An Abandoned Gypsum Mine Based On Dissolution Models, Mohammadhossein Sadeghiamirshahidi Jan 2019

Investigation Of Long Term Pillar Stability In An Abandoned Gypsum Mine Based On Dissolution Models, Mohammadhossein Sadeghiamirshahidi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The abandoned Domtar Mine in Grand Rapids, MI underlies Interstate I-196. The mine operated for over 140 years, mining a 30-meter-deep, four-meter thick gypsum seam. In 2000, the mine was abandoned with the removal of the mine’s dewatering pumps allowing groundwater to flood the mine. The initial flooding resulted in saturating the mine pillars along with some amount of pillar dissolution. Overtime, gypsum dissolution would cease as the water becomes saturated with the gypsum dissolution products. The mine, however, is located adjacent to the Grand River and has groundwater moving through the mine resulting in the potential for continuing ...


Experimental Characterization Of Hydraulic System Sound, Ben Kolb Jan 2019

Experimental Characterization Of Hydraulic System Sound, Ben Kolb

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this research was to establish test methods for characterizing the interaction between the hydraulic fluid and hydraulic hose at clipping points in mobile heavy equipment hydraulic systems. A simple hydraulic circuit test bench was developed and the laboratory axial piston pump was characterized using ISO 10767-1. A direct relationship between the fluidborne noise and structureborne noise present at each hose clip location was observed for a specific operating condition using operating deflection shapes and structureborne noise measurements. This result shows that optimal hose clip placement can be a viable solution to structureborne noise reduction. Additionally, a modal ...


Closed Loop Energy Maximizing Control Of A Wave Energy Converter Using An Estimated Linear Model That Approximates The Nonlinear Froude-Krylov Force, Yaqzan Mohd Yaqzan Jan 2019

Closed Loop Energy Maximizing Control Of A Wave Energy Converter Using An Estimated Linear Model That Approximates The Nonlinear Froude-Krylov Force, Yaqzan Mohd Yaqzan

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Wave energy converters (WECs) exploit ocean wave energy and convert it into useful forms such as electricity. But for WECs to be successful on a large scale, two primary conditions need to be satisfied. The energy generated must satisfy the network requirements, and second, energy flow from waves to the grid needs to be maximized. In this dissertation, we address the second problem. Most control techniques for WECs today use the Cummins' linear model to simulate WEC hydrodynamics. However, it has been shown that under the application of a control force, where WEC motions are amplified, the linear model diverges ...


Spread Of Emerging Contaminants In Water Distribution Systems, Danielle Pilarski Jan 2019

Spread Of Emerging Contaminants In Water Distribution Systems, Danielle Pilarski

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Emerging contaminants are a growing concern to humans and the environment. Studies have shown these contaminants are present in the environment through continuous release into surface waters from wastewater treatment effluent, manufacturing processes, and agricultural use. The effects of these contaminants have been observed in ecological studies, but they have not yet been well studied for long term exposure in humans. These emerging contaminants have also not been well studied to determine the rates at which they decay or how they move through distribution systems. This study aims to determine the importance of decay rate on concentration throughout a distribution ...


Experimental And Numerical Simulation Of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test On Borosilicate Glass, Mayank K. Bagaria Jan 2019

Experimental And Numerical Simulation Of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test On Borosilicate Glass, Mayank K. Bagaria

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This study is an extension to the design of ceramic materials component exposed to bullet impact. Owing to the brittle nature of ceramics upon bullet impact, shattered pieces behave as pellets flying with different velocities and directions, damaging surrounding components. Testing to study the behavior of ceramics under ballistic impact can be cumbersome and expensive. Modeling the set-up through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) makes it economical and easy to optimize. However, appropriately incorporating the material in modeling makes laboratory testing essential. Previous efforts have concentrated on simulating crack pattern developed during 0.22 caliber pellet impact on Borosilicate glass. A ...


The Role Of Ephemeral Stratification, Anoxia, And Entrainment In Mediating Spatiotemporal Trophic State Dynamics In A Lake Michigan Drowned River Mouth System (Mona Lake, Mi), Hayden Henderson Jan 2019

The Role Of Ephemeral Stratification, Anoxia, And Entrainment In Mediating Spatiotemporal Trophic State Dynamics In A Lake Michigan Drowned River Mouth System (Mona Lake, Mi), Hayden Henderson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Mona Lake, MI (a drowned river mouth system) has become eutrophic as result of cultural eutrophication. The integrated monitoring effort and subsequent modeling (LAKE2K) reported on here has shifted the management focus to internal phosphorus loads (60 percent of annual load, 90 percent of load during the stratified and anoxic period) as a necessary precursor to trophic state change. Sediment phosphorus release can yield extreme elevations (> 1 mgSRP/L) of bottom water soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), with blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (largely Microcystis) occurring annually. Such blooms are ascribable to stochastic mixing and phosphorus entrainment to the surface waters ...


Optimal Power Flow Control Of Networked Dc Microgrids, Eddy H. Trinklein Jan 2019

Optimal Power Flow Control Of Networked Dc Microgrids, Eddy H. Trinklein

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The US military is moving toward the electrification of many weapon systems and platforms. Advanced weapon systems such as high energy radar, electro-magnetic kinetic weapons and directed energy pose significant integration challenges due to their pulsed power electrical load profile. Additionally, the weapons platforms, including ships, aircraft, and vehicles can be studied as a mobile microgrids with multiple generation sources, loads, and energy storage. There is also a desire to extend the mission profile and capabilities of these systems. Common goals are to increase fuel efficiency, maintaining system stability, and reduce energy storage size as typically required to enable pulsed ...


Networked Microgrid Optimization And Energy Management, Robert S. Jane Jan 2019

Networked Microgrid Optimization And Energy Management, Robert S. Jane

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Military vehicles possess attributes consistent with a microgrid, containing electrical energy generation, storage, government furnished equipment (GFE), and the ability to share these capabilities via interconnection. Many military vehicles have significant energy storage capacity to satisfy silent watch requirements, making them particularly well-suited to share their energy storage capabilities with stationary microgrids for more efficient energy management. Further, the energy generation capacity and the fuel consumption rate of the vehicles are comparable to standard diesel generators, for certain scenarios, the use of the vehicles could result in more efficient operation. Energy management of a microgrid is an open area of ...


Effects Of Variable Valve Actuation On Exhaust Enthalpy And Engine Out Emissions, Zakarie Parker Jan 2019

Effects Of Variable Valve Actuation On Exhaust Enthalpy And Engine Out Emissions, Zakarie Parker

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Vehicle emissions standards are becoming increasingly more strict as time progresses. Once all of the emissions devices are in their operational stage, these standards can be met with reasonable effort in powertrain design and calibration. However, the core of this system, the three-way catalyst, is non-operational until it has reached 200-350⁰C. Because of this, cold-start catalyst heating is extremely important in new vehicles. The objective of this project was to improve catalyst heating without increasing engine-out emissions. It was decided that the sensible heat portion of the exhaust enthalpy would be the best metric to judge differences between the different ...


Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop Jan 2019

Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the mechanical impedance of the human ankle and the corresponding lower extremity muscle activity. Three experimental studies were performed to measure the ankle impedance about multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), while the ankle was subjected to different loading conditions and different levels of muscle activity. The first study determined the non-loaded ankle impedance in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse anatomical planes while the ankle was suspended above the ground. The subjects actively co-contracted their agonist and antagonistic muscles to various levels, measured using electromyography (EMG). An Artificial Neural Network ...


Flood Inundation Mapping For Huron Creek, Houghton County, Michigan, Sarah Washko Jan 2019

Flood Inundation Mapping For Huron Creek, Houghton County, Michigan, Sarah Washko

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The 2018 Father’s Day Flood rattled the Houghton County, MI community. Thousands of dollars in damage to public and private property were incurred due to slope failure, scour and stagnant water. Though the flood was billed as a once-in-a-lifetime event, hazard mitigation planning has become essential, as extreme weather events are expected to become more frequent with a changing climate. While Federal Emergency Management Agency funding will provide detailed flood hazard maps in the future, mapping is expected to be several years out. To aid the City of Houghton community with immediate flood hazard mitigation planning, a hydraulic-based flood ...


Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro Jan 2019

Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

With the growing population of amputees, powered prostheses can be a solution to improve the quality of life for many people. Powered ankle-foot prostheses can be made to behave similar to the lost limb via controllers that emulate the mechanical impedance of the human ankle. Therefore, the understanding of human ankle dynamics is of major significance. First, this work reports the modulation of the mechanical impedance via two mechanisms: the co-contraction of the calf muscles and a change of mean ankle torque and angle. Then, the mechanical impedance of the ankle was determined, for the first time, as a multivariable ...


Effect Of Sensor Errors On Autonomous Steering Control And Application Of Sensor Fusion For Robust Navigation, Shuvodeep Bhattacharjya Jan 2019

Effect Of Sensor Errors On Autonomous Steering Control And Application Of Sensor Fusion For Robust Navigation, Shuvodeep Bhattacharjya

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Autonomous steering control is one the most important features in autonomous vehicle navigation. The nature and tuning of the controller decides how well the vehicle follows a defined trajectory. A poorly tuned controller can cause the vehicle to oversteer or understeer at turns leading to deviation from a defined path. However, controller performance also depends on the state–feedback system. If the states used for controller input are noisy or has bias / systematic error, the navigation performance of the vehicle is affected irrespective of the control law and controller tuning. In this report, autonomous steering controller analysis is done for ...


Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (Icme) Investigation Of Electrical Conductivity And Thermodynamic Stability For Precipitation Strengthened Al-Zn-Zr And Al-Zn-Ni Ternary Alloys, Oladeji Fadayomi Jan 2019

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (Icme) Investigation Of Electrical Conductivity And Thermodynamic Stability For Precipitation Strengthened Al-Zn-Zr And Al-Zn-Ni Ternary Alloys, Oladeji Fadayomi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

High electrical conductivity Al-Zn-TM (TM=Transition metals) alloys with improved mechanical properties and thermal resistance are developed with an integrated computational material engineering (ICME) strategy. From a series of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) simulations assessing combinations of ternary alloys, Al-Zn-Ni and Al-Zn-Zr are determined as alloys with relatively high electrical conductivity compared to several other ternary Al alloy combinations. The zero-temperature stable structure of precipitates formed in these alloys are determined from computed enthalpy of formation as L12, with particular focus of examining the influence of Zn on stabilizing the desired L12 precipitate phase.

Scanning transmission ...


Hometracker: A Household Information Feedback System For Food/Energy/Water Metabolism, Nichole Mackey Jan 2019

Hometracker: A Household Information Feedback System For Food/Energy/Water Metabolism, Nichole Mackey

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Food, Energy and Water Conscious (FEWCON) project seeks to understand how food, energy and water (FEW) as independent resources within households are connected. In the main study of the project, intervention messages that link household FEW consumption to equivalent climate consequences are pushed to the households. The goal of the FEWCON study is to determine potential intervention messages that influence household FEW consumption behavior.

A key component of the FEWCON study is a web application named HomeTracker (Household Metabolism Tracker) which collects FEW consumption data within households, then uses this data to select consumption-specific feedback to the homeowners. To ...


A Smart Implantable Bone Fixation Plate Providing Actuation And Load Monitoring For Orthopedic Fracture Healing, Brad Nelson Jan 2019

A Smart Implantable Bone Fixation Plate Providing Actuation And Load Monitoring For Orthopedic Fracture Healing, Brad Nelson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Fracture non-union occurs in roughly 5-10% of all fracture cases, and current interventions are both time-consuming and costly. There is therefore significant incentive to develop new tools to improve fracture healing outcomes. Several studies have shown that low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) mechanical loading can promote faster healing and reduce the risk of refracture in critical-size long bone fractures. This is typically done using whole-body vibration, which may result in undesirable systemic effects on the rest of the body. This work discusses an implantable piezoelectric fixation plate that can both apply LMHF loading directly to the fracture site using flexible scheduling and ...


Acoustic Localization Techniques For Application In Near-Shore Arctic Environments, Miles B. Penhale Jan 2019

Acoustic Localization Techniques For Application In Near-Shore Arctic Environments, Miles B. Penhale

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Arctic environment has undergone significant change in recent years. Multi-year ice is no longer prevalent in the Arctic. Instead, Arctic ice melts during summer months and re-freezes each winter. First-year ice, in comparison to multi-year ice, is different in terms of its acoustic properties. Therefore, acoustic propagation models of the Arctic may no longer be valid. The open water in the Arctic for longer time periods during the year invites anthropogenic traffic such as civilian tourism, industrial shipping, natural resource exploration, and military exercises. It is important to understand sound propagation in the first-year ice environment, especially in near-shore ...


Effect Of Development Of Scandium Trialuminide Precipitates On Corrosion And Mechanical Behavior In Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys, Carson Williams Jan 2019

Effect Of Development Of Scandium Trialuminide Precipitates On Corrosion And Mechanical Behavior In Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys, Carson Williams

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Development of aluminum alloys has seen an increase in attention in recent years. The 5xxx series of Al-Mg alloys has the potential to provide strong, lightweight materials in various industry applications, however issues with strain formability and corrosion hinder the development of these alloys. The addition of Sc for developing Al3Sc precipitates provides considerable precipitation strengthening as well as grain refinement characteristics that can help mitigate these issues. Alloys with varied Mg content were analyzed for heat treatment aging responses and precipitate formation, changes in mechanical behavior related to the Portevin-le Chatelier effect, and effects on intergranular corrosion ...


Paddle Mixer-Extrusion Reactor For Torrefaction And Pyrolysis, Stas Zinchik Jan 2019

Paddle Mixer-Extrusion Reactor For Torrefaction And Pyrolysis, Stas Zinchik

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This work is focused on the fundamental understanding and the development of paddle mixer reactors (or modified screw augers). This work will contribute to the effort of the thermal conversion of biomass and wastes. We developed and studied two paddle systems (i) 25-mm lab-scale (up to 1 kg/hr) and (ii) 101-mm pilot-scale (up to 100 kg/hr). Thermal behavior of the two systems was studied and it was estimated that the lab-scale system has a high heating rate of up to 530 °C/s. Residence times were thoroughly measured and were determined as a function of rotation frequency and ...


Remotely Controlled Industrial Robotic Arm And Simulation Of Automated Thermal Furnace, Prince Mehandi Ratta Jan 2019

Remotely Controlled Industrial Robotic Arm And Simulation Of Automated Thermal Furnace, Prince Mehandi Ratta

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The right execution of controllers ensures the correct analysis of information, generating efficient results and better optimizing the system. In this report, two controllers were designed. Firstly, a remotely controlled robotic arm, since there are no such type commercially available controllers. Moreover, robotic platforms are costly, so students and researchers are often unable to learn the concepts of programming industrial robots. This project makes a non-destructive, remotely-controlled robotic arm to better teach students and researchers about programming and control of robotic arms. Secondly, simulation of an automated thermal furnace for ArcelorMittal on SIMULINK, which is used for the annealing process ...


Development Of The Coil Volume Method For Time-Domain Simulation Of Internal Faults In Transformers, Elizaveta Egorova Jan 2019

Development Of The Coil Volume Method For Time-Domain Simulation Of Internal Faults In Transformers, Elizaveta Egorova

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

A power transformer is a very important and expensive asset for a utility. As for any other power equipment, the transformer is subject to internal faults. The extent of transformer damage depends on the fault duration. Therefore, the protective relays should provide for sensitivity, selectivity, and speed of operation to minimize the effects of damaging conditions. High sensitivity of the relay allows it to identify internal faults quickly. However, the relay should not jeopardize the normal operation of the transformer. To determine desirable relay settings, a transformer model for simulation of internal faults is required.

Transformer models, shown in the ...


Electro-Optic Antenna Elements For Passive Phased Array Radar, Evan Gawron Jan 2019

Electro-Optic Antenna Elements For Passive Phased Array Radar, Evan Gawron

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Passive phased antenna arrays are utilized in military and civilian radar systems to determine the received signal origination. Phased array placement for optimal reception is challenging due to the required supporting electronic hardware and the associated coaxial cabling that typically accompanies each antenna channel. Low noise amplifiers and frequency conversion hardware add size and complexity, limiting possible positions for phased array placement. Eliminating required phased array electronic subcomponents without sacrificing function would allow placement onto smaller agile platforms, such as unmanned systems and rapid deployment networks. Electro-optic (EO) antenna elements utilize an optical waveguide embedded between the antenna and ground ...


Development Of A Fused Deposition 3d Printed Buoy And Method For Quantifying Wave Tank Reflections, Samantha G. Swartzmiller Jan 2019

Development Of A Fused Deposition 3d Printed Buoy And Method For Quantifying Wave Tank Reflections, Samantha G. Swartzmiller

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Testing model scale prototypes is integral to the development of wave energy converter (WEC) technology. Model scale WECs are tested in wave tanks where they are subjected to repeatable wave fields. Their presence in water creates radiated waves that eventually reflect off tank walls disrupting the intended wave field. Fabrication of model scale WECs is another developing aspect of tank testing. Often model WECs are built of foam. Additive manufacturing is a promising alternative although the most common method, fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing, does not typically produce waterproof parts. The goals of this work were 1) develop a ...


Investigating Microalloying Elements To Accelerate Zirconium Trialuminide Precipitation In Aluminum Alloys, Philip D. Staublin Jan 2019

Investigating Microalloying Elements To Accelerate Zirconium Trialuminide Precipitation In Aluminum Alloys, Philip D. Staublin

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Precipitation of the L12-structured coherent Al3Zr trialuminide phase in aluminum-zirconium alloys increases the alloy strength. Precipitation of a more refined dispersion of Al3Zr can further increase the strength of these alloys. The addition of microalloying elements which bind to zirconium may accelerate the precipitation kinetics, allowing for nucleation of a greater number of precipitates and faster precipitate growth. Zirconium binding energies are computed for a wide range of elements, based on which the elements tin, antimony, and tellurium were selected for investigation. Ternary Al-Zr-X alloys (X = Sn, Sb, Te) were cast and heat treated ...


Technology For Integrated Groyne-Vetiver Erosion Reduction (Tiger): Case Study In A West African River, Chase M. West Jan 2019

Technology For Integrated Groyne-Vetiver Erosion Reduction (Tiger): Case Study In A West African River, Chase M. West

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

River erosion is a problem all over the world. The effects of river erosion are especially hard for farmers in developing countries, where the river is an important part of their farming practices and daily lives. A case study was done in the small village of Fode Binea in Senegal, West Africa to reduce this stream erosion. A new hybrid approach, Technology for Integrated Groyne-Vetiver Erosion Reduction (TIGER) method, was developed. The method includes combining groynes at the toe of the riverbank to reduce toe erosion in the channel and planting a buffer strip with vetiver grass to reduce erosion ...


Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar Jan 2019

Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Coherent light - such as that from a laser - on interaction with biological tissues, undergoes scattering. This scattered light undergoes interference and the resultant field has randomly added phases and amplitudes. This random interference pattern is known as speckles, and has been the subject of multiple applications, including imaging techniques. These speckle fields inherently contain optical vortices, or phase singularities. These are locations where the intensity (or amplitude) of the interference pattern is zero, and the phase is undefined.

In the research presented in this dissertation, dynamic speckle patterns were obtained through computer simulations as well as laboratory setups involving scattering ...


Using Frequency Based Substructuring To Optimize Multi-Axis Resonant Plate Shock Tests, Erica M. Jacobson Jan 2019

Using Frequency Based Substructuring To Optimize Multi-Axis Resonant Plate Shock Tests, Erica M. Jacobson

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Resonant plate pyroshock tests only offer to test one component axis at a time, while the qualification pyroshock tests often have three single-axis specifications to meet. There is an interest in creating a multi-axis test environment from the single-axis resonant plate parts to save testing time, create a more realistic test environment, and monitor the possibility of an overtest. To investigate this, LaGrange-multiplier frequency based substructuring was implemented to virtually arrange the single-axis resonant plate subsystems into different assembly configurations and mathematically calculate the new assembly dynamics. A shock response spectrum was calculated from the new assembly dynamics through an ...


Improved Low-Frequency Impact Insulation Class Measurements Based On Comparison Techniques, Sunit Girdhar Jan 2019

Improved Low-Frequency Impact Insulation Class Measurements Based On Comparison Techniques, Sunit Girdhar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

In today’s world, noise pollution is growing as a major concern and it is becoming more and more difficult to find quiet places. But when the problem escalates to the extent that people are annoyed with loud noises even in their apartments, it becomes an alarming issue for engineers. Around the world, cities have defined some basic performance requirements for buildings, and isolation of residents from noise is one of the cardinal performance requirements. In the United States, building codes use the Impact Insulation Class (IIC) rating to characterize the performance of floor/ceiling assemblies. This method uses the ...


Comparative Study And Design Of Economical Sound Intensity Probe, Karan Gundre Jan 2019

Comparative Study And Design Of Economical Sound Intensity Probe, Karan Gundre

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The theory of sound intensity measurement using the two-microphone method was first developed in the late 1970s. Even though the measurements were limited by the technology of the time, the theory was straight-forward and considerable attention was given to improving precision during testing or post-processing. With the development of modern equipment, however, the focus shifted to the apparatus. The commercial intensity probes available today have microphones that are already phase-matched. This eliminates the need for correction during or post-testing as a majority of the errors are minimized before any data is even collected. Although such intensity probes facilitate taking precise ...


Discontinuous Galerkin Methods For Convection-Diffusion Equations And Applications In Petroleum Engineering, Nattaporn Chuenjarern Jan 2019

Discontinuous Galerkin Methods For Convection-Diffusion Equations And Applications In Petroleum Engineering, Nattaporn Chuenjarern

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation contains research in discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods applying to convection-diffusion equations. It contains both theoretical analysis and applications. Initially, we develop a conservative local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for the coupled system of compressible miscible displacement problem in two space dimensions. The main difficulty is how to deal with the discontinuity of approximations of velocity, u, in the convection term across the cell interfaces. To overcome the problems, we apply the idea of LDG with IMEX time marching using the diffusion term to control the convection term. Optimal error estimates in Linfinity(0, T; L2) norm ...