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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos Oct 2019

Behavior Of Prestressed Concrete Bridges With Closure Pour Connections And Diaphragms, Gercelino Ramos

Masters Theses

Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) has gained substantial popularity in new bridge construction and bridge deck replacement because it offers innovative construction techniques that result in time and cost savings when compared to traditional bridge construction practice. One technology commonly implemented in ABC to effectively execute its projects is the use of prefabricated bridge components (precast/prestressed bridge components). Precast/prestressed bridge components are fabricated offsite or near the site and then connected on-site using small volume closure pour connections. Diaphragms are also commonly used to strengthen the connection between certain prefabricated components used in ABC, such as beam elements. Bridges ...


The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore Oct 2019

The Promise Of Vr Headsets: Validation Of A Virtual Reality Headset-Based Driving Simulator For Measuring Drivers’ Hazard Anticipation Performance, Ganesh Pai Mangalore

Masters Theses

The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of virtual reality (VR) headsets to measure driving performance. This is desirable because they are several orders of magnitude less expensive and, if validated, could greatly extend the powers of simulation. Out of several possible measures of performance that could be considered for evaluating VR headsets, the current study specifically examines drivers’ latent hazard anticipation behavior both because it has been linked to crashes and because it has been shown to be significantly poorer in young drivers compared to their experienced counterparts in traditional driving simulators and in open ...


Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian Oct 2019

Sustainable Travel Incentives Optimization In Multimodal Networks, Hossein Ghafourian

Masters Theses

Tripod, an integrated bi-level transportation management system, is a smartphone application from the potential user’s point of view which would be instantly accessed prior to performing the trip. Since there are constantly several alternatives for any trip, Tripod considers a series and combination of various parameters, including departure time, mode and route, and rewards for each alternative with a number of redeemable points for goods and services called “Tokens”. The framework responsible for computing the optimized number of tokens awarded to the set of available alternatives in order to minimize the system-wide energy consumption under a constrained Token budget ...


Kc 4.3: Rural Landscapes Of The 20th Century, Stefania Landi, Concetta Lenza, Denise Ulivieri Oct 2019

Kc 4.3: Rural Landscapes Of The 20th Century, Stefania Landi, Concetta Lenza, Denise Ulivieri

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

During the 20th Century, rural landscapes all over the world underwent rapid transformations as a result of many factors - including new socio-political and economic conditions, new agricultural practices and the mechanization of agriculture - resulting in radical transformations of land uses and in the introduction of new infrastructures and facilities, necessary for the storage and distribution of an ever increasing amount of products. Based on the existing documents and bibliography relevant to the topic (ICOMOS-IFLA, Principles concerning rural landscapes as heritage, 2017; ICOMOS-ISC20C, Madrid-New Delhi Document. Approaches to the conservation of twentieth-century cultural heritage, 2017; Meeus, Wijermans, Vroom, 1990; Pungetti ...


Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise Oct 2019

Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Cette intervention fait référence au paragraphe de la résolution19GA 2017/30 du Conseil International des Monuments et des Sites indiquant que « la 19° Assemblée générale de l’ICOMOS… salue l’adoption de l’accord de Paris et encourage tous les membres de l’ICOMOS à renforcer leurs efforts pour appuyer sa mise en œuvre et identifier les réponses qui s’appuient sur le patrimoine ou les paysages culturels… ». Elle prend l’exemple de la façon dont les paysages de terrasses ont été abordés ces dernières années dans trois situations différentes : en France, dans le Guizhou en Chine et dans le ...


Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari Jul 2019

Finite Element Simulation Of Bonded And Mechanically Anchored Shear Interfaces Of Externally Applied Frp Sheets To Concrete And Wood-Concrete Composites, Alaa Al-Sammari

Doctoral Dissertations

Composite construction is prevalent in advanced structural systems where components of different materials are combined in the same structure to improve the performance of strong and economic structural sections. Maintaining continuity between the different structural components to produce monolithic structural behavior is challenging because of differences in the mechanical properties of these materials in terms of stiffness, strength, and ductility. The different components of the composite section are typically joined using adhesives and/or mechanical anchors to produce partial or full composite action. This dissertation discusses two types of shear interfaces intended to result in structural composite behavior. The first ...


Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli Jul 2019

Northeastern Species In Hybrid Cross Laminated Timber, Hamid Kaboli

Doctoral Dissertations

Known in the building industry throughout the world, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a massive timber building material with outstanding structural, fire, and seismic properties. CLT is a cost-competitive, sustainable construction material is a good candidate as a substitute material for concrete, masonry, and steel, in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. CLT is perpendicular layers of dimensional lumbers usually laminated together and forming a massive structural panel. This dissertation explores the viability of utilizing Massachusetts grown Eastern Hemlock and Eastern White Pine in CLT panels as pure or in conjunction with other high-value wood products. 59% of Massachusetts’ lands are covered ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of Bottom Bar Splice Location On Performance Of Beams In Reinforced Concrete Perimeter Frames, Jorge Rivera Cruz Jul 2019

Evaluation Of The Effect Of Bottom Bar Splice Location On Performance Of Beams In Reinforced Concrete Perimeter Frames, Jorge Rivera Cruz

Doctoral Dissertations

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318-14) indirectly accounts for resistance to progressive collapse by providing requirements for structural integrity in concrete structures. ACI 318-14 structural integrity requirements are intended to provide alternate load paths so that progressive collapse is avoided in the event of the unintended loss of an interior support.

ACI 318-14 §9.7.7.5 requires that splices of structural integrity reinforcement be designed as Class B splices near mid-span for top reinforcement and near the support for bottom reinforcement. However, ACI 318-14 does not provide a clear definition ...


Laboratory Study Of The Geotechnical Properties Of Abraded Railway Ballast With Natural And Clay Mix Fouling, Andrew Rohrman Jul 2019

Laboratory Study Of The Geotechnical Properties Of Abraded Railway Ballast With Natural And Clay Mix Fouling, Andrew Rohrman

Doctoral Dissertations

With 140,000 miles of active track, railroad freight is the largest method of transporting goods in the United States. An important component of the railroad substructure is the gravel-size aggregate placed below the tracks, called ballast. The ballast is responsible for draining water away from the track, resisting forces from traffic loading, maintaining track position, and reducing loads to acceptable pressures for the subgrade. Ballast is typically selected to be highly angular and uniformly graded, but these characteristics are constantly changing under dynamic traffic loading. As the ballast is loaded, the particles abrade against each other, grinding off stone ...


Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis Jul 2019

Mechanical Performance Of Structural Systems With Missing Members: From Buildings To Architected Materials, Panagiotis Pantidis

Doctoral Dissertations

Structural systems are potentially subjected to damage initiating scenarios throughout the course of their service time. Depending on the nature and extent of the damaging event, they may experience significant reduction or even complete loss of their mechanical performance. This dissertation delves into the mechanics of structural systems under the notion of missing members from their domain, investigating types of structural systems: a) multi-story steel framed buildings, and b) materials with a truss-lattice microstructure.

Part I of the dissertation investigates the performance of multi-story steel framed buildings under a column removal scenario, developing an analytical framework for their quasi-static robustness ...


Equity And Efficiency In Multi-Modal Transportation Systems, Nicholas M. Fournier Jul 2019

Equity And Efficiency In Multi-Modal Transportation Systems, Nicholas M. Fournier

Doctoral Dissertations

The land-use pattern for many cities is a central business district surrounded by sprawling suburbs. This pattern can lead to an inefficient and congestion-prone transportation system due to a reliance on automobiles, because high-capacity transit is not efficient in low-density areas where insufficient travelers can access transit. This also poses an equity concern as the monetary cost of faster and more expensive travel disproportionately burdens low income travelers. This dissertation presents a deterministic approximation of a discrete choice model for mixed access and mainline transportation modes, meaning that travelers may use different modes to access a mainline system, such as ...


Modeling The Effect Of New Commuter Bus Service On Demand And The Impact On Ghg Emissions: Application To Greater Boston, Christopher Lyman Jul 2019

Modeling The Effect Of New Commuter Bus Service On Demand And The Impact On Ghg Emissions: Application To Greater Boston, Christopher Lyman

Masters Theses

The transportation sector is considered one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in metropolitan areas, and any efforts to reduce these emissions requires strategic management of multiple transportation modes. This paper presents a method to identify opportunities to reduce GHG emissions by expanding commuter bus services and incentives to shift commuters from private cars to transit. The approach uses a nested multinomial logit model for mode choice in a region that includes driving alone, carpooling, walking, cycling, and using four possible transit modes (ferry, commuter rail, rapid transit and bus) by walk access or driving access. A ...


2019 Btes Conference Program Integration + Innovation, Caryn Brause, Peggi Clouston, Naomi Darling Jun 2019

2019 Btes Conference Program Integration + Innovation, Caryn Brause, Peggi Clouston, Naomi Darling

Building Technology Educator's Society

Following on the alliterative themes of recent BTES conferences, we have selected Integration and Innovation as the theme for the 2019 gathering. Innovation can begin with conjecture, with a searching for more effective solutions, or with an application to currently unknown or unarticulated needs. Innovation scholarship examines the personal intellectual habits that support new ideas, such as openness and exploratory behavior, as well as the circumstances behind the places in which creativity flourishes, such as support for cross-disciplinary fertilization and access to resources. The 2019 BTES conference will explore the role of technology education and curriculum in cultivating these intellectual ...


Trans-Disciplinary Detail In Mass Timber, David Kennedy Jun 2019

Trans-Disciplinary Detail In Mass Timber, David Kennedy

Building Technology Educator's Society

In Towards a New Architecture, Le Corbusier claims that the field of engineering, through its adherence to the noble fields of Economy and Mathematics, has surpassed the field of architecture in the pursuit of harmonious, meaningful structures. He does not suggest that architects partner with engineers; he only implores architects to cop-opt engineers’ ethic to leverage their own field from its current state of “retrogression”. Gaining expertise then obviates collaboration. Following this, Corbusier laments the glacial unfolding of architecture through incremental developments in structure and ornament, finding impetus for his cross-disciplinary foray in the previous five decades of material development ...


Intuition Before Integers: Integrating Building Technology Into The Design Studio, James Leach, Kristin Nelson Jun 2019

Intuition Before Integers: Integrating Building Technology Into The Design Studio, James Leach, Kristin Nelson

Building Technology Educator's Society

The studio methodology, used almost universally to teach architectural design in the US, embraces speculative investigation and hands-on learning, offering unparalleled opportunities for integrated thinking and open-ended inquiry. Building technology courses, in contrast, tend to be taught in more constrained, and more passive modes - lecture classes, sometimes accompanied by a laboratory or including a project or two. As instructors of both design studios and building technology courses, we have found it difficult to generate the level of engagement and enthusiasm, or achieve the depth of inquiry, in the technology classroom that is common in the design studio. Moreover, we find ...


Material Design Integration, Roger Hubeli Jun 2019

Material Design Integration, Roger Hubeli

Building Technology Educator's Society

The goal of an integrative building design studio is for students to develop and prove the capacity to integrate different technical and possibly legal and financial considerations into their architectural projects. In this context, it is most important for the students to learn how to maintain a clear conceptual strategy that can serve as a ‘pièce de résistance’ against the multitude of different pressures, providing a larger framework for design decisions. This presentation discusses a series of projects where this ‘pièce de résistance’ was based on the design potentials of advanced pre-cast concrete construction. Tectonic concerns, with a focus on ...


The Corner: Tectonic Intersections Of The Architectural Environment, Chad Schwartz, Jaasiel Duarte-Terrazas,, Nataani Garnenez Jun 2019

The Corner: Tectonic Intersections Of The Architectural Environment, Chad Schwartz, Jaasiel Duarte-Terrazas,, Nataani Garnenez

Building Technology Educator's Society

Architectural corners serve as nodes of constructional shifting, of structural logistics, of environmental control emphasis, of spatial experience, and of aesthetic considerations and it is in these particular building intersections that our greatest architects have exceled. Despite the importance of the corner, most architectural software introduces generalizations into design work that all but assures improper understanding of a building’s corners, especially for students and those novice to the profession. The transformations undertaken in the computer rarely reflect the strategies used to create physical, occupiable space. For instance, when working in building information modeling software, walls intersect via “butt” or ...


Truss-Ting History, Chad Dennis, Joshua Friedman Jun 2019

Truss-Ting History, Chad Dennis, Joshua Friedman

Building Technology Educator's Society

Building performance in this case being evaluated by traditional means, such as energy use over time, in addition to qualitative questions of space, history, pedagogy etc. Another term explicit in this project is that of “future use” by which we build on typical modes of site analysis in addition to the growing body of research developed through building scientists, we ask how building systems can be used to accommodate a variety of program while simultaneously maintaining a strong connection to place. Through the use of a hybrid system of glulam trusses and CLT panels to repurpose an existing historic pumphouse ...


Design/Lift: An Extra Concrete Beam In A Park, Federico Garcia Lammers Jun 2019

Design/Lift: An Extra Concrete Beam In A Park, Federico Garcia Lammers

Building Technology Educator's Society

According to the Department of Transportation, a commercial truck can drive at a maximum speed of sixty miles per-hour while carrying a sixty-foot-long precast concrete beam on a state highway. The beam in question is headed to a town of 1,800 people to be installed as part of a student-driven, faculty led Public Works project in Webster, South Dakota. Design/Lift focuses on the choreography of lifting and positioning a large piece of concrete on a public site. The beam sits in a yard, unapproved to span highway bridges, but potentially ready to engage the public in unexpected ways ...


Technical Provocations: Material Inventions, Structural Assemblies, And Environmental Responses As Precursors And Design Prompts, Lisa Huang, Bradley Walters Jun 2019

Technical Provocations: Material Inventions, Structural Assemblies, And Environmental Responses As Precursors And Design Prompts, Lisa Huang, Bradley Walters

Building Technology Educator's Society

The purpose of the study is to develop a studio course that is a precursor to the integrative studio in the University of Florida Master of Architecture curriculum. The studio course introduces each building technology discipline as design concept generators and the course intends to prepare students not to think of building technologies in only practical terms but to integrate a conceptual thinking regarding building technologies in their design work. Our primary goal is for the students to discover poetic approaches for working with building technologies before they need to integrate all disciplines simultaneously in their design work. The studio ...


Design-Build For Discovery: Applied Research On The Construction Site, Mary Hardin Jun 2019

Design-Build For Discovery: Applied Research On The Construction Site, Mary Hardin

Building Technology Educator's Society

The University of Arizona’s architectural education program utilizes the dual learning vehicles of design-build pedagogy and affordable housing projects to investigate the cost effectiveness of regional vernacular construction methods paired with contemporary energy and water conservation strategies to control initial construction costs and long-term operational costs of single-family dwellings.

Earth, clay and stone, indigenous building materials with long histories in the arid deserts of the southwestern U.S., have diminished in use as labor prices have risen in the construction industry. Over the course of six design-build projects, Building Technology faculty and students experimented with and improved wall forming ...


Synchronic And Diachronic Labor: Deconstructing Eladio Dieste’S Ruled Surfaces, Federico Garcia Lammers Jun 2019

Synchronic And Diachronic Labor: Deconstructing Eladio Dieste’S Ruled Surfaces, Federico Garcia Lammers

Building Technology Educator's Society

Eladio Dieste was a Uruguayan engineer whose practice prioritized the choreography of on-site labor during the second half of the twentieth century. Dieste’s structural innovations in reinforced masonry are admired for their geometric audacity, material economy, and experiential effects. This paper discusses the work and pedagogy from an ongoing architecture class called Dieste Building Shop. The course is a combination of history/theory seminar and building technology class, which focuses on the deconstruction and construction of one of Dieste’s innovations, ruled surface brick walls – double curvature surfaces defined by a series of vertical lines. One of the most ...


Automated Comprehensiveness: Sectional Practices And The Misuse Of Revit, Jessica Garcia Fritz Jun 2019

Automated Comprehensiveness: Sectional Practices And The Misuse Of Revit, Jessica Garcia Fritz

Building Technology Educator's Society

All architectural drawings leave gaps in information. Drawing sets leave the impression that a combination of drawing types is comprehensive, that more information is better, but gaps always exist. In generating architecture, these gaps serve as opportunities for ambiguity, speculation, and exploration. The introduction of BIM in the late twentieth century and its more ubiquitous application in Autodesk’s 2004 release of Revit, challenged these previous notions of orthographic comprehensiveness as many images could be output from a single digital model. As representational types, plans, sections, elevations, and details did not disappear. Yet, the historic and conceptual practice for generating ...


Timber 4.0: Open Source Systems As A Democratic Tool For Designing And Building, Ulrich Dangel Jun 2019

Timber 4.0: Open Source Systems As A Democratic Tool For Designing And Building, Ulrich Dangel

Building Technology Educator's Society

Architecture, as it exists today, is deeply rooted in perceptions that were established during the Renaissance, which credited the architect as the sole author of creative thinking processes and the resultant design ideas. Since then, the architectural profession has desired to develop new and innovative ways of building, often without being bound by traditions, the environment, or any other constraints and limitations. This approach has frequently failed to address the needs and concerns of many. As a result, architects have not been successful in imparting significant social change that is valuable to large portions of the population. In contrast, however ...


Steel Structures That Breathe: Two Extensively Glazed Buildings That Integrate Natural Ventilation Within Structural Members, Patrick Charles Jun 2019

Steel Structures That Breathe: Two Extensively Glazed Buildings That Integrate Natural Ventilation Within Structural Members, Patrick Charles

Building Technology Educator's Society

The paper is a case study of two extensively-glazed steel- framed buildings, Jean Prouvé’s 1957 temporary school in Villejuif, France, and, Müller Verdan Architekten’s 2006 Sporthalle “Gotthelf” in Thun, Switzerland, that integrate natural ventilation within the building structure itself.

Practically, this unique approach enables the designers to provide usually mutually exclusive features, large glass formats and natural ventilation, without incurring the various penalties associated with operating such very heavy elements.

Conceptually, the idea of integrating the ventilation function within structural members goes against the standard orthodoxy consisting of the separation of enclosure systems from skeletal structural systems. This ...


Exposed! The Impact Of Structural Materiality On The Design Of Architecture, Terri Boake Jun 2019

Exposed! The Impact Of Structural Materiality On The Design Of Architecture, Terri Boake

Building Technology Educator's Society

There is a formative connection between structural choice and architectural design. Where the term “low hanging fruit” has often been used with reference to critical first choices towards climate responsive sustainable design, a similar approach can be applied to design-thinking when it comes to structural choices. The consideration of the material nature of the primary structure at the conceptual stage of design can allow for improved focus during the design process. This is particularly critical when working with exposed structural systems as the materiality also directly impacts the aesthetics. Exposing a structure requires that the architect be significantly more technically ...


Structures For Relief & Resiliency: Enhancing Creative Applications Of Technical Acumen Through Constrained Conditions, Rob Whitehead Jun 2019

Structures For Relief & Resiliency: Enhancing Creative Applications Of Technical Acumen Through Constrained Conditions, Rob Whitehead

Building Technology Educator's Society

The design of places, objects, and experiential operations are of great importance to the relief, recovery and rebuilding efforts that affect millions of people each year. Proactively designing for these scenarios requires a more than just sensitivity to the vexing nature of the people and their problems. The inter-disciplinary teams that assist in these efforts must be able to translate these activities into solutions that have insights into the structural, material, and construction considerations. Without these qualities, the tangible, useful, and deployable solutions could be marginalized until they become the lowest common denominator of design solutions.

The value of design ...


Big Glue! Testing The Scalability Of Adhesives In Architecture And Design, Emily White, Erik Sapper Jun 2019

Big Glue! Testing The Scalability Of Adhesives In Architecture And Design, Emily White, Erik Sapper

Building Technology Educator's Society

This paper documents the questions, methods and outcomes of “Big Glue,” a research collaboration among students and faculty from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo’s chemistry and architecture departments that explores the potentials of structural adhesives in architecture and design. The project asks how adhesives can be more broadly used as work increases in size from the scale of models to full-scale construction.

Our focus is on aluminum structures. We looked at existing adhesive use in construction and in the automotive industry, where adhesives are increasingly used on aluminum and aluminum composites to reduce weight and consequently increase fuel efficiencies ...


Water And Land In Flux: Pedagogy For Design Innovations That Inhabit Water, Niloufar Emami Jun 2019

Water And Land In Flux: Pedagogy For Design Innovations That Inhabit Water, Niloufar Emami

Building Technology Educator's Society

The Float’n’rise Design Studio encourages a paradigm shift in design by speculating how a partially submerged building can be designed along the Southern Louisiana coast. As the erosion and submersion of terra firma continues, what might the future of a community’s existence look like? If the fact that once-inhabitable ground slowly submerges is assumed, why not construct buildings designed to float on water in the first place? Instead of holding firm to past ground/water conditions, and only raising buildings according to the hundred-year flood level principle, why not embrace a relationship with water as a new ...


The Success, Morphology, And Performance Of Oxygenic Photogranules Under Light-Induced Stress Conditions, Samuel Downes May 2019

The Success, Morphology, And Performance Of Oxygenic Photogranules Under Light-Induced Stress Conditions, Samuel Downes

Environmental & Water Resources Engineering Masters Projects

No abstract provided.