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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Salt Mediated Self-Assembly Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Functionalized Gold Nanorods, Hyeong Jin Kim, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Md. Mir Hossen, Alejandra Londono-Calderon, Andrew C. Hillier, Tanya Prozorov, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin Dec 2019

Salt Mediated Self-Assembly Of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Functionalized Gold Nanorods, Hyeong Jin Kim, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Md. Mir Hossen, Alejandra Londono-Calderon, Andrew C. Hillier, Tanya Prozorov, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Although challenging, assembling and orienting non-spherical nanomaterials into two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) ordered arrays can facilitate versatile collective properties by virtue of their shape-dependent properties that cannot be realized with their spherical counterparts. Here, we report on the self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) into 2D films at the vapor/liquid interface facilitated by grafting them with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Using surface sensitive synchrotron grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR), we show that PEG-AuNRs in aqueous suspensions migrate to the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of salt, forming a uniform monolayer ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Rapidly-Degrading Polyanhydrides As Vaccine Adjuvants, Sean M. Kelly, Akash Mitra, Srishti Mathur, Balaji Narasimhan Dec 2019

Synthesis And Characterization Of Rapidly-Degrading Polyanhydrides As Vaccine Adjuvants, Sean M. Kelly, Akash Mitra, Srishti Mathur, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

There is a currently a need to develop adjuvants that are best suited to simultaneously enhance immune responses, induce immunologic memory, improve patient compliance (i.e., reduce doses and inflammation), and provide vaccine shelf stability for stockpiling and global deployment to challenging environments. Biodegradable polyanhydrides have been investigated extensively to overcome such challenges. It has been shown that controlling copolymer composition can result in chemistry-dependent immunomodulatory capabilities. These studies have revealed that copolymers rich in sebacic acid (SA) are highly internalized by antigen presenting cells and confer improved shelf stability of encapsulated proteins, while copolymers rich in 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy ...


Common Secondary And Tertiary Structural Features Of Aptamer–Ligand Interaction Shared By Rna Aptamers With Different Primary Sequences, Muslum Ilgu, Shuting Yan, Ryan M. Khounlo, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton Dec 2019

Common Secondary And Tertiary Structural Features Of Aptamer–Ligand Interaction Shared By Rna Aptamers With Different Primary Sequences, Muslum Ilgu, Shuting Yan, Ryan M. Khounlo, Monica H. Lamm, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Aptamer selection can yield many oligonucleotides with different sequences and affinities for the target molecule. Here, we have combined computational and experimental approaches to understand if aptamers with different sequences but the same molecular target share structural and dynamical features. NEO1A, with a known NMR-solved structure, displays a flexible loop that interacts differently with individual aminoglycosides, its ligand affinities and specificities are responsive to ionic strength, and it possesses an adenosine in the loop that is critical for high-affinity ligand binding. NEO2A was obtained from the same selection and, although they are only 43% identical in overall sequence, NEO1A and ...


A Second-Order Realizable Scheme For Moment Advection On Unstructured Grids, Alberto Passalacqua, Frédérique Laurent, Rodney O. Fox Oct 2019

A Second-Order Realizable Scheme For Moment Advection On Unstructured Grids, Alberto Passalacqua, Frédérique Laurent, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The second-order realizable 𝜁 moment advection scheme developed in Laurent and Nguyen (2017) is extended to the case of unstructured grids with cells of arbitrary shape. The necessary modifications to the scheme and the conditions under which the scheme ensures the realizability of the advected moment set are presented. The implementation of the scheme in the OpenFOAM® CFD toolbox is verified comparing the results obtained in one-dimensional test cases involving moment sets well inside the moment space, and at the boundary of the moment space. Results obtained with the proposed scheme are compared to the corresponding analytical solution. The scheme ...


Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs The Immune Response To Intranasal Vaccination And Rsv Infection In Neonatal Calves, Jodi L. Mcgill, Sean M. Kelly, Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Emma Winkley, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E. Sacco Oct 2019

Vitamin A Deficiency Impairs The Immune Response To Intranasal Vaccination And Rsv Infection In Neonatal Calves, Jodi L. Mcgill, Sean M. Kelly, Mariana Guerra-Maupome, Emma Winkley, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E. Sacco

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent nutrition-related health problems in the world and is a significant risk factor in the development of severe respiratory infections in infants and young children. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young cattle. The calf model of BRSV infection is useful to understand the immune response to human RSV infection. We have previously developed an amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine (i.e ...


A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro Oct 2019

A Volume-Filtered Description Of Compressible Particle-Laden Flows, Gregory S. Shallcross, Rodney O. Fox, Jesse Capecelatro

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this work, we present a rigorous derivation of the volume-filtered viscous compressible Navier–Stokes equations for disperse two-phase flows. Compared to incompressible flows, many new unclosed terms appear. These terms are quantified via a posteriori filtering of two-dimensional direct simulations of shock-particle interactions. We demonstrate that the pseudo-turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) systematically acts to reduce the local gas-phase pressure and consequently increase the local Mach number. Its magnitude varies with volume fraction and filter size, which can be characterized using a Knudsen number based on the filter size and inter-particle spacing. A transport equation for PTKE is derived and ...


Gelation Suppression In Raft Polymerization, Fang-Yi Lin, Mengguo Yan, Eric W. Cochran Sep 2019

Gelation Suppression In Raft Polymerization, Fang-Yi Lin, Mengguo Yan, Eric W. Cochran

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this article, we extend the understanding of gelation suppression in reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization in systems with long primary chains and high crosslinker content, regimes which have been mostly overlooked to date. Using a model methacrylate system, the gel point, apparent propagation rate constants, and polymer architectures are seen to vary in a systematic fashion. By combining our experimental data with several related studies, we introduce a new phenomenological parameter, the “crosslinking tendency,” that incorporates monomer concentration and excess functionality to universally describe the gelation suppression in both RAFT- and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)-controlled radical polymerization ...


Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams Aug 2019

Principal Component Neural Networks For Modeling, Prediction, And Optimization Of Hot Mix Asphalt Dynamics Modulus, Parnian Ghasemi, Mohamad Aslani, Derrick K. Rollins, R. Christopher Williams

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The dynamic modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a fundamental material property that defines the stress-strain relationship based on viscoelastic principles and is a function of HMA properties, loading rate, and temperature. Because of the large number of efficacious predictors (factors) and their nonlinear interrelationships, developing predictive models for dynamic modulus can be a challenging task. In this research, results obtained from a series of laboratory tests including mixture dynamic modulus, aggregate gradation, dynamic shear rheometer (on asphalt binder), and mixture volumetric are used to create a database. The created database is used to develop a model for estimating ...


Building Microbial Factories For The Production Of Aromatic Amino Acid Pathway Derivatives: From Commodity Chemicals To Plant-Sourced Natural Products, Mingfeng Cao, Meirong Gao, Miguel Suastegui, Yanzhen Mei, Zengyi Shao Aug 2019

Building Microbial Factories For The Production Of Aromatic Amino Acid Pathway Derivatives: From Commodity Chemicals To Plant-Sourced Natural Products, Mingfeng Cao, Meirong Gao, Miguel Suastegui, Yanzhen Mei, Zengyi Shao

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, together with its downstream branches, represents one of the most commercially valuable biosynthetic pathways, producing a diverse range of complex molecules with many useful bioactive properties. Aromatic compounds are crucial components for major commercial segments, from polymers to foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals, and the demand for such products has been projected to continue to increase at national and global levels. Compared to direct plant extraction and chemical synthesis, microbial production holds promise not only for much shorter cultivation periods and robustly higher yields, but also for enabling further derivatization to improve compound efficacy by ...


Optoelectronic Properties Of Methyl-Terminated Germanane, Clément Livache, Bradley J. Ryan, Utkarsh Ramesh, Violette Steinmetz, Charlie Gréboval, Audrey Chu, Thibault Brule, Sandrine Ithurria, Geoffrey Prévot, Thierry Barisien, Abdelkarim Ouerghi, Matthew G. Panthani, Emmanuel Lhuillier Aug 2019

Optoelectronic Properties Of Methyl-Terminated Germanane, Clément Livache, Bradley J. Ryan, Utkarsh Ramesh, Violette Steinmetz, Charlie Gréboval, Audrey Chu, Thibault Brule, Sandrine Ithurria, Geoffrey Prévot, Thierry Barisien, Abdelkarim Ouerghi, Matthew G. Panthani, Emmanuel Lhuillier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Germanane is a two-dimensional, strongly confined form of germanium. It presents an interesting combination of (i) ease of integration with CMOS technology, (ii) low toxicity, and (iii) electronic confinement which transforms the indirect bandgap of the bulk material into a direct bandgap featuring photoluminescence. However, the optoelectronic properties of this material remain far less investigated than its structural properties. Here, we investigate the photoluminescence and transport properties of arrays of methyl-terminated germanane flakes. The photoluminescence appears to have two contributions, one from the band edge and the other from trap states. The dynamics of the exciton appear to be in ...


Fabrication Of High-Resolution Graphene-Based Flexible Electronics Via Polymer Casting, Metin Uz, Kyle Jackson, Maxsam S. Donta, Juhyung Jung, Matthew T. Lentner, John A. Hondred, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya K. Mallapragada Jul 2019

Fabrication Of High-Resolution Graphene-Based Flexible Electronics Via Polymer Casting, Metin Uz, Kyle Jackson, Maxsam S. Donta, Juhyung Jung, Matthew T. Lentner, John A. Hondred, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya K. Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, a novel method based on the transfer of graphene patterns from a rigid or flexible substrate onto a polymeric film surface via solvent casting was developed. The method involves the creation of predetermined graphene patterns on the substrate, casting a polymer solution, and directly transferring the graphene patterns from the substrate to the surface of the target polymer film via a peeling-off method. The feature sizes of the graphene patterns on the final film can vary from a few micrometers (as low as 5 µm) to few millimeters range. This process, applied at room temperature, eliminates the ...


Pentaerythritol-Based Lipid A Bolsters The Antitumor Efficacy Of A Polyanhydride Particle-Based Cancer Vaccine, Emad I. Wafa, Sean M. Geary, Kathleen A. Ross, Jonathan T. Goodman, Balaji Narasimhan, Aliasger K. Salem Jul 2019

Pentaerythritol-Based Lipid A Bolsters The Antitumor Efficacy Of A Polyanhydride Particle-Based Cancer Vaccine, Emad I. Wafa, Sean M. Geary, Kathleen A. Ross, Jonathan T. Goodman, Balaji Narasimhan, Aliasger K. Salem

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The primary objective of this study was to enhance the antitumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine through co-delivery of pentaerythritol lipid A (PELA), an immunological adjuvant, and a model tumor antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), separately loaded into polyanhydride particles (PA). In vitro experiments showed that encapsulation of PELA into PA (PA-PELA) significantly enhanced its stimulatory capacity on dendritic cells as evidenced by increased levels of the cell surface costimulatory molecules, CD80/CD86. In vivo experiments showed that PA-PELA, in combination with OVA-loaded PA (PA-OVA), significantly expanded the OVA-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte population compared to PA-OVA alone. Furthermore, serum OVA-specific antibody ...


Thin Biobased Transparent Uv-Blocking Coating Enabled By Nanoparticle Self-Assembly, Emily Olson, Yifan Li, Fang-Yi Lin, Ana Miller, Fei Liu, Ayuna Tsyrenova, Devin Palm, Greg W. Curtzwiler, Keith L. Vorst, Eric W. Cochran, Shan Jiang Jun 2019

Thin Biobased Transparent Uv-Blocking Coating Enabled By Nanoparticle Self-Assembly, Emily Olson, Yifan Li, Fang-Yi Lin, Ana Miller, Fei Liu, Ayuna Tsyrenova, Devin Palm, Greg W. Curtzwiler, Keith L. Vorst, Eric W. Cochran, Shan Jiang

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A waterborne, UV-blocking, and visually transparent nanocomposite coating was formulated with ZnO nanoparticles and 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The coating is highly effective (< 5% UV and ~ 65% visible transmittance) and the film thickness (0.2 – 2.5 μm) is ~100 times thinner than the conventional coatings of similar UV-blocking performance. The superior properties are due to the fractal structures of ZnO nanoparticles assembled within the HEC matrix, revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Changing the binder to 2-hydroxyethyl starch (HES) diminishes the UV-blocking performance, as ZnO nanoparticles form dense globular aggregates, with an aggregation number measured by SAXS three orders of magnitude larger than the HEC coating. Since HEC and HES share the same same chemical compositionrepeating glucose unit in the polymer backbone, it suggests that the conformational characteristics of the binder polymer have a strong influence on the nanoparticle aggregation, which plays a key role in determining the optical performance. Similar structures were achieved with TiO2 nanoparticles. This study not only offers a cost-effective and readily scalable method to fabricate transparent UV-blocking coating, but also demonstrates that the unique fractal aggregation structures in a nanocomposite material can provide high performance and functionality without fully dispersing the nanoparticles.


A Quadrature-Based Moment Method For Polydisperse Bubbly Flows, Jeffrey C. Heylmun, Bo Kong, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox Jun 2019

A Quadrature-Based Moment Method For Polydisperse Bubbly Flows, Jeffrey C. Heylmun, Bo Kong, Alberto Passalacqua, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

A computational algorithm for polydisperse bubbly flow is developed by combining quadrature-based moment methods (QBMM) with an existing two-fluid solver for gas–liquid flows. Care is taken to ensure that the two-fluid model equations are hyperbolic by generalizing the kinetic model for the bubble phase proposed by Bieseuvel and Gorissen (1990). The kinetic formulation for the bubble phase includes the full suite of interphase momentum exchange terms for bubbly flow, as well as ad hoc bubble–bubble interaction terms to model the transition from isolated bubbles to regions of pure air at very high bubble-phase volume fractions. A robust numerical ...


Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani Jun 2019

Improving The Stability And Monodispersity Of Layered Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films By Tuning Crystallization Dynamics, Atefe Hadi, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Kalyan Santra, Fang-Yi Lin, Eric W. Cochran, Matthew G. Panthani

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Assembling halide perovskites into layered structures holds promise for addressing chemical and phase stability challenges; however, several other challenges need to be addressed to create efficient and stable halide perovskite devices. Layered halide perovskites (LHPs) suffer from broad distribution of layer thicknesses and bandgaps within thin films. Reducing polydispersity could substantially improve charge transport within LHP films and the performance of LHP-based solar cells. Herein, we focused on layering α-CsPbI3 ((C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1) thin films. We found that (C4H9NH3)2Csn-1PbnI3n+1 with nominal layer thicknesses of n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be deposited at temperatures as low as ...


Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Solid-State Disproportionation Of A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass, Yujie Wang, Utkarsh Ramesh, Charles K. A. Nyamekye, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Abdulla M. Alebri, Umar H. Hamdeh, Atefe Hadi, Emily A. Smith, Matthew G. Panthani Apr 2019

Synthesis Of Germanium Nanocrystals From Solid-State Disproportionation Of A Chloride-Derived Germania Glass, Yujie Wang, Utkarsh Ramesh, Charles K. A. Nyamekye, Bradley J. Ryan, Rainie D. Nelson, Abdulla M. Alebri, Umar H. Hamdeh, Atefe Hadi, Emily A. Smith, Matthew G. Panthani

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs) have potential to be used in several optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. Here, we report a solid-state route to synthesizing Ge NCs through thermal disproportionation of a germania (GeOX) glass, which was synthesized by hydrolyzing a GeCl2·dioxane complex. The GeOX glass synthesized in this manner was found to have residual Cl content. The process of nanocrystal nucleation and growth was monitored using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Compared to existing solid-state routes for synthesizing colloidal Ge NCs, this approach requires fewer steps and is amenable ...


Amphiphilic Polyanhydride-Based Recombinant Muc4Β-Nanovaccine Activates Dendritic Cells, Kasturi Banerjee, Shailendra K. Gautam, Prakash Kshirsagar, Kathleen A. Ross, Gaelle Spagnol, Paul Sorgen, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Joyce C. Solheim, Sushil Kumar, Surinder K. Batra, Maneesh Jain Mar 2019

Amphiphilic Polyanhydride-Based Recombinant Muc4Β-Nanovaccine Activates Dendritic Cells, Kasturi Banerjee, Shailendra K. Gautam, Prakash Kshirsagar, Kathleen A. Ross, Gaelle Spagnol, Paul Sorgen, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Balaji Narasimhan, Joyce C. Solheim, Sushil Kumar, Surinder K. Batra, Maneesh Jain

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Mucin 4 (MUC4) is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is differentially overexpressed in pancreatic cancer (PC), functionally contributes to disease progression, and correlates with poor survival. Further, due to its aberrant glycosylation and extensive splicing, MUC4 is a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. Our previous studies have demonstrated the utility of amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles as a useful platform for the development of protein-based prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we encapsulated purified recombinant human MUC4-beta (MUC4β) protein in polyanhydride (20:80 CPTEG:CPH) nanoparticles (MUC4β-nanovaccine) and evaluated its ability to activate dendritic cells and induce adaptive immunity ...


A Lagrangian Probability-Density-Function Model For Collisional Turbulent Fluid–Particle Flows, Alessio Innocenti, Rodney O. Fox, Maria Vittoria Salvetti, Sergio Chibbaro Mar 2019

A Lagrangian Probability-Density-Function Model For Collisional Turbulent Fluid–Particle Flows, Alessio Innocenti, Rodney O. Fox, Maria Vittoria Salvetti, Sergio Chibbaro

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Inertial particles in turbulent flows are characterised by preferential concentration and segregation and, at sufficient mass loading, dense particle clusters may spontaneously arise due to momentum coupling between the phases. These clusters, in turn, can generate and sustain turbulence in the fluid phase, which we refer to as cluster-induced turbulence (CIT). In the present work, we tackle the problem of developing a framework for the stochastic modelling of moderately dense particle-laden flows, based on a Lagrangian probability-density-function formalism. This framework includes the Eulerian approach, and hence can be useful also for the development of two-fluid models. A rigorous formalism and ...


Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic Mar 2019

Effects Of Chloride Ions In Acid-Catalyzed Biomass Dehydration Reactions In Polar Aprotic Solvents, Max A. Mellmer, Chotitath Sanpitakseree, Benginur Demir, Kaiwen Ma, William A. Elliott, Peng Bai, Robert L. Johnson, Theodore W. Walker, Brent H. Shanks, Robert M. Rioux, Matthew Neurock, James A. Dumesic

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The use of polar aprotic solvents in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions can lead to improved reaction rates and selectivities. We show that further increases in catalyst performance in polar aprotic solvents can be achieved through the addition of inorganic salts, specifically chlorides. Reaction kinetics studies of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) show that the use of catalytic concentrations of chloride salts leads to a 10-fold increase in reactivity. Furthermore, increased HMF yields can be achieved using polar aprotic solvents mixed with chlorides. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) show that highly localized negative charge on Cl ...


Streamlined Assessment Of Membrane Permeability And Its Application To Membrane Engineering Of Escherichia Coli For Octanoic Acid Tolerance, Miguel C. Santoscoy, Laura R. Jarboe Feb 2019

Streamlined Assessment Of Membrane Permeability And Its Application To Membrane Engineering Of Escherichia Coli For Octanoic Acid Tolerance, Miguel C. Santoscoy, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The economic viability of bio-production processes is often limited by damage to the microbial cell membrane and thus there is a demand for strategies to increase the robustness of the cell membrane. Damage to the microbial membrane is also a common mode of action by antibiotics. Membrane-impermeable DNA-binding dyes are often used to assess membrane integrity in conjunction with flow cytometry. We demonstrate that in situ assessment of the membrane permeability of E. coli to SYTOX Green is consistent with flow cytometry, with the benefit of lower experimental intensity, lower cost, and no need for a priori selection of sampling ...


Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan Feb 2019

Analyzing Drug Release Kinetics From Water-Soluble Polymers, Sean M. Kelly, Arun K. Upadhyay, Akash Mitra, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The ability to develop predictive mathematical models of therapeutic release from pharmaceutical formulations has enormous potential to enhance our understanding of such systems and improve the controlled release of the payload. The current work describes the development and testing of a one-dimensional model of drug transport from amorphous, swelling/dissolving polymers. Model parameters such as the diffusivities of water and drug, the initial loading of the drug, the polymer dissolution rate, drug-polymer interactions, and the tablet thickness were varied, demonstrating the ability to tune the release to be controlled by either drug diffusion or polymer chain disentanglement. In addition, predictions ...


Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada Feb 2019

Development Of Gelatin And Graphene-Based Nerve Regeneration Conduits Using 3d Printing Strategies For Electrical Transdifferentiation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Metin Uz, Maxsam Donta, Meryem Mededovic, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this study, gelatin and graphene-based nerve regeneration conduits/scaffolds possessing tailored 3D microstructures and mechanical properties were fabricated using 3D printing. The effect of 3D conduit microstructure and mechanical properties along with the applied electrical stimuli on mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) behavior and transdifferentiation into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes were investigated. The results indicated that the gelatin conduits/scaffolds had favorable 3D microstructural and mechanical properties for MSC attachment and growth. Immunocytochemistry results demonstrated that the application of electrical stimuli through the conductive graphene within the gelatin-based 3D microstructure had a profound effect on the differentiation of MSCs ...


Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao Jan 2019

Enhancing The Co-Utilization Of Biomass-Derived Mixed Sugars By Yeasts, Meirong Gao, Deon Ploessl, Zengyi Shao

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Plant biomass is a promising carbon source for producing value-added chemicals, including transportation biofuels, polymer precursors, and various additives. Most engineered microbial hosts and a select group of wild-type species can metabolize mixed sugars including oligosaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses that are hydrolyzed from plant biomass. However, most of these microorganisms consume glucose preferentially to non-glucose sugars through mechanisms generally defined as carbon catabolite repression. The current lack of simultaneous mixed-sugar utilization limits achievable titers, yields, and productivities. Therefore, the development of microbial platforms capable of fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously from biomass hydrolysates is essential for economical industry-scale production, particularly for ...


A Data Analytics Approach For Rational Design Of Nanomedicines With Programmable Drug Release, Adam S. Mullis, Scott R. Broderick, Andrea M. Binnebose, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan H. Bellaire, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan Jan 2019

A Data Analytics Approach For Rational Design Of Nanomedicines With Programmable Drug Release, Adam S. Mullis, Scott R. Broderick, Andrea M. Binnebose, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan H. Bellaire, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Drug delivery vehicles can improve the functional efficacy of existing antimicrobial therapies by improving biodistribution and targeting. A critical property of such nanomedicine formulations is their ability to control the release kinetics of their payloads. The combination of (and interactions between) polymer, drug, and nanoparticle properties gives rise to nonlinear behavioral relationships and a large data space. These factors complicate both first-principles modeling and screening of nanomedicine formulations. Predictive analytics may offer a more efficient approach toward rational design of nanomedicines by identifying key descriptors and correlating them to nanoparticle release behavior. In this work, antibiotic release kinetics data were ...


Comparison Of Product Distribution, Content And Fermentability Of Biomass In A Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing Platform, Zhanyou Chi, Xuefei Zhao, Tannon Daugaard, Dustin Dalluge, Marjorie Rover, Patrick Johnston, Andre M. Salazar, Miguel C. Santoscoy, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown, Zhiyou Wen, Olga A. Zabotina, Laura R. Jarboe Jan 2019

Comparison Of Product Distribution, Content And Fermentability Of Biomass In A Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing Platform, Zhanyou Chi, Xuefei Zhao, Tannon Daugaard, Dustin Dalluge, Marjorie Rover, Patrick Johnston, Andre M. Salazar, Miguel C. Santoscoy, Ryan G. Smith, Robert C. Brown, Zhiyou Wen, Olga A. Zabotina, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Thermochemical processing is a promising method for the rapid depolymerization of biomass. This study investigated switchgrass, corn stover, red oak, hybrid poplar, and loblolly pine in terms of heteropolymer and elemental composition, and the distribution and composition of the fast pyrolysis products. Corn stover differed from other biomass types in that less of the biomass was recovered as sugar or phenolic oil (PO) and more of the biomass was recovered as bio-char and bio-gas. The sugar-rich aqueous stream recovered from the bio-oil heavy fraction was characterized in terms of sugar content and distribution, inhibitor content, and ability to support production ...


Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe Jan 2019

Metabolic Engineering For Biocatalyst Robustness To Organic Inhibitors, Liam Royce, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microbial production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals is often limited by inhibition of the biocatalyst, either by increasing concentrations of the product compound or by contaminant compounds in the biomass‐derived sugars. This inhibition can interfere with economically viable production. Here we discuss typical mechanisms of inhibition and methods for improving biocatalyst robustness. Inhibition often takes the form of inhibition of enzyme activity, depletion of cofactor pools, and membrane damage; methods are discussed for mitigating each of these types of inhibition. Various evolutionary schemes have been developed and implemented on a variety of inhibitory compounds, including butanol, acetic acid, furfural ...


Effect Of (Poly)Electrolytes On The Interfacial Assembly Of Peg Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles, Srikanth Nayak, Max Fieg, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin Jan 2019

Effect Of (Poly)Electrolytes On The Interfacial Assembly Of Peg Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles, Srikanth Nayak, Max Fieg, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We report on the effect of interpolymer complexes (IPCs) of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized Au nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) as they assemble at the vapor-liquid interface, using surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Depending on the suspension pH, PAA functions both as a weak polyelectrolyte and a hydrogen bond donor, and these two roles affect the interfacial assembly of PEG-AuNPs differently. Above its isoelectric point, we find that PAA leads to the formation of a PEG-AuNPs monolayer at the interface with hexagonal structure. In the presence of high concentration of HCl (i.e., below the isoelectric point ...


Cancer Immunoimaging With Smart Nanoparticles, Yu-Chuan Ou, Xiaona Wen, Rizia Bardhan Jan 2019

Cancer Immunoimaging With Smart Nanoparticles, Yu-Chuan Ou, Xiaona Wen, Rizia Bardhan

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Dynamic immunoimaging in vivo is crucial in patient-tailored immunotherapies to identify patients who will benefit from immunotherapies, monitor therapeutic efficacy post treatment, and determine alternative strategies for nonresponders. Nanoparticles have played a major role in the immunotherapy landscape. In this review, we summarize recent findings in immunoimaging where smart nanoparticles target, detect, stimulate, and deliver therapeutic dose in vivo. Nanoparticles interfaced with an immunoimaging toolbox enable the use of multiple modalities and achieve depth-resolved whole-body tracking of immunomarkers with high accuracy both before and after treatment. We highlight how functional nanoparticles track T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs ...


A Robust Strategy For Sustainable Organic Chemicals Utilizing Bioprivileged Molecules, Brent H. Shanks, Linda J. Broadbelt Jan 2019

A Robust Strategy For Sustainable Organic Chemicals Utilizing Bioprivileged Molecules, Brent H. Shanks, Linda J. Broadbelt

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Biobased chemicals will inevitably be an important part of a sustainable organic chemical industry. Current efforts in biobased chemicals are largely driven by opportunistic chemical product targets requiring complete technology development from feedstock to final product for a specific molecule. To enhance the development of biobased chemicals, it is important to create strategies that can be more systematic and can leverage advancements across multiple final products. Discussed here is the concept of bioprivileged molecules, which are chemical intermediates that have the potential to be efficiently converted into a range of product molecules that can both directly replace existing petrochemicals and ...


Interleukin-1 Alpha Increases Anti-Tumor Efficacy Of Cetuximab In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Madelyn Espinosa-Cotton, Samuel N. Rodman Iii, Kathleen A. Ross, Isaac J. Jensen, Kenley Sangodeyi-Miller, Ayana J. Mclaren, Rachel A. Dahl, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley, Adam T. Koch, Yang-Xin Fu, Vladimir P. Badovinac, Douglas Laux, Balaji Narasimhan, Andrean L. Simons Jan 2019

Interleukin-1 Alpha Increases Anti-Tumor Efficacy Of Cetuximab In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Madelyn Espinosa-Cotton, Samuel N. Rodman Iii, Kathleen A. Ross, Isaac J. Jensen, Kenley Sangodeyi-Miller, Ayana J. Mclaren, Rachel A. Dahl, Katherine N. Gibson-Corley, Adam T. Koch, Yang-Xin Fu, Vladimir P. Badovinac, Douglas Laux, Balaji Narasimhan, Andrean L. Simons

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Background: Despite the high prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), incorporation of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab into the clinical management of HNSCC has not led to significant changes in long-term survival outcomes. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic approaches to enhance the clinical efficacy of cetuximab could lead to improved long-term survival for HNSCC patients. Our previous work suggests that EGFR inhibition activates the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway via tumor release of IL-1 alpha (IL-1α), although the clinical implications of activating this pathway are unclear in the context of cetuximab therapy ...